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MOSFET

Basics
of
MOSFET
Uni-polar Device
4 terminal device

GATE
SOURCE

MOSFET is symmetrical
device with respect to gate

Aspect Ratio W/L

Nchannel

BODY

DRAIN

Symbol
NMOS

PMOS

Layout Of MOSFET

Basic Operation Of Mosfet


When Vgs = 0 and Vds= +ve Voltage
Vgs = 0
Vds = +ve

I=0

Diodes in Reverse Bias Offers high resistance

Basic Operation Of Mosfet


When Vgs = +ve and Vds= +ve

otential at which current


tarts to flow is known as
hreshold Voltage Vth

Vgs = +ve
Vds = +ve

D
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- + + +++
+ + +++

Depletion Region
N-channel

Basic Operation Of Mosfet


When Vgs = +ve and Vds= Vgs-Vth
Voltage between gate
and points along the
channel decreases
from Vgs at source end
to Vgs-Vds at drain end
so channel width is
not uniform.
Channel
width
is
maximum at source
end and minimum at
drain end
because
voltage at source end
is higher than voltage
at drain end

Vgs = +ve

Vds = Vgs-Vth or Vgd


= Vth

Channel is
pinched
Off. point at
which Vgs-Vds
=Vth

What is Pinch-off
Initially we get an increasing
current with increasing drain bias
When we reach VDsat = VG VT,
inversion layer(channel) is disabled at
the drain end (pinch-off)
The charges still flow, just that you
cant draw more current
with higher drain bias, and the
current saturates

Current-Voltage Relations
6

x 10

-4

VGS= 2.5 V

Resistive

4
ID (A)

VGS= 2.0 V
3

VDS = VGS - VT

VGS= 1.5 V

Saturation

VGS= 1.0 V
0

0.5

VDS (V)

1.5

2.5

Current Through Semiconductor Bar

First Consider a semiconductor bar carrying current I. If the charge


density along the direction of current is Qd columns per meter and the
velocity of the charge is v meter per second.
Current is total charge that passes through the a cross section of the bar
in unit time. With a velocity v, all of the charge enclosed in v meters of
the bar must flow through the cross section in one second.
Since charge density is Qd columns per meter , total charge in v meters
equal to Qdv and this charge must flow through the cross section and
current is given by,
d

I Q

I/V Characteristics
Qd is charge density of
channel and v is velocity of
electrons

I Qdv

Qd WCox[VGS V ( x) VTH ]
I WCox[VGS V ( x) VTH ]v
-Ve sign is inserted because
channel charge carrier is electrons

dV ( x)
v E n
dx

dV ( x)
I WCox[VGS V ( x) VTH ]n
dx

I/V Characteristics
dV ( x)
I WCox[VGS V ( x) VTH ]n
dx
Now, at x=0 voltage at source end is
Vgs-Vth so V(x) = 0 and at X=L
voltage at drain end is
Vgs-Vds-Vth so V(x)= Vds.

Idx WnCox[VGS V ( x) VTH ]dV ( x)


L

VDS

Idx W C
n

[VGS V ( x) VTH ]dV ( x)

ox

W
1
I nCox[(VGS VTH )VDS VDS 2 ]
L
2

Current in Triode Region


W
1
I nCox[(VGS VTH )VDS VDS 2 ]
L
2
Peak of parabola occurs at Vds
=Vgs-Vth for different values of Vgs

1W
ID max
nCox (VGS VTH ) 2
2 L

Vgs-Vth overdrive voltage

MOSFET as Resistor

For very small value of Vds<<Vgs-Vth we can assume that IV characteristics is linear and MOSFET can work as Resistor
in deep Triode Region

W
1
I nCox[(VGS VTH )VDS VDS 2 ] ID W nCox[(VGS VTH )VDS ]
L
2
L
RON

VDS
1

ID W nCox (VGS VTH )


L

Example 1
For the arrangement shown in the figure below, plot the
on resistance of M1 as a function of VG. Assume the
following parameters.
W
nCox 50 A 2 ,
10 and VTH 0.7V
V
L
First find out wether transistor is in deep triode .

To start the current flow VgsVth i.e Vg-Vs


Vth or we can say that Vg Vs+Vth so Vgs
1.7V
Vds = Vd- Vs = 0-1 =-1 so Vds<<Vgs-Vth and MOSFET wil
operated in deep triode region.

1
1
RON

M
6
W
nCox (VGS VTH ) 10 50 10 (VG 1 0.7) 5(VG 1.7)
L

Example 1 Contnd

RON

VG

Current In Saturation Region


In real, Drain current does not follow
the parabolic behavior for Vds>VgsVth
Once Vds reaches to Vgs-Vth, channel
will be pinched-off and further increase
in Vds will not increase the drain
current and transistor is operated in
saturation

W
1
ID nCox[(VGS VTH )VDS VDS 2 ]
L
2

equation if we replace Vds by Vgs-Vth we will get current when transistor is ope
turation .

1W
ID
nCox (VGS VTH ) 2
2 L

Summary of I/V
Characteristics
NMOS Transistor

PMOS Transistor

Vgs
Vgs<Vth

Vgs
VgsVth

Cut-off ID=0

VgsVth

Cut-off ID=0

Vds<Vgs-Vth

VdsVgs-Vth

Vds > Vgs-Vth

Vds Vgs-Vth

Saturation

ID
ID

Vgs>Vth

Triode

W
1
nCox[(VGS VTH )VDS VDS 2 ]
L
2

1W
nCox (VGS VTH ) 2
2 L

Saturation
ID

1W
nCox(VGS VTH ) 2
2 L

Triode
W
1
ID nCox[(VGS VTH )VDS VDS
L
2

2nd Order Effect-Channel Length


Modulation

1
W
ID ( sat )
nCox (VGS VTH ) 2
2 L(1 VDS )
1W
ID ( sat )
nCox (VGS VTH ) 2 (1 VDS )
2 L
ID ( sat ) ID (1 VDS )

L
VDS
L
L
VDS
L

The MOSFET as a Switch


VGS V T
R on

For
PMOS

For
NMOS

MOSFET as a Switch

Example of MOSFET as a
Switch
The input is grounded ( 0v )
Gate-source voltage less than
threshold voltageVGS<VTH
MOSFET is fully-OFF (Cut-off
region )
No Drain current flows
(ID=0)
VOUT=VDS=VDD=1
MOSFET operates as an open
switch

Example of MOSFET as a
Switch

The input isVDD


Gate-source voltage is much
greater than threshold
voltageVGS>VTH
MOSFET is fully-ON ( saturation
region )
Max Drain current flows
(ID=VDD/ RL)
VDS=0V(ideal saturation)
Min channel
resistanceRDS(on)<0.1
VOUT=VDS=0.2Vdue toRDS(on)
MOSFET operates as a low
resistance closed switch

The MOSFET as a Switch


7

x 10

Req (Ohm)

5
4
3
2
1
0
0.5

1.5

VDD (V)

2.5