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PPP6144

REKABENTUK
KURIKULUM DAN
INSTRUKSIONAL
Asas-asas Kurikulum

Objektif pembelajaran
Membincangkan asas-asas kurikulum
Membincangkan gugusan teori kurikulum

Asas-asas Kurikulum

Asas-asas
Asas-asas
Asas-asas
Asas-asas

falsafah
sejarah
psikologi
sosial

(Asas-asas di atas digunakan untuk


membentukkan tujuan kurikulum, kandungan,
instruksi, sumber-sumber, menilai kurikulum dan
lain-lain)

Asas2 Pengembangan Kurikulum


A.

ASAS FALSAFAH
Idealisme
Realisme
Parenialisme
Pragmatisme
Eksistensialisme
Rekonstruktif

ASAS PSIKOLOGI dgn memfokuskan aspek :


Taqwa (spiritual),
Cipta,
Karya,
Tingkat Perkembangan Anak

B.

C.

D.

ASAS SOSIOLOGI

Alam spt Gunung, Lautan, Cuaca, Hutan dan Sungai.

Dunia Sekitar - Benda2 Buatan Manusia spt meja, kursi, rumah, komputer, TV dll.

Dunia Sekitar Manusia yang kompleks yg selalu berubah dan dinamis dalam tata hubungan
dgn manusia meliputi keperluan masyarakat, perubahan dan perkembangan Masyarakat
ASAS TEKONOLOGI - Prinsip teknologi mempermudah manusia dalam kehidupan

Contextual Framework of A Curriculum

Ideological Context (Konteks Ideologikal)


Epistemological Context (Konteks Epistemologikal)
Psychological Context (Konteks Psikologikal)
Sociological Context (Konteks Sosiologikal)
Management Context (Konteks Pengurusan)
Evaluative Context (Konteks Penilaian)

Components of Curriculum Planning

Political
Ideological
Economic
Epistemological
Cultural
Sosiological
Technological
Psychological
Historical
Philosophical
Micro contexts and
constraints

Nature of
Influence
Power and control of
the curriculum and
educators
Values and beliefs
Education and economy,
control and relationship
priorities
Nature, content and structure
of knowledge
Cultural representation on the
curriculum: cultural
reproduction and production
Equality, access to
knowledge, relationship of
education and society
Effects of technology on the
curriculum
Nature of learning and
learning environments
Causes, antecedents and
legacies of the curriculum
Justifications and aims

Resources

Nature, structure, values and


traditions, ethos of the
institution
Amount and organization

Students

Needs, interests, abilities

Educators

Needs, interests, abilities

Institutional

Dimensions of
the curriculum

Management and evaluation filter

Macro contexts and


constraints

Curriculum
Outcome

Aims
Content

Areas of
learning and
experience
Elements
of learning

Essential issues

Pedagogy
Resources
Evaluation

Characteristics
the curriculum

Change
Levels of
planning

Pengaruh falsafah dalam


kurikulum
Bagaimanakah falsafah mempengaruhi
kurikulum?
Bagaimanakah falsafah menjadi satu sumber
utama kurikulum?
Bagaimanakah perbezaan (dari segi ilmu dan
nilai) antara idealism, realism, pragmatism,
existentialism umpamanya mempengaruhi
kurikulum?
Bolehkah sekolah mencapai kualiti dan
kecemerlangan pada masa yang sama?
Orientasi falsafah apakah yang kini (dan di masa
hadapan) mendominasi dunia pendidikan?

What is Philosophy of
Education

All teachers have a personal philosophy that


colors the way they teach
Engaging in philosophy helps clarify what they do
or intend to do, justify or explain why they do
what they do in a logical, systematic manner

Philosophy - is the study of general and


fundamental problems concerning matters such
as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind,
and language.
Philosophy of Education (elements)
Epistemology: What is knowledge? How do we
know what we know? How did we acquire that
knowledge?
Only through Seeing, hearing,
touching, smelling? Prove it! = Empiricism
or through reasoning, logic and philosophy that
we maybe cannot sense? = Rationalism

6.9

Philosophy of Education

Axiology: influence of values, beliefs and


ethics on learning. What do we value?
Now Add: Metaphysics:
What is real? Is reality only composed of
matter that we can sense? =Materialism
Aristotle common sense and the
natural sciences
But you cannot see God, so is he/she
real? Maybe the physical world is only an
illusion! =Spiritualism or Idealism

6.10

Philosophy of Education

Traditional Schools of
Philosophy
Educational Philosophies have roots in these
schools

Idealism
Realism

11

Asserts that because the physical world is always


changing, ideas are the only reliable form of reality
The features of the universe exist whether or not a
human being is there to perceive them.

Pragmatism

Rejects the idea of absolute, unchanging truth,


instead asserting that truth is what works

Existentialism

humanity isnt part of an orderly universe; rather


individuals create their own realities.

An educational philosophy suggesting that nature,


including human nature, is constant.
Roots in both Idealism and Realism
Rigorous intellectual curriculum for all students,
classic works

12

Perennialism

One should teach things


that one deems to be of
everlasting importance to
all people everywhere

Children should learn


the traditional basic
subjects and these
should be learned
thoroughly and
An educational philosophy rigorously.
suggesting that a

critical core of knowledge and skills exists that all


people should possess
Roots in Idealism and Realism
Back to basics movements
Standards, testing, cultural literacy
What is essential can change

13

Essentialism

What content/skills should be taught at your


school?
Should students or teachers direct learning?
How should schools teach this content and skills?
How should learning be measured?
Should everyone have access to education?
Can everyone actually learn?
What can you do to create the proper learning
environment in your classroom in your school to
maximize learning?

6.14

Forming your own


Philosophy of Education as a
What do you believe is/are the purpose(s) of
Teacher
American Education?

Asas-asas sejarah dalam


kurikulum
Perlukah mengetahui asas-asas sejarah sesuatu
kurikulum?
Apakah sejarah kurikulum pendidikan di Malaysia?
Bagaimanakah perkembangan sejarah sebelum
merdeka sehingga ke hari ini mempengaruhi
pembentukan kurikulum di Malaysia?

Pilih dua (2) pembangunan sosial,


kejadian atau tekanan (social
development, events or pressures) di
Malaysia dalam 15 tahun kebelakangan
ini yang telah menyebabkan
perubahan-perubahan dalam kurikulum
kebangsaan, dan huraikan perubahanperubahan berkenaan.

Asas-asas psikologi dalam


kurikulum
Bagaimanakah asas-asas psikologi membantu
/mempengaruhi perkembangan kurikulum?
Bagaimanakah tiga kumpulan utama teori
pembelajaran (behaviourism, cognitive psychology,
phenomenology and humanistic psychology)
mempengaruhi perkembangan kurikulum?
Bagaimanakah konsep multiple intelligences
mempengaruhi bidang kurikulum?
Bagaimanakah kepelbagaian konsep dalam stail
pembelajaran mempengaruhi perkembangan
kurikulum?
Apakah justifikasi dalam mengambilkira konteks
emotional intelligence dalam perkembangan
kurikulum?

Asas-asas sosial
Kenapakah perekabentuk kurikulum perlu memahami
konsep sekolah wujud dalam konteks sosial?
Apakah pandangan-pandangan utama tentang
matlamat sosial sekolah?
Apakah implikasi kurikulum dalam penerimaan
konsep-konsep sosial seperti konsep 1Malaysia?
Apakah perubahan-perubahan yang telah berlaku
semenjak merdeka yang mempengaruhi masyarakat
dan juga sekolah?
Apakah perubahan yang akan berlaku di masa
hadapan?
Adakah bangsa, SES dan jantina penting untuk diberi
perhatian dalam bidang kurikulum? Kenapa?

Ideological, epistemological,
philosophical,
sociological, psychological analysis
to
Determine
aims of
Situational
analysis
of schooling
school contextphilosophy, policy, practice organization
Establishing and evaluating goals
Selecting appropriate learning experiences
Organization of the learning
Evaluation and feedback
Modification
Figure: A prescriptive model of curriculum planning

Teori kurikulum
Gugusan utama teori kurikulum:

Conceptual models of curriculum


Theories of curriculum legitimization
Process theories of curriculum
Structural curriculum theories
Theories of curriculum implementation