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# Chapter 1

## Introduction to Machinery Principles

Edit by Chi-Shan Yu

Electric Machinery

Instructor
(Chi-Shan Yu),
E-mail: chsyu@tea.ntue.edu.tw

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## Text book and supplementary materials

of this course
Stephen J. Chapman
, PH PTR , 5th edition (Feb.
18, 2011),

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Reference book
A. E. Fitzgerald, Electric
Machinery, McGraw-Hill ,
6th edition (July 25, 2002)

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## Introduction to Electric machinery

Fundamental

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## Introduction to Electric machinery

Fundamental

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## What to learn in this course ?

Energy Conversion schemes are the key ideas
introduced in this course
Which types of energy conversion are concerned?
Electric energy to electric energy
Transformer

Motor

Generator

## Magnetic energy is essential !

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## Course Outlines - Overview of relative

electromagnetic theories (3wks)
Magnetic field: Amperes law
Magnetic flux: magnetic material, hysteresis characteristics

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## Course Outlines - Overview of relative

electromagnetic theories (conti)
Magnetic circuit
Motor/generator: Induced voltage, induced force

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## Course Outlines - Transformer (3wks)

Ideal/non-ideal transformer
Equivalent transformer circuit
Voltage regulation, efficiency

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## Course Outlines - Basic electric machine

(motor/generator) theories (3wks)
AC machine : induction machine, synchronous
machine
DC machine : separated excited, shunt excited, series
excited, compound excited
How the motor rotates ?
Torque/speed

## How the generator to build output voltage ?

Voltage/current

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## Course Outline - induction

(asynchronous) machine (3wks)
Induction motor (IM) the most widely used ac
motor in the world

## Structure and operation theories of IM

Equivalent circuit of IM
Torque/speed characteristics
Basic motor control

## Induction generator (seldom used)

Output voltage control
Voltage/current characteristics

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## Course Outline - synchronous machine

(3wks)
Synchronous generator (SG) the most widely used
generator in the world

## Structure and operation theories of SG

Equivalent circuit of SG
Voltage/current characteristics
Parallel operation

Synchronous motor
Operation principles
Starting of synchronous motor
Torque/speed characteristics

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## History of Electric Machinery

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## History of Electric Machinery

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## History of Electric Machinery

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## History of Electric Machinery

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Todays development
DC Machine
Motor
Generator

Transformer
Single phase
Three phases

AC Machine
Synchronous machine motor, generator
Asynchronous machine (induction machine) motor,
generator

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## Todays development and future trends

Micro-step stepping motor
Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)
Brushless dc motor (BLDCM)

Linear motor
Reluctance motor

Synchronous reluctance
Switched reluctance

Ultrasonic motor
Bionic robotics
MEMS motor
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Course relation
/
It is the fundamental course of the electrical
engineering
Future courses

Power electronics
Motor control
Electric motor drive
Power systems
Renewable energy
Electrical vehicle

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## Chapter 1. Introduction to machinery

principles
1. Rotation motion, Newtons law and power
relationships
2. The magnetic field
4. Produce an induced force on a wire
5. Produce an induced voltage on a conductor
6. Linear dc machine examples
7. Real, reactive and apparatus power in AC circuits

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## Rotation motion, Newtons law and

power relationships
Clockwise (CW) and Counterclockwise (CCW)
CCW is assumed as the positive direction, CW is assumed as
the negative direction.

## Linear and rotation motion

Position and angular
Speed and angular speed

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## Rotation motion, Newtons law and

power relationships
relationships

## Acceleration and angular acceleration

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Torque

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Torque

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## Newtons law of rotation

1. Force

2. Torque

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## Torque and Work

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## Power (rate of doing work)

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## Conversion between watts and

horsepower
1. Watts and horsepower

## 2. Conversion between two units

5252 / 7.04 = 746.02
1hp = 746W = 0.746kW

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## The magnetic field

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## Produce a magnetic field Amperes law

1. The magnetic field is produced by amperes law
2. The core is a ferromagnetic material

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## From the magnetic field to magnetic flux

density
1. When the magnetic field is applied on a
ferromagnetic material, the magnetic flux density B
will be produced

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## Magnetic flux density and magnetic flux

1. Magnetic flux density

2. Magnetic flux

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## Magnetic Circuit magnetomotive force

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Magnetic circuit
1. Magnetic circuit

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## Electric circuit and magnetic circuit

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## Reluctance in magnetic circuit

1. Series connection

2. Parallel connection

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## The errors in magnetic circuit

computation

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## The errors in magnetic circuit

computation
4. Air gap fringing effect

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Example 1-1

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Magnetic circuit

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MATLAB Programs

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Example 1-2

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Example 1-2

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Example 1-3

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## Magnetic behavior of ferromagnetic

material - Saturation

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## Magnetic curve for a typical steel

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## A plot of relative permeability r

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Example 1-4

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Example 1-5

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## Energy loss in ferromagnetic core

hysteresis loss

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## Hysteresis loop residual flux

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## The effect of magnetomotive force on the

hysteresis loop

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Magnetization curve

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Hysteresis loss

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Hysteresis loss

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## Faradays law induce voltage from a

time-varying magnetic field
1. Induced voltage magnitude and polarity

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## The induced voltage polarity Lenzs law

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Example 1-6

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## Produce an induced force on a wire

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Example 1-7

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Example 1-7

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## Relationship between electric-magnetic

variables
Magnetic field: Amperes law
Magnetic flux: magnetic material, hysteresis characteristics

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## Induced voltage on a conductor

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Example 1-8

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Example 1-9

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## The linear DC machine a simple

example

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## Starting a linear DC machine

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## Starting a linear DC machine

1. Current
2. Induced force
3. Induced voltage

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## Starting a linear DC machine

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## Summarize of a dc machine starting

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## DC linear machine operates at no-load

condition

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Linear dc motor

## The conversion power between mechanical and electrical

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## Summarize of a dc motor operation

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Linear dc generator
While the external force is applied on the moving
direction

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## Summarize of a dc generator operation

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## Starting problem of dc linear machine

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Example 1-10

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Example 1-10

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Equations:

F = ilB
e = vBl
i = (Vb-e) / R

Simulation parameters:
Vb=120V, R=0.3, l = 1m
B=0.6T, m=0.1kg

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## Real, reactive and apparatus power in AC

circuits
Power in DC circuit

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## Real, reactive and apparatus power in AC

circuits
AC source applies power to an impedance Z

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Instantaneous power

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Instantaneous power

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## Average power and reactive power

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## Reactive power Q and apparatus power S

1. Reactive power Q (var) is defined from
instantaneous power

## 2. Apparatus power S (VA) is defined to represent the

product of voltage and current magnitudes

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## Complex power representation

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## Complex power representation

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Power direction

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Power factor

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Example 1-11

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## Three phase concepts

The three phase concepts are also introduced in
Appendix

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