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PSYCHOLOGY

Submitted by: Ma. Agnes Quililan Ababa


1BSN (lad)

Intelligence

Intelligence
The ability to learn from experience, solve

problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new


situations.
Is socially constructed thus
Can be culturally specific.
Encompasses a number of mental
abilities such as reasoning, planning and
problem-solving. The topic of intelligence
is one of the biggest and most debated in
psychology. Learn more about some of
the many theories of intelligence, the
history of intelligence testing and much
more.

Is intelligence one thing or several different


abilities?
To find out scientists use

FACTOR ANALYSIS:
A statistical procedure that
identifies clusters of related
items on a test.
Charles Spearman used FA to
discovery his g or (general
intelligence).

Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner disagreed with

Spearmans g and instead came up


with the concept of multiple
intelligences.
He came up with the idea by studying
savants (a condition where a person
has limited mental ability but is
exceptional in one area).

Gardners Multiple Intelligences

Visual/Spatial
Verbal/Linguistic
Logical/Mathematical
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical/Rhythmic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Natural

Sternbergs Three Aspects of Intelligence


Gardner Simplified
Analytical (academic
problem solving).
Creative (generating
novel ideas)
Practical (required for
everyday tasks where
multiple solutions exist).

Emotional Intelligence (EQ)


First called social

intelligence.
The ability to perceive,
express, understand, and
regulate emotions.
Some studies show EQ to be
a greater predictor for
future success than IQ

Brain Size and Intelligence


Is there a link?
Small +.15 correlation between

head size and intelligence scores


(relative to body size).
Using an MRI we found +.44
correlation with brain size and
IQ score.

Brain Function and Intelligence


Higher performing brains use
less active than lower
performing brains (use less
glucose).

Neurological speed is also a


bit quicker.

How do we Assess Intelligence?


Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon set out

to figure out a concept called a mental age


(what a person of a particular age should
know).
They discovered that by discovering
someones mental age they can predict
future performance.
Hoped they could use test to help children,
not label them.

Terman and his IQ Test


A 8 year old has a mental age of
10, what is her IQ?

A 12 year old has the mental age


of 9, what is his IQ?

Used Binets research to construct the modern day IQ test called the Stanford-Binet
Test.

A boy has the mental age of 10

and an IQ of 200, how old is he?

IQ=Mental age/Chronological age X 100.

Modern Tests of Mental Abilities


Wechsler Adult Intelligence

Scale (WAIS) consists of 11


subtests and cues us in to
strengths by using..
Factor Analysis

Aptitude v. Achievement Tests

Aptitude
A test designed to predict a
persons future performance.
The ability for that person to
learn.

Achievement

A test designed to assess what a person has learned.

How do we construct Intelligence


tests?

Tests must be:

Standardized
Reliable
Valid

Standardization

The test must be pre-tested to a representative sample of people and


Form a normal distribution or bell curve

Flynn Effect

Reliability
The extent which a

test yields consistent


results over time.
Spilt halves or test
retest method.

Validity
The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure:

Content Validity: does the test sample a behavior of interest


Predictive Validity: does the test predict future behavior.

Criterion related validity

Does Intelligence Change Over Time?


By age 3, a childs IQ can predict

adolescent IQ scores.
Depends on the type of intelligence,
crystallized or fluid.

Intelligence can also be more generally described as the


ability toperceiveinformationand retain it asknowledge for
applying to itself or other instances of knowledge or
information, thereby creating referable understanding models
of any size, density, or complexity, due to anyconsciousor
subconscious imposedwill or instruction to do so.

Personality

Definition
has to do with individual differences among people in:
1. behavior patterns
2. cognition
3. emotion

Five Factor Model


Personality is usually broken into components called theBig Five:\ which
are:
1.openness to experience
2.conscientiousness
3. Extroversion
4. Agreeableness
5.neuroticism(emotionality)

These components are generally stable over time, and


about half of the variance appears to be attributable to a
persons

genetics

environment

rather

than

the

effects

of

ones

Attitude and attitude


changes

An attitude is a predisposition to respond cognitively,


emotionally, or behaviorally to a particular object, person,
or

situation

in

particular

way.

Attitudes have three main components:


1. cognitive
2. affective
3. behavioral

The cognitive component concerns one's beliefs; the affective component


involves feelings and evaluations; and the behavioral component consists
of ways of acting toward the attitude object. The cognitive aspects of
attitude are generally measured by surveys, interviews, and other
reporting methods, while the affective components are more easily
assessed by monitoring physiological signs such as heart rate. Behavior,
on the other hand, may be assessed by direct observation.

Adjustments in Behaviors

inpsychology, the behavioral process by whichhumans


and otheranimalsmaintain an equilibrium among their
various needs or between their needs and the obstacles of
their environments. A sequence of adjustment begins
when a need is felt and ends when it is satisfied. Hungry
people, for example, are stimulated by their physiological
state to seek food. When they eat, they reduce the
stimulating condition that impelled them to activity, and
they are thereby adjusted to this particular need.

In general, the adjustment process involves four parts: (1)


a need or motive in the form of a strong persistent
stimulus, (2) the thwarting or nonfulfillment of this need,
(3) varied activity, or exploratorybehaviouraccompanied
by problem solving, and (4) some response that removes
or at least reduces the initiating stimulus and completes
the adjustment.

Social and cultural adjustments are similar to physiological


adjustments. People strive to be comfortable in their surroundings
and to have their psychological needs (such as love or affirmation)
met through the social networks they inhabit. When needs arise,
especially in new or changed surroundings, they impel interpersonal
activity meant to satisfy those needs. In this way, people increase
their familiarity and comfort with their environments, and they come
to expect that their needs will be met in the future through their
social networks. Ongoing difficulties in social and cultural
adjustment may be accompanied by anxiety or depression.

The behavioristic viewpoint in social psychology is simply


that of the application of a naturalistic or scientific
technique to the study of the processes of the adjustment
of individuals to their environment in a social situation.