Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 134

Chapter 1

Introduction to Machinery Principles


Edit by Chi-Shan Yu

Electric Machinery

Instructor
(Chi-Shan Yu),
E-mail: chsyu@tea.ntue.edu.tw

Electric Machinery

Text book and supplementary materials


of this course
Stephen J. Chapman
, PH PTR , 5th edition (Feb.
18, 2011),

Electric Machinery

Reference book
A. E. Fitzgerald, Electric
Machinery, McGraw-Hill ,
6th edition (July 25, 2002)

Electric Machinery

Electric Machinery

Electric Machinery

Introduction to Electric machinery


Fundamental

Electric Machinery

Introduction to Electric machinery


Fundamental

Electric Machinery

What to learn in this course ?


Energy Conversion schemes are the key ideas
introduced in this course
Which types of energy conversion are concerned?
Electric energy to electric energy
Transformer

Electric energy to mechanical energy


Motor

Mechanical energy to electric energy


Generator

Magnetic energy is essential !


Electric Machinery

Course Outlines - Overview of relative


electromagnetic theories (3wks)
Magnetic field: Amperes law
Magnetic flux: magnetic material, hysteresis characteristics
Transformer: Faradays law, Lens law

Electric Machinery

Course Outlines - Overview of relative


electromagnetic theories (conti)
Magnetic circuit
Motor/generator: Induced voltage, induced force

Electric Machinery

10

Course Outlines - Transformer (3wks)


Ideal/non-ideal transformer
Equivalent transformer circuit
Voltage regulation, efficiency

Electric Machinery

11

Course Outlines - Basic electric machine


(motor/generator) theories (3wks)
AC machine : induction machine, synchronous
machine
DC machine : separated excited, shunt excited, series
excited, compound excited
How the motor rotates ?
Torque/speed

How the generator to build output voltage ?


Voltage/current

Electric Machinery

12

Course Outline - induction


(asynchronous) machine (3wks)
Induction motor (IM) the most widely used ac
motor in the world

Structure and operation theories of IM


Equivalent circuit of IM
Torque/speed characteristics
Basic motor control

Induction generator (seldom used)


Output voltage control
Voltage/current characteristics

Electric Machinery

13

Course Outline - synchronous machine


(3wks)
Synchronous generator (SG) the most widely used
generator in the world

Structure and operation theories of SG


Equivalent circuit of SG
Voltage/current characteristics
Parallel operation

Synchronous motor
Operation principles
Starting of synchronous motor
Torque/speed characteristics

Electric Machinery

14

History of Electric Machinery

Electric Machinery

15

History of Electric Machinery

Electric Machinery

16

History of Electric Machinery

Electric Machinery

17

History of Electric Machinery

Electric Machinery

18

Todays development
DC Machine
Motor
Generator

Transformer
Single phase
Three phases

AC Machine
Synchronous machine motor, generator
Asynchronous machine (induction machine) motor,
generator

Electric Machinery

19

Todays development and future trends


Micro-step stepping motor
Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)
Brushless dc motor (BLDCM)

Linear motor
Reluctance motor

Synchronous reluctance
Switched reluctance

Ultrasonic motor
Bionic robotics
MEMS motor
Electric Machinery

20

Course relation
/
It is the fundamental course of the electrical
engineering
Future courses

Power electronics
Motor control
Electric motor drive
Power systems
Renewable energy
Electrical vehicle

Electric Machinery

21

Chapter 1. Introduction to machinery


principles
1. Rotation motion, Newtons law and power
relationships
2. The magnetic field
3. Faradays law
4. Produce an induced force on a wire
5. Produce an induced voltage on a conductor
6. Linear dc machine examples
7. Real, reactive and apparatus power in AC circuits

Electric Machinery

22

Rotation motion, Newtons law and


power relationships
Clockwise (CW) and Counterclockwise (CCW)
CCW is assumed as the positive direction, CW is assumed as
the negative direction.

Linear and rotation motion


Position and angular
(meter) (degree or radian)
Speed and angular speed

Electric Machinery

23

Rotation motion, Newtons law and


power relationships
relationships

Acceleration and angular acceleration

Electric Machinery

24

Torque

Electric Machinery

25

Torque

Electric Machinery

26

Newtons law of rotation


1. Force

2. Torque

Electric Machinery

27

Torque and Work

Electric Machinery

28

Power (rate of doing work)

Electric Machinery

29

Conversion between watts and


horsepower
1. Watts and horsepower

2. Conversion between two units


5252 / 7.04 = 746.02
1hp = 746W = 0.746kW

Electric Machinery

30

The magnetic field

Electric Machinery

31

Produce a magnetic field Amperes law


1. The magnetic field is produced by amperes law
2. The core is a ferromagnetic material

Electric Machinery

32

From the magnetic field to magnetic flux


density
1. When the magnetic field is applied on a
ferromagnetic material, the magnetic flux density B
will be produced

Electric Machinery

33

Magnetic flux density and magnetic flux


1. Magnetic flux density

2. Magnetic flux

Electric Machinery

34

Magnetic Circuit magnetomotive force

Electric Machinery

35

Magnetic circuit
1. Magnetic circuit

Electric Machinery

36

Electric circuit and magnetic circuit

Electric Machinery

37

Electric Machinery

38

Electric Machinery

39

Reluctance in magnetic circuit


1. Series connection

2. Parallel connection

Electric Machinery

40

The errors in magnetic circuit


computation

Electric Machinery

41

The errors in magnetic circuit


computation
4. Air gap fringing effect

Electric Machinery

42

Example 1-1

Electric Machinery

43

Magnetic circuit

Electric Machinery

50

MATLAB Programs

Electric Machinery

51

Example 1-2

Electric Machinery

52

Example 1-2

Electric Machinery

53

Example 1-3

Electric Machinery

60

Magnetic behavior of ferromagnetic


material - Saturation

Electric Machinery

69

Magnetic curve for a typical steel

Electric Machinery

70

A plot of relative permeability r

Electric Machinery

71

Example 1-4

Electric Machinery

72

Example 1-5

Electric Machinery

73

Energy loss in ferromagnetic core


hysteresis loss

Electric Machinery

76

Hysteresis loop residual flux

Electric Machinery

77

The effect of magnetomotive force on the


hysteresis loop

Electric Machinery

78

Magnetization curve

Electric Machinery

79

Hysteresis loss

Electric Machinery

80

Hysteresis loss

Electric Machinery

81

Electric Machinery

82

Faradays law induce voltage from a


time-varying magnetic field
1. Induced voltage magnitude and polarity

Electric Machinery

83

The induced voltage polarity Lenzs law

Electric Machinery

84

Flux and flux linkage

Electric Machinery

85

Example 1-6

Electric Machinery

86

Produce an induced force on a wire

Electric Machinery

89

Example 1-7

Electric Machinery

90

Example 1-7

Electric Machinery

91

Relationship between electric-magnetic


variables
Magnetic field: Amperes law
Magnetic flux: magnetic material, hysteresis characteristics
Transformer: Faradays law, Lens law

Electric Machinery

92

Induced voltage on a conductor

Electric Machinery

93

Example 1-8

Electric Machinery

94

Example 1-9

Electric Machinery

96

The linear DC machine a simple


example

Electric Machinery

98

Starting a linear DC machine

Electric Machinery

101

Starting a linear DC machine


1. Current
2. Induced force
3. Induced voltage

Electric Machinery

102

Starting a linear DC machine

Electric Machinery

103

Summarize of a dc machine starting

Electric Machinery

104

DC linear machine operates at no-load


condition

Electric Machinery

105

Linear dc motor
While the load is applied

The conversion power between mechanical and electrical


Electric Machinery

106

Summarize of a dc motor operation

Electric Machinery

107

Linear dc generator
While the external force is applied on the moving
direction

Electric Machinery

108

Summarize of a dc generator operation

Electric Machinery

109

Starting problem of dc linear machine

Electric Machinery

110

Example 1-10

Electric Machinery

111

Example 1-10

Electric Machinery

112

Matlab/Simulink simulation
Equations:

F = ilB
e = vBl
i = (Vb-e) / R
dv/dt = (F-Fload)/m

Simulation parameters:
Vb=120V, R=0.3, l = 1m
B=0.6T, m=0.1kg
Fload=10(u-1)-20(u-2) nt

Electric Machinery

117

Matlab/Simulink simulation

Electric Machinery

118

Real, reactive and apparatus power in AC


circuits
Power in DC circuit

Electric Machinery

120

Real, reactive and apparatus power in AC


circuits
AC source applies power to an impedance Z

Electric Machinery

121

Instantaneous power

Electric Machinery

122

Instantaneous power

Electric Machinery

123

Average power and reactive power

Electric Machinery

124

Reactive power Q and apparatus power S


1. Reactive power Q (var) is defined from
instantaneous power

2. Apparatus power S (VA) is defined to represent the


product of voltage and current magnitudes

Electric Machinery

125

Complex power representation

Electric Machinery

127

Complex power representation

Electric Machinery

128

Power direction

Electric Machinery

129

Power factor

Electric Machinery

130

Example 1-11

Electric Machinery

131

Three phase concepts


The three phase concepts are also introduced in
Appendix

Electric Machinery

134