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MANAGEMENT

SYSTEMS AND
PROCESSES
SYSTEM
A sum total of
individual, but
interrelated, parts
(sub-systems) that
are put together,
according to a
specified scheme
or plan, to achieve
pre-stated
objectives
COMPONENTS OF
SYSTEM
• A number of parts or
sub-systems put together in a
specific manner

• Boundaries
A specific goal or goals, expressed in terms
• of an output that is achieved by receiving
input and processing it to form the output

Close interrelationship and interdependence


• of the
sub-systems
MANAGEMENT
INFORMATION SYSTEM
(MIS)
The system by
which
information is
collected,
processed and
presented to
management to
help it in making
better decisions
An effective MIS
should be
• timely

• accurate

• relevant
DATA,
when put
together in a
meaningful
form,
constitutes
INFORMATION.
Within an
organisation,
information may flow
• from bottom to top

• from top to bottom

• sideways
MANAGEMENT
PROCESSES
• PLANNING

• CONTROLLING

• ORGANISING

• LEADING
PLANNING means
deciding in advance what
actions to take and when and
how to take them
Planning implies
• making choices

• committing resources

• a time horizon
Planning ensur es the
most ef ficient use of
scarce resources.
CONTROLLING
Checking the
progress of the
plans and
correcting any
deviations that
may occur
along the way
PLANNING and
CONTROLLING go
hand in hand.
ORGANISING refers
to
the formal grouping of people
and activities to facilitate
achievement of the
organisation’s objective.
MOTIVATION is
the desire or feeling within an
individual that prompts him to
action.
MOTIVATING
FACTORS
• Money

• Recognition and status in


society through work

• Satisfaction at work
• Physical working environment

• Relationships developed at
work
MANAGEMENT BY
OBJECTIVES (MBO)
If an individual is
himself associated
with designing the
content and
objectives of his
job, there are
greater chances
that he will work
his utmost to fulfil
these objectives.
TO BE AN EFFECTIVE
LEADER, A MANAGER
MUST
have a pleasing personality

have the ability to get along with people


have the qualities of honesty and integrity


be an excellent speaker

TO COMMAND
RESPECT OF
OTHERS,
A MANAGER
MUST EXCEL
AT HIS BASIC
JOB.
STEPS IN
MANAGERIAL
DECISION-MAKING
• Define the issue on
which the decision
needs to be taken

• Generate all the


possible alternatives
available to tackle
the issue at hand.
• Carefully
evaluate each
alternative to
choose the one
that offers the
best chance of
achieving the
objectives.

• Make the choice.


MANAGERIAL SKILLS
• PLANNING SKILLS

• ORGANISING SKILLS

• LEADING SKILLS
• CONTROLLING
SKILLS

• DECISION-
MAKING
SKILLS
LEADING SKILLS
• Value
• A conviction that a person holds
about a specific mode of conduct
and the importance of that
conviction to the person

• Personality
• Sum total of personal traits or
characteristics of an individual
• Perception
• The process by
which individuals
organise and
interpret their
impressions of their
environment

• Attitude
• A person’s
tendency to feel
and behave in a
particular manner
towards an object
or a person
LEVELS OF
MANAGERS
• First-level Managers

• Middle-level Managers

• Top-level Managers