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WELDING MASTERCLASS

by Mr. Apurba Kumar


Sanyal reputed Welding
expert
28th June2016
at 4 pm

WELDING
CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO THE
FOLLOWING:
1. FUSION WELDING
2. NON-FUSION WELDING

FUSION WELDING

Manual metal arc welding (MMAW)


Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
Flux cored arc welding (FCAW)
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
Sub-merged arc welding (SAW)
Oxy-acetylene welding (OAW) etc.

NON-FUSION WELDING

Brazing
Soldering
Explosive bonding

MMAW
Manual metal arc welding (MMAW).
Also known as shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW).

WELDING SKILL
Depends on four essentials for
arc welding

FOUR ESSENTIALS OF
ARC WELDING

Correct electrode

Correct arc length

Correct current & voltage

Correct travel speed

CORRECT ELECTRODE

The choice of an electrode depends on:

The diameter of electrode

Mechanical properties of base metal

welding position

joint type and current value

PATENT OF COVERED
ELECTRODES

A Swidish mechanical engineer namely Oscar Kjellberg


Who got the patent of covered electrode in 1907.
The scenario of welding science had changed since then
He was the promoter director of ESAB.

CORRECT ARC LENGTH

Correct arc length is very important for good quality weld.


Hence uniform arc length Requires great amount of skill.

Arc
Length

SHORT ARC
LENGTH

Reduces the voltage.

Therefore reduces the heat input.

Results slag inclusion and lesser strength of weld


joints.

LONG ARC LENGTH


Increases the voltage.

Therefore results unstable arc.

A flat weld bead with spatter and undercut.

CORRECT ARC
LENGTH
The weld joint will have consistent profile and minimal
spatter in correct arc length.
Good bead appearance.
Excellent weld quality.
Ideal arc length is 2 3 mm.

Results of Arc Length

CORRECT CURRENT &


VOLTAGE

These electrical parameters are of great importance in


order to get good quality Weldment.

Thumb rule of current setting = diameter of electrode


x 40 ( 20)

CURRENT SETTING IN
MMAW

In MMAW, only current has to be set due to its power


source characteristics.
Voltage will automatically set by the machine.
A minimum voltage(OCV) is required to start the
machine along with initiating the arc.
This is due to cc type power source.

LOW CURRENT
S e t t i n g t h e c u r r e n t t o o l o w w i l l re s u l t i n a
t a l l n a r ro w b e a d a n d t h e a rc w i l l t e n d
towards one side of the weld.
Re s u l t s l o p a n d l o f.

HIGH CURRENT
Setting the current too high will result in a wide, flat
and irregular bead with possible undercuts.
A crater will form at the end of the joint .
And slag will be difficult to remove at the edges of weld.

High Current Setting

RESULT OF CORRECT
CURRENT SETTING
T h e b e a d w i l l b e c o n s i s t e n t .
S m o o t h r i p p l e s .
Ro u n d i n s h a p e .
T h e s l a g w i l l c o m e o u t e a s i l y.

Example of Correct
Current in 2G

CORRECT TRAVEL
SPEED
The bead is fairly consistent.
The ripples are semi-circular where the travel
speed is correct.

Correct Travel
Speed

EXCESSIVE TRAVEL
SPEED
Excessive travel speed results in a thin weak bead.
The ripples are elongated and trangular.
Uneven bead.

TRAVEL SPEED TOO


LOW
Produces inconsistence bead.
Excessive bead height or reinforcement.
High heat input.

CRITERIA OF GOOD QUALITY WELDING


(In other words how to assess Quality Welding)

Good penetration and fusion.

Defect-free welding.

Match the weld metal properties with the


base metal.

Good Penetration

GOOD PENETRATION &


FUSION OF A BUTT
JOINT

GOOD QUALITY FILLET


JOINT

MAJOR WELDING
DEFECTS

Crack
Lack of fusion
Lack of penetration
Undercut
Slag inclusion
Porosity

MATCHING WELD
METAL

The quality of a weld joint depends on matching


strength of weld metal in terms of ULTIMATE
TENSILE STRENGTH.
This is also indicated in many international code like
ASME SEC IX, iso-9606 etc.
Unmatched weld metal is also the reason of failure of
bending properties.
Passing of bend test indicates the soundness of weld
strength.

AWS CLASSIFICATION OF
ELECTRODES
For example : e xxxx
E designates as electrodes suitable for MMAW.
First two digits - give minimum tensile strength of
deposited weld metal x 1000 psi.
Third digit - indicates welding position.
Fourth digit - indicates type of covering and current
condition.

AWS CLASSIFICATION OF E 7018


E
- Designates as electrodes.
70 - ultimate tensile strength of 70000 psi.
1
- indicates that the electrode can be used in all
position i.E. Flat, horizontal, vertical and overhead
position.
8
- low hydrogen iron powder and the electrodes
should be used DCRP/AC.

TYPE OF COVERING/CURRENT
FOR LAST DIGIT AS PER AWS

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
8

HIGH CELLULOSE SODIUM/DCRP.


HIGH CELLULOSE POTASSIUM/DCRP.
HIGH TITANIUM SODIUM/AC/DCRP.
HIGH TITANIUM POTASSIUM /AC/DCSP / DCRP.
IRON POWDER TITANIA/AC/DCSP/ DCRP.
LOW HYDROGEN SODIUM /DCRP.
LOW HYDROGEN POTASSIUM/AC/DCRP.
LOW HYDROGEN IRON POWDER/AC/DCRP

MAJOR WELDING DEFECTS - ITS CAUSES AND


PREVENTION

Crack
Lack of fusion
Lack of penetration
Undercut
Slag inclusion
Porosity

CRACK 3 TYPES

Hot crack or centreline crack or solidification crack

Hydrogen induced crack (hic) or delayed crack or cold crack

Crater crack

CAUSES OF HOT CRACK

Depth to width ratio either too small or too large

High Sulpher or carbon content

Large root gaps

High heat input

HOT CRACKS

PREVENTION OF HOT
CRACK
Depth to width ratio of a butt joint should be 1:1.4
Reduce sulphur or carbon content
Control fit up to reduce gap
Reduce arc energy

CAUSES OF COLD CRACK

High carbon or alloy content


Insufficient reheat
High joint restraint
Hydrogen pick up during welding

COLD CRACK

PREVENTION OF COLD
CRACK
Reduce carbon or alloy content
Use preheat
Reduce joint restraining particularly in thicker
material
Redrying of electrodes

CAUSES OF CRATER
CRACK
It forms at the end of the weld run.
It forms due to incorrect welding technique.
It occurs due to lack of skill of welder

PREVENTION OF CRATER CRACK


To properly weld, the crater should be filled before the breaking
the arc.
This is done by reversing the arc travel direction before breaking
the arc.
Deposit more weld metal before withdrawal of the arc.
The strength of a weld joint, under any conditions of loading, be
very seriously reduced, by the presence of this type of cracks in a
weld.
Under no circumstances should the fault be permitted.

TYPE OF LACK OF
FUSION
Lack of root fusion
Lack of side wall fusion
Lack of inter-run fusion

LACK OF ROOT FUSION

CAUSES OF LACK OF FUSION

Low current
High welding speed
Improper welding technique
Flooding of weld metal ahead of arc in a tilting joint
Lack of proper cleaning of weld face

LACK OF INTER-RUN
FUSION

PREVENTION OF LACK OF
FUSION
Use adequate welding current
Reduce welding speed
Maintain proper electrode angle
Keep joint surface in such a manner that should not be
tilted in one side
Deslag each weld pass thoroughly
Place each weld passes correctly next to each other

CAUSES OF LACK OF
PENETRATION

The welding speed is too fast.


Improper joint preparation.
Insufficient welding current.
The electrode used in the root run is too
large.
Large root face.
Insufficient root gap.

LACK OF PENETRATION

PREVENTION OF LACK OF PENETRATION

Do not weld too rapidly. If the speed of travel is too


fast, insufficient weld metal is deposited.

Use correct joint preparation.

Use of proper welding current.

Select electrode dia. According to root gap.

Control fit up and root gap should be 2.5-3.0 mm.


Ideal root face should be 1.6 mm.

CAUSES OF
UNDERCUT

Excessive arc length.


High current.
High speed of travel.
Use of damp electrodes.
Presence of heavy mill scale on the surface.
Arc directed to the vertical member of the
joint in case of fillet weld.

UNDERC
UT

PREVENTION OF UNDERCUT

Keep arc length within 2 3 mm.


Reduce current.
Check welding speed.
Use baked electrodes.
Dress the weld surface before starting of weld.
Electrode angle should be 45 during fillet weld.

CAUSES OF SLAG INCLUSION


Inadequate cleaning of each run in multirun welding.
Excessive current.
Long arc length.
Incorrect joint preparation.
Improper welding technique.

SLAG
INCLUSION

PREVETION OF SLAG INCLUSION


Deslag each run before the next pass is started.
Use of proper cleaning technique.
Use of proper current.
Use of uniform and steady arc length.

CAUSES OF POROSITY

Use of wrong electrode.


Long arc length.
Improper welding technique.
Major causes of porosity is poor base metal.
Improper cleaning of weld joints before starting welding
may lead to porosity. Dirt, paint, moisture etc. Should be
cleaned.
Improper welding procedure results in porosity of weld
metal.
Use of damp electrodes lead to porosity.
Excessive moisture in the electrode.

POROSITY

PREVENTION OF
POROSITY
Use of proper electrode.
Maintain uniform arc length.
Correct the weld procedure.
Maintain the proper cleaning of dust, paint, oily
substance before the next run is started.
Never use damp electrodes.
Redrying of electrodes necessary.

WELDING FAILURE ON A
COMPACTOR- COLD CRACK

TYPICAL FILLET JOINT


FAILURE BASICALLY COLD
CRACKING

Not having qualified welding procedure.


No preheating in high thk joint.
Use of excessive high amperage.
Excessive heat input.
Undermatch filler metal used.
Engaged untrained welder
No analysis of vibration.

FAILURE DUE TO INSFFICIENT FILLING


OF WELD METAL BEFORE BREAKING
THE OF ARC

UNDERCUT DUE TO USE OF


HIGH CURRENT IN MIG
PROCESS

FAILURE DUE
INSUFFICIENT CURRENT
IN MIG PROCESS

UNDERCUT DUE TO USE OF


HIGH TRAVEL SPEED & HIGH
CURRENT

FAILURE IN RT DUE TO SCATTERED


POROSITY IN MIG PROCESS FOR THE
LACK OF CLEANING

EXCESSIVE REINFORCEMENT
DUE TO LOW WELDING
SPEED

BURNTHROUGH DEFECT DUE TO HIGH


AMPERAGE AND WIRE FEED SPEED

UNEVEN BEAD DEFECT DUE TO FAST WELD TRAVEL


SPEED

POROSITY DEFECT DUE TO LACK OF


GAS SHIELDING IN MIG PROCESS

COLD CRACK IN CHASIS OF BACK-HOE


LOADER DUE TO LACK QUALIFIED
WELDING PROCEDURE

Chassis# 120, May13, Rear @ 1008 Hrs


Wrong Welding Procedure , Crack & Structural Failure

TRANSVERSE CRACK DUE TO WRONG


WELDING PROCEDURE

SETTING UP WELDING
PARAMETERS IN MIG PROCESS

WELDING PARAMETERS IN GMAW


The weld bead geometry, depth of penetration
and overall weld quality depends on the
welding parameter setting which is also known
as welding variables

WELDING PARAMETERS IN
GMAW

Welding currents (wire feed speed)


Polarity
Arc voltage
Welding speed
Length of stick out
Electrode orientation
Electrode diameter
Shielding gas composition
Gas flow rate

WELDING
CURRENT
Arc force and deposition rate being dependent on
current.
Operation above the transtion current make the arc
unstable in vertical and overhead positions.
By reducing the average curent with pulsing, the arc
forces and deposition rates can both be reduced,
allowing welds to be made in all positions .

WELDING
CURRENT
With all other variables held constant, an
increase in welding current will result in the
following :
An increase in the depth and width of the
weld penetration.
An increase in the deposition rate.
An increase in the size of weld bead.

POLARITY
Direct current straight polarity (DCSP).
Also known as direct current electrode
negative (DCEN).
Direct current reverse polarity (DCRP).
Also known as direct current electrode
positive (DCEP).

POLARIT
Y
That is why DCEP is almost always used in
GMAW.
The electrode melting rate is much higher
DCEN polarity but the metal transfer mode is
being globular, this polarity is seldom used.
Ac is not used in GMAW because of the
tendency of the arc to extinguish as the
current passes through the zero point.

POLARIT
Y
Majority of the GMAW applications use
DCEP/DCRP.
This gives a stable arc, smooth metal
transfer, good weld bead, less spatter and
high depth of penetration for a wide range of
welding current.
Whereas in case of DCEN/DCSP only globular
transfer is possible.

ARC VOLTAGE
The arc length is a critical variable in GMAW. It must be carefully
controlled.
The arc length determines the current and arc pressure on the
weld pool.
Which in turn determines the size and shape of weld fusion zone.
When the length is too short, the ELCTRODE can contact or short
circuit to the weld pool.
Which will result in a base metal melting, a high and narrow weld
deposit.

ARC
VOLTAGE
On the other hand excessive arc length
causes a wider shallow deposit, makes the
arc to wander and increases spatter and
may cause porosity from air entrapment.
Arc length is an independent variable.
Arc voltage depends on the arc length as
well as electrode composition and
dimensions, the shielding gas, welding
technique and even the length of welding
cable.

Length of stick out is the length of electrode extension


from the end of the contact tube.
Higher length of stick-out will offer higher electrical
resistance and will cause a higher voltage drop.
This higher resistance will also cause a resistance
heating of the electrode resulting in a small increase in
electrode melting rate.

LENGTH OF STICK
OUT
However the increase in the length of stickout increases
the overall resistance in the welding power circuit,
thereby reduces the welding current.
This power source generally used in GMAW systems has
a flat or CV characteristics and the electrode feed rate
is constant.
This constant potential system compensates for the
variation in the length of stick-out automatically
supplying the increased or decreased welding current

ELECTRODE
ORIENTATION
The electrode orientation with respect to the
weld joint affects the weld bead shape as
well as weld penetration.
The influence of electrode orientation on
weld bead shape and its penetration is

more than that of the of the arc


voltage or welding speed.

ELECTRODE
ORIENTATION
The electrode orientation is defined in two ways :
The relationship of the electrode axis with respect to
the direction of travel is known as travel angle.
The angle between the electrode axis and the adjacent
work surface is called as work angle.

ELECTRODE
ORIENTATION
When the electrode points against the
direction of travel, the technique is called
backhand welding with a drag angle.
When the electrode points in the direction of
travel, it is called forehand angle with a lead
angle.
Backhand welding with a drag angle about
25 in the flat position gives maximum
penetration.

SHIELDING GAS COMPOSITION


The primary function of shielding gas is to protect the
arc and the molten weld from the atmospheric oxygen
and nitrogen.
If not properly protected it forms oxides and nitrides
and results in weld deficiencies such as porosity, slag
inclusion and weld embrittlement.

SHIELDING GAS COMPOSITION


In addition to this, the shielding gas performs a number
of important functions :
Forms the arc plasma.
Stabilises the arc root on the material surface.
Ensures the smooth transfer of mo0lten metal droplets
from the wire to the weld pool.

SHIELDING GAS
COMPOSITION

Thus the shielding gas and its flow rate have a substantial
effect on the following :

Arc charateristics

Mode of metal transfer

Penetration and weld bead profile

Welding speed

Undercutting tendency

Cleaning action

Weld metal mechanical properties

SHIELDING GAS COMPOSITION


THE PRINCIPAL GASES USED IN GMAW :
CO2

---

ARGON+ CO2 ---

STEELS
STEELS

ARGON + CO2 + O2 --- STEELS


ARGON + O2 -STAINLESS STEEL
ARGON OR HELIUM NON-FERROUS METAL

GAS FLOW
RATE

ARGON
:- 14 17 LITRE/MIN
HELIUM
:- 28 34 LITRE/MIN
CO2
:- 15 17 LITRE/MIN
ARGON+CO2
:- 14 16 LITRE/MIN
ARGON+O2
:- 15 18 LITRE/MIN
AR+HE Mixture
:- 20 25
LITRE/MIN
:- 16 20 LITRE/MIN
AR+CO2+O2
WHILE WELDING IN EXPOSED AREA,
ADJUST AND INCREASE RATE OF GAS
FLOW AS PER REQUIREMENT.

WELDING OF GALVANIZED
STEEL

WELDING OF
GALVANIZED STEEL
Welding of galvanized steel is done almost
exactly the same way as welding of the bare steel
of the same composition.
The same welding processes, volts, amps, travel
speed, etc. can be used with little modification
when the switch is made from uncoated steel to
galvanized steel -- unless the zinc coating is
unusually thick.

WELDING OF
GALVANIZED STEEL
The difference between welding galvanized steel and
welding uncoated steel is a result of the low
vaporization temperature of the zinc coating.
Zinc melts at about 900F and vaporizes at about
1650F.
Since steel melts at approximately 2,750F and the
welding arc temperature is 15,000 to 20,000F, the zinc
that is near the weld does not stand a chance -- it's
vaporized.

WELDING OF
GALVANIZED STEEL
The vaporized zinc increases the volume of
welding smoke and fumes.
The zinc at and near any welds is actually burned
off by the heat of the arc, removing the protective
zinc coating.
Grind off the zinc where you need to weld. And
wear a suitable breathing mask, galvy fumes are
lethal.

WELDING OF
GALVANIZED STEEL
The welding engineer should also check the welding
electrodes which are being used for high silicon levels.
Excessive silicon can cause zinc to penetrate the weld metal,
leading to cracking, especially when the zinc coating is thick.
The silicon in welding electrodes should not exceed 0.85%;
this means that commonly used ER70S-6 filler metals should
not be used when welding galvanized steel.

BEST WELDING PRACTICES FOR


GALVANIZED STEEL

MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING(MMAW)


ELECTRODES SUITABLE FOR MMAW:
1. E-6011
2. E- 6012
3. E- 7016

BEST WELDING PRACTICES


FOR
GALVANIZED STEEL

GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW)


FILLER WIRE FOR GMAW:
ER- 70 S 3
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING(FCAW)
FILLER WIRE FOR FCAW:
ER-71 T-14 (Best for high speed welding)

Thank You!