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Multiple Access Techniques

for wireless communication

Multiple access schemes allow many mobile


users to share a finite amount of radio
spectrum

High quality of communications must be


maintained during the sharing process

Multiple Access Techniques


Multiple Access Techniques
PR

FDMA TDMA CDMA SDMA

Packet Radio
Frequency Division Multiple Access
Time Division Multiple Access
Code Division Multiple Access
Space Division Multiple Access

Multiple Access (MA) Technologies

Cellular System

MA Technique

AMPS ( Advanced Mobile Phone


system )
GSM ( Global System for Mobile )

FDMA / FDD

US DC ( U. S Digital Cellular )

TDMA / FDD

JDC ( Japanese Digital Cellular )

TDMA / FDD

IS 95 ( U.S Narrowband Spread


Spectrum )

CDMA / FDD

TDMA / FDD

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)


code

C1 C2 CN

frequency

time
C1
4

C2

CN

frequency

Principle of FDMA Operation

Each user is allocated a unique frequency band


or channel. These channels are assigned on
demand to users who request service

In FDD, the channel has two frequencies


forward channel & reverse channel

Properties of FDMA

Bandwidth of FDMA channels is narrow (30


KHz)
No equalization is required, since the symbol
time is large compared to average delay spread
FDMA systems have higher cost
o

Costly band pass filters to eliminate


spurious radiation
Duplexers in both T/R increase
subscriber costs

Number Of channels in FDMA System


Bg

Bg

Bt 2Bg

Bt

Bc

Bg GuardBand
Bc ChannelBandwidth

Example
In the US, each cellular carrier is allocated 416
channels,

Bt 12.5MHz
Bg 10KHz
Bc 30KHz
N
8

(12.5 106 ) 2(10 103 )


30 10

416

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)


code
C1
CN
frequency

time
C1
9

C2

CN

time

TDMA Operating principle

10

TDMA systems divide each FDMA channel into


time slots
Each user occupies a cyclically repeating time
slot.
TDMA can allow different number of time slots
for separate user

TDMA Frame Structure


Preamble

Slot 1

Trail Bit

11

Information Trail Bits


message
Slot 2

Sync Bit

Slot N

Information Guard Bits


Bit

Components of TDMA Frame

12

Preamble Address and synchronization


information for base station and subscriber
identification

Guard times Synchronization of receivers


between different slots and frames

TDMA properties
Data Transmission for user of TDMA system
occurs in discrete bursts

o
o

13

The result is low battery consumption.


Handoff process is simpler
Since different slots are used for T and R,
duplexers are not required.
Equalization is required, since transmission
rates are higher than FDMA channels

Efficiency of TDMA
Frame Efficiency
No.ofbits / frame containingtransmitted data
f
Total Numberof bits / frame

(1 bOH / bT ) 100
(bT bOH )

100
bT
14

Frame efficiency parameters


bT Total Number of bits per frame

=Tf R
Tf =Frame duration
R=Channel bit rate

bOH =Number of overhead bits /frame


=Nr br Nt bp Nt b g Nr b g
15

Frame efficiency parameter definition


Nr Number of reference bits per frame
Nt Number of traffic bits per frame
br Number of overhead bits per reference burst
bp Number of overhead bits per preamble in each slots
b g Number of equivalent bits in each guard time interval

16

Number of channels in TDMA System


N=

m(Btot -2Bguard )
Bc

m Maximum number of TDMA users supported on each radio channel


Bguard Guard band to present user at the edge of the band
from 'bleeding over' to an adjacent radio service

17

Example
The GSM System uses a TDMA frame structure
where each frame consist of 8 time slots, and
each time slot contains 156.25 bits, and data is
transmitted at 270.833 kbps in the channel.
Time duration of a bit
Time duration of a slot
Time duration of a frame

18

Solution

Time duration of a bit


1
1
=Tb =

3.692 s
3
bit-rate 270.833 10

Time duration of a slot


Tslot 156.25 Tb 0.577
s
ms

Time duration of a frame


8 Tslot 4.615ms

19

Example
If a normal GSM timeslot consists of 6 trailing bits,
8.25 guard bits, 26 training bits, and 2 traffic bursts of
58 bits of data, find the frame efficiency.
Solution
Time slot has 6+ 8.25+ 26 + 2(58) = 156.25 bits.
A frame has 8 * 156.25 = 1250 bits / frame.

The number of overhead bits per frame is:


bOH = 8(6) + 8(8.25) + 8(26) = 322 bits
20

Frame efficiency = (1250 322 )/1250 = 74.24 %

Capacity of Cellular Systems

21

Channel capacity of a wireless system is the


maximum number of users possible in the
system

Channel capacity depends on:

Bandwidth available

Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) in the channel

Calculation of cell capacity


For a Cellular System
m = Capacity/cell =

22

Bt
Bc * N

Bt = Total spectrum for the system

BC = Channel bandwidth

N = Number of cells / cluster

Co-channel cell interference


CELL A
CELL A

CELL A

CELL A

CELL A
CELL A

23

Channel capacity calculation


Bt

6 S

Bc n / 2
3 I min
where n is the path loss exponent
S
I
S
I

24

2/n

is the minimum required Signal to Interference ratio


min

12 dB for digital transmission


min

S/I for digital cellular system


Eb Rb Ec Rc
S
I I I

R b Channel bit rate
Eb Energy per bit
R c Rate of channel code
Ec Energy per code symbol

25

Capacity of Digital Cellular CDMA

26

Capacity of FDMA and TDMA system is


bandwidth limited.
Capacity of CDMA system is interference
limited.
The link performance of CDMA increases as the
number of users decreases.

Number of possible users in CDMA

N 1

W R

Eb
No

R Pr oces sing Gain

where W

27

is the background thermal noise


S is the average user power
W is the total RF bandwidth
R is the information bit rate

Techniques to improve capacity

28

Antenna Sectorization
A cell site with 3 antennas, each having a
beamwidth of 120 degrees , has one-third of
the interference received by omnidirectional antenna. This increases the
capacity by a factor of 3
Monitoring or Voice activity
Each transmitter is switched off during
period of no voice activity. Voice activity is
denoted by a factor

SNR Improvement
Eb

No

W R

Ns 1

where Ns Number of users per sector

29

SNR Improvement
W

R
1
Ns 1

,)0 1
Eb
(S )
N
o

If = 3/8 and number of sector is equal to 3 ,


SNR increases by a factor of 8.
30

Example

31

If W = 1.25 MHz, R= 9600 bps, and a


minimum acceptable Eb/ No is 10 dB,
determine the maximum number of users
that can be supported in a single cell CDMA
system using
omni directional base station antennas and
no voice activity detection
3 sectors at base station and = 3/8.
Assume the system is interference limited.
= 0.

Solution
(a)

N 1

Eb
No
1.25 10

9600 0
1
10

1 13.02 14

32

Solution
(b) Users per sector
W

R
1
Ns 1

,)0 1

Eb
(S
N
o

33

1 1.25 10
9600 0

1
3
10

35.7

Solution
Total users N in 3 sectors
3Ns

3 35.7
107 users / cell

34

Wireless Networks

Presentation Outline
Wireless Technology overview
The IEEE 802.11 WLAN Standards
Secure Wireless LANs
Migrating to Wireless LANs (Cutting the cord)

Wireless?
A wireless LAN or WLAN is a wireless local area

network that uses radio waves as its carrier.


The last link with the users is wireless, to give a
network connection to all users in a building or
campus.
The backbone network usually uses cables

Common Topologies
The wireless LAN connects to a wired LAN
There is a need of an access point that bridges wireless LAN traffic into the

wired LAN.
The access point (AP) can also act as a repeater for wireless nodes, effectively
doubling the maximum possible distance between nodes.

Common Topologies
Complete Wireless Networks
The physical size of the network is determined by the maximum reliable

propagation range of the radio signals.


Referred to as ad hoc networks
Are self-organizing networks without any centralized control
Suited for temporary situations such as meetings and conferences.

How do wireless LANs work?


Wireless LANs operate in almost the same way as
wired LANs, using the same networking protocols
and supporting the most of the same
applications.

How are WLANs Different?


They use specialized physical and data link

protocols
They integrate into existing networks through
access points which provide a bridging function
They let you stay connected as you roam from one
coverage area to another
They have unique security considerations
They have specific interoperability requirements
They require different hardware
They offer performance that differs from wired
LANs.

Physical and Data Link Layers


Physical Layer:
The wireless NIC takes frames of data from the link
layer, scrambles the data in a predetermined way,
then uses the modified data stream to modulate a
radio carrier signal.
Data Link Layer:
Uses Carriers-Sense-Multiple-Access with Collision
Avoidance (CSMA/CA).

Integration With Existing Networks


Wireless Access Points (APs) - a small device that

bridges wireless traffic to your network.


Most access points bridge wireless LANs into
Ethernet networks, but Token-Ring options are
available as well.

Integration With Existing Networks

Roaming
Users maintain a continuous connection as they roam from

one physical area to another


Mobile nodes automatically register with the new access
point.
Methods: DHCP, Mobile IP
IEEE 802.11 standard does not
address roaming, you may need
to purchase equipment from one
vendor if your users need to roam
from one access point to another.

Security
In theory, spread spectrum radio signals are

inherently difficult to decipher without knowing the


exact hopping sequences or direct sequence codes
used
The IEEE 802.11 standard specifies optional security
called "Wired Equivalent Privacy" whose goal is that
a wireless LAN offer privacy equivalent to that
offered by a wired LAN. The standard also specifies
optional authentication measures.

Interoperability
Before the IEEE 802.11 interoperability was based

on cooperation between vendors.


IEEE 802.11 only standardizes the physical and
medium access control layers.
Vendors must still work with each other to ensure
their IEEE 802.11 implementations interoperate
Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA)
introduces the Wi-Fi Certification to ensure crossvendor interoperability of 802.11b solutions

Hardware
PC Card, either with integral antenna or with

external antenna/RF module.


ISA Card with external antenna connected by cable.
Handheld terminals
Access points

Hardware

CISCO Aironet 350 series

Wireless Handheld Termin

Semi Parabolic Antenna

BreezeCOM AP

Performance
802.11a offers speeds with a theoretically maximum

rate of 54Mbps in the 5 GHz band


802.11b offers speeds with a theoretically maximum
rate of 11Mbps at in the 2.4 GHz spectrum band
802.11g is a new standard for data rates of up to a
theoretical maximum of 54 Mbps at 2.4 GHz.

What is 802.11?
A family of wireless LAN (WLAN) specifications

developed by a working group at the Institute of


Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
Defines standard for WLANs using the following
four technologies
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
Infrared (IR)
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
Versions: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11e,

802.11f, 802.11i

802.11 - Transmission
Most wireless LAN products operate in unlicensed

radio bands

2.4 GHz is most popular


Available in most parts of the world
No need for user licensing

Most wireless LANs use spread-spectrum radio


Resistant to interference, secure
Two popular methods

Frequency Hopping (FH)


Direct Sequence (DS)

Frequency Hopping Vs. Direct Sequence


FH systems use a radio carrier that hops from frequency

to frequency in a pattern known to both transmitter and


receiver

Easy to implement
Resistance to noise
Limited throughput (2-3 Mbps @ 2.4 GHz)

DS systems use a carrier that remains fixed to a specific

frequency band. The data signal is spread onto a much


larger range of frequencies (at a much lower power level)
using a specific encoding scheme.

Much higher throughput than FH (11 Mbps)


Better range
Less resistant to noise (made up for by redundancy it transmits at
least 10 fully redundant copies of the original signal at the same time)

802.11a
Employs Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (OFDM)

Offers higher bandwidth than that of 802.11b, DSSS (Direct


Sequence Spread Spectrum)
802.11a MAC (Media Access Control) is same as 802.11b

Operates in the 5 GHz range

802.11a Advantages
Ultra-high spectrum efficiency
5 GHz band is 300 MHz (vs. 83.5 MHz @ 2.4 GHz)
More data can travel over a smaller amount of bandwidth
High speed
Up to 54 Mbps
Less interference
Fewer products using the frequency

2.4 GHz band shared by cordless phones, microwave ovens,


Bluetooth, and WLANs

802.11a Disadvantages
Standards and Interoperability

Standard not accepted worldwide


No interoperability certification available
for 802.11a products
Not compatible or interoperable with 802.11b
Legal issues

License-free spectrum in 5 GHz band not


available worldwide

Market

Beyond LAN-LAN bridging, there is limited interest for


5 GHz adoption

802.11a Disadvantages
Cost

2.4 GHz will still has >40% cost advantage

Range

At equivalent power, 5 GHz range will be ~50% of 2.4 GHz

Power consumption

Higher data rates and increased signal require more power

OFDM is less power-efficient then DSSS

802.11a Applications
Building-to-building connections
Video, audio conferencing/streaming video,

and audio
Large file transfers, such as engineering
CAD drawings
Faster Web access and browsing
High worker density or high throughput scenarios

Numerous PCs running graphics-intensive applications

802.11a Vs. 802.11b


802.11a vs.
802.11b

802.11a

802.11b

Raw data rates

Up to 54 Mbps
(54, 48, 36, 24,18,
12 and 6 Mbps)

Up to 11 Mbps
(11, 5.5, 2, and
1 Mbps)

Range

50 Meters

100 Meters

Bandwidth

UNII and ISM


(5 GHz range)

ISM (2.4000
2.4835 GHz range)

Modulation

OFDM technology

DSSS technology

802.11g
802.11g is a high-speed extension to 802.11b
Compatible with 802.11b
High speed up to 54 Mbps
2.4 GHz (vs. 802.11a, 5 GHz)
Using ODFM for backward compatibility
Adaptive Rate Shifting

802.11g Advantages
Provides higher speeds and higher capacity

requirements for applications

Wireless Public Access

Compatible with existing 802.11b standard


Leverages Worldwide spectrum availability

in 2.4 GHz
Likely to be less costly than 5 GHz alternatives
Provides easy migration for current users of
802.11b WLANs

Delivers backward support for existing 802.11b products

Provides path to even higher speeds in the future

802.11e Introduces Quality of Service


Also know as P802.11 TGe
Purpose:

To enhance the 802.11 Medium Access


Control (MAC) to improve and manage
Quality of Service (QoS)

Cannot be supported in current chip design


Requires new radio chips

Can do basic QoS in MAC layer

802.11f Inter Access Point Protocol


Also know as P802.11 TGf
Purpose:

To develop a set of requirements for Inter-Access Point


Protocol (IAPP), including operational and management
aspects

802.11b Security Features


Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) A protocol to

protect link-level data during wireless transmission


between clients and access points.
Services:
Authentication: provides access control to the network
by denying access to client stations that fail to
authenticate properly.
Confidentiality: intends to prevent information
compromise from casual eavesdropping
Integrity: prevents messages from being modified while
in transit between the wireless client and the access point.

Authentication
Means:
Based on cryptography
Non-cryptographic
Both are identity-based verification mechanisms
(devices request access based on the SSID Service
Set Identifier of the wireless network).

Authentication
Authentication techniques

Privacy
Cryptographic techniques
WEP Uses RC4 symmetric key, stream cipher

algorithm to generate a pseudo random data


sequence. The stream is XORed with the data to be
transmitted
Key sizes: 40bits to 128bits
Unfortunately, recent attacks have shown that the
WEP approach for privacy is vulnerable to certain
attack regardless of key size

Data Integrity
Data integrity is ensured by a simple encrypted

version of CRC (Cyclic Redundant Check)


Also vulnerable to some attacks

Security Problems
Security features in Wireless products are

frequently not enabled.


Use of static WEP keys (keys are in use for a very
long time). WEP does not provide key
management.
Cryptographic keys are short.
No user authentication occurs only devices are
authenticated. A stolen device can access the
network.
Identity based systems are vulnerable.
Packet integrity is poor.

Other WLAN Security Mechanisms


3Com Dynamic Security Link
CISCO LEAP - Lightweight Extensible

Authentication Protocol
IEEE 802.1x Port-Based Network Access Control
RADIUS Authentication Support
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP - Protected EAP
TKIP - Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
IEEE 802.11i

WLAN Migration Cutting The Cord


Essential Questions
Choosing the Right Technology
Data Rates
Access Point Placement and Power
Antenna Selection and Placement
Connecting to the Wired LAN
The Site Survey

Essential Questions
Why is the organization considering wireless? Allows

to clearly define requirements of the WLAN ->


development plan
How many users require mobility?
What are the applications that will run over the
WLAN? Helps to determine bandwidth
requirements, a criteria to choose between available
technologies. Wireless is a shared medium, not
switched!!!

Choose the right technology


Usually IEEE 802.11b or 802.11a
802.11b offers interoperability (WECA Wi-Fi

Certification Program)
802.11a offers higher data rates (up to 54 mbps) ->
higher throughput per user. Limited interoperability.

Data rates
Data rates affect range
802.11b 1 to 11 Mbps in 4 increments
802.11a 6 to 54 Mbps in 7 increments
The minimum data rate must be determined at

design time
Selecting only the highest data rate will require a
greater number of APs to cover a specific area
Compromise between data rates and overall
system cost

Access Point Placement and Power


Typically mounted at ceiling height.
Between 15 and 25 feet (4.5m to 8m)
The greater the height, the greater the difficulty to

get power to the unit. Solution: consider devices that


can be powered using CAT5 Ethernet cable (CISCO
Aironet 1200 Series).
Access points have internal or external antennas

Antenna Selection and Placement


Permanently attached.
Remote antennas connected using an antenna

cable.
Coax cable used for RF has a high signal loss,
should not be mounted more than a 1 or 2 meters
away from the device.
Placement: consider building construction, ceiling
height, obstacles, and aesthetics. Different
materials (cement, steel) have different radio
propagation characteristics.

Connecting to the Wired LAN


Consider user mobility
If users move between subnets, there are challenges

to consider.
OSes like Windows XP and 2000, Linux support
DHCP to obtain the new IP address for the subnet.
Certain applications such as VPN will fail.
Solution: access points in a roaming area are on the
same segment.

The Site Survey


Helps define the coverage areas, data rates, the

precise placement of access point.


Gather information: diagramming the coverage area
and measuring the signal strength, SNR (signal to
noise ratio), RF interference levels

Site Survey

Vendor Information
CISCO Systems Wireless

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/44/jump/wirel
ess.shtml
3Com Wireless
http://www.3com.com/products/en_US/prodlist.j
sp?tab=cat&pathtype=purchase&cat=13&selcat=Wi
reless+Products
Breeze Wireless Communications
http://www.breezecom.com
Lucent Technologies
http://www.wavelan.com
Symbol Technologies http://www.symbol.com

References
CISCO Packet Magazine, 2nd Quarter 2002

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/about/ac123/ac114/a
c173/ac168/about_cisco_packet_issue_home.html
3Com University Wireless LANs A Technology
Overview www.3com.com/3comu
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Wireless Network Security
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/draft-sp800
-48.pdf

Operating Systems for Wireless


Mobile Devices (cont)

Android

Android (contd.)

Android Mobile OS

http://cmer.cis.uoguelph.ca

Android
Background
Android is Linux based mobile OS for mobile devices such as Tablets and Smartphones.
In 2005 Google acquired the initial developer of the OS, Android Inc.
Then in 2007 Google formed an Open Handset Alliance with 86 hardware, software and

telecom companies.
This alliance developed and announced Android as an open source mobile OS under the
Apache License.
Now, this OS is being used by multiple device manufacturers (Samsung, Motorola, HTC, LG,
Sony etc) in their handsets
Android developer community has large number of developers preparing APPs in Java
environment and the APP store Google Play now has close to 450,000 APPs, among which
few are free and others are paid.
It is estimated that, as of December 2011, almost 10B APPs were downloaded.
It is estimated that as of February 2012 there are over 300M Android devices and
approximately 850,000 Android devices are activated every day.
The earliest recognizable Android version is 2.3 Gingerbread, which supports SIP and NFC.
In 2011 Android Honeycomb version (3.1 and 3.2) are released with focus on Tablets. This is
mainly focused on large screen devices.

Android Mobile OS Architecture (Contd.)

Android Mobile OS Architecture (Contd.)

Source: http://code.google.com/android/what-is-android.html

Android (contd.)
Main features

Handset layouts compatible with different handset designs such as larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D
graphics library based
Storage a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage
Connectivity - GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LTE, NFC and WiMAX
Messaging SMS, MMS, threaded text messaging and Android Cloud To Device Messaging (C2DM)
Multiple language support
Web browser
Java support
Media support
Streaming media support
Additional hardware support
Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich
Multi-touch
Bluetooth
Released in October 2011, with new
calling
Videofeatures
such as facial recognition,
Multitasking
network data usage monitoring and
features unified social networking
Voice based
control,
Tethering
contacts.
Screen capture
External storage

Android Mobile OS - Architecture

http://code.google.com/android/what-is-android.html

iPhone OS

http://developer.apple.com/documentation/Darwin/Conceptual/KernelProgramming/Architecture/Architecture.html

iOS
About Apples Proprietary Mobile OS iOS
iOS is Apples proprietary mobile operating system initially developed for iPhone

and now extended to iPAD, iPod Touch and Apple TV.


Initially known as iPhone OS, in June 2010 renamed iOS.
iOS is not enabled for cross licensing, it can only be used on Apples devices.
The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of usage of multi touch gestures.
iOS is a Unix based OS.
iOS uses four abstraction layers, namely: the Core OS layer, the Core Services layer,
the Media layer, and the Cocoa Touch layer.
Apples App store contains close to 550,000 applications as of March 2012.
It is estimated that the APPs are downloaded 25B times till now.
First version of iOS is released in 2007 with the mane OS X and then in 2008 the
first beta version of iPhone OS is released.
In 2007 September Apple released first iPod Touch that also used this OS.
In 2010 iPad is released that has a bigger screen than the iPod and iPhone.
Cisco owns the trademark for IOS; Apple licenses the usage of iOS from Cisco.

iOS (contd.)
Main features
Home screen
Folders
Notification Center
Default APPs
Multitasking
Switching

applications
Game Centre

Mac OS X Architecture

Each
applicati
on has
4GB
space

Windows Mobile OS

Types of Windows Mobile OS


Windows Mobile Classic Devices (Pocket PC)
Windows Mobile Smartphones
Windows Mobile 2003
Windows Mobile 2003 SE
Windows Mobile 5
Windows Mobile 6
Windows Mobile 6.5.1
Windows Mobile 6.5.3
Windows Mobile 6.5.5
Windows Phone 7

BlackBerry Z10

BlackBerry Z10 and Q10

http://ca.blackberry.com/smartphones/blackberry-z10.html?
LID=ca:bb:devices:blackberryz10:getdetails&LPOS=ca:bb:devices

BlackBerry OS

http://www.qnx.com/products/neutri

Microsofts Approach to Smartphone Patent


Microsoft has approached smartphone patents

from a different angle than many others


Things to keep in mind:
Microsoft has many software patents that courts could
potentially deem read upon by the Android OS
Suing for patent infringement is
A) costly
B) no way to make friends

Microsofts Approach (Contd.)


Microsoft has chosen to pursue de facto licensing

arrangements in lieu of litigation


Instead of suing manufacturers

of Android devices for software


infringement, has agreed to not
sue OEM so long as they pay
royalties to Microsoft
Such deals exemplify yet another means companies have

for making money from their IP

Microsofts Approach (Contd.)

Microsofts Approach (Contd.)


Microsoft has litigated:

Motorola
Software patents for email
Barnes & Noble
Android OS on Nook ebook reader
Foxconn
Android OS
Inventec
Android OS

Microsoft hasnt
litigated nearly as
much as some other
companies.
Why might that be?

Summary
Android OS
iOS
Microsoft has a cost-saving approach to patent

litigation: licensing.
Next week: patenting wireless technologythe
important parts of a patent.