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Six Sigma Green Belt Training Program

ADVISORY SERVICES

Prelude to Six Sigma


Expectations form the Organization

Keep an Outside - In perspective

Drivers of Project Selection


Bigger Ys

Voice Of
The Customer

Voice Of
The Employee

Voice Of
The Shareholder

Business Big Ys
Process
Ys

Y
Y
Y
Y

Key output metrics that are


aligned with the strategic
goals / objectives of the business.
Big Ys provide a direct measure
of business performance

Key output metrics that


summarize process
performance

Project Y
X1

X2

X3

Key project metric defined


from the customer perspective

Any parameters
that influence
the Y

Strong
StrongLinkage
Linkagebetween
betweenProjects
Projects&&Big
BigYs
YsisisImportant
Important
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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

Gather VOC
Identify customer
segments
that need to be
targeted

List your customers


Define Customer
Segments
Narrow the list of
customers

Gather verbatim VOC &


Determine Service Quality
Issue

Translate to needs statement


& develop a CTQ Project Y metric output
characteristic

Review existing VOC data


Decide on what to collect
Use appropriate tools to
gather VOC
Surveys
Interviews
Be a customer
Focus Group
Customer Observation
Listening Posts
Competitive Comparison
Collect data

Customers
CustomersRequirements
Requirementsdetermines
determinesquantifiable
quantifiableProcess
ProcessMetrics
MetricsCTQ
CTQ
2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

Gather VOC

Identify customer
segments
that need to be
targeted

Gather verbatim VOC &


Determine Service Quality
Issue

Translate to needs statement


& develop a CTQ Project Y metric output
characteristic

Organize all customer data


Translate VOC to specific
needs
Define CTQs for needs
Prioritize CTQs
Contain problem if necessary

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

Affinity Diagram Credit Card Example


Flexible
Product

Easy
Process

Availability

Personal
Interface

Advice/
Consulting

Low Interest
Rate

Easy
Application

Will Come To
My Facility

Knowledgeable
Reps

Knows About
My Finances

Variable Terms

Easy Access
To Capital

Available
Outside
Normal
Business
Hours

Professional

Knows About
My Business

All Charges
Clearly Stated
Pay Back
When I Want
No
Prepayment
Penalties/
Charges
Pre-Approved
Credit

Quick
Decision
Can Apply
Over Phone
Know Status
Of Loan During
Application
Know Status
Of Loan (PostApproval)

Available
When I Need
To Talk

Friendly
Make Me Feel
Comfortable
Patient During
Process

Responsive
To My Calls

Cares About
My Business
Has Access To
Experts
Provides
Answers To
Questions

Talk To
One Person

Calls If
Problems Arise

Preference If
Bank Customer

Verbatim VOC

Makes Finance
Suggestions

High-Level Needs

Organize
OrganizeVOC
VOCinto
intobroad
broadcategories
categories
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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

Translating VOC into CTQs

VOC

Identify customer
segments
that need to be
targeted

CTQs

Gather verbatim VOC


&
Determine Service
Quality
Issue

Translate to needs
statement
& develop a CTQ Project Y metric output
characteristic

Customers
CustomersRequirements
Requirementsdetermines
determinesquantifiable
quantifiableProcess
ProcessMetrics
MetricsCTQ
CTQ
2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

Example: Translating VOC to CTQs

You take too much time in getting back to me!

Verbatim

These forms are too cumbersome!

- Quick Response

Specific
Needs

Validate
CTQ
with customer

- User Friendly Forms

CTQs

- Process Turn Around Time not more than 10 min.


- Form < 2 pages & < 10 minutes to complete

What
Whatgets
getsmeasured
measuredgets
getsmanaged
managedensure
ensuremeasurable
measurableCTQs
CTQs
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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

Identify Must Bes affecting CTQs

SHAREHOLDERS &
COMPLIANCE

EMPLOYEES

CUSTOMERS

PROJECT CTQ

INTEGRITY OF
COMMUNICATIONS
INTERNAL UPSTREAM /
DOWNSTREAM
CUSTOMERS

BUSINESS PROCESS
EFFECTIVENESS

COST & COMPETITORS

CONTROLLERSHIP
& BUSINESS
STRATEGY

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

Prioritizing CTQs Kano Model


Satisfaction
Delighters

Innovation

One-Dimensional
Competitive Priority

Free upgrades
Individual movies and games
Special staf
attention/services
Computer plug-ins (power
sources)

Seat comfort
Quality of refreshments
Friendliness of staf
Baggage speed
On-Time arrival

Dysfunctional

Functional
Must Be
Critical Priority

Dissatisfaction

Safe arrival
Accurate booking
Baggage arrives with
passenger
99% system uptime

Kano
KanoModel
Modelhelps
helpsto
toprioritize
prioritizeour
oureforts
efortstowards
towardssatisfying
satisfyingcustomers
customers
2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

10

Prioritizing CTQs - Kano Model

Kano Model / Theory:

The Kano theory helps prioritize teams improvement efforts after needs & CTQs have
been established. The team should refrain from translating CTQs to the Kano Model but
rather have customer VOC verify where the need / CTQ should feature using the model

For some customer needs, customer satisfaction is proportional to the extent to which
the product or service is fully functional

The horizontal axis indicates how fully functional a product/service is; and the vertical
axis indicates customer satisfaction

It is to be expected over a period of product life cycle that (the product) could shift from
being a Delighter to a One Dimensional to a Must - Be (e.g., invention of TV)

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

11

Prioritization of Six Sigma Projects

Financials help prioritize projects


Focus & Motivate Teams to deliver results
Incremental Revenue

Volume Driven Metrics

Increased Capacity
Improved product quality/service
Improved commercial processes

Price Driven Metrics

Decreased Cost

Reduced Rework
Increased Labor efficiency
Reduced Operating expenses (fixed and variable costs)
Reduced Plant and equipment depreciation or lease expense

Projects
Projectscan
canfocus
focuson
onHard
HardGains
Gainsor
orSoft
Softgains
gains
2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

12

Work out session


Identify area of
improvement

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

13

Contents

Define
Customer Expectations of the process?

Measure
What is the frequency of defects?

Analyze
Why, Where & When do defects occur?

Improve
How can we fix the Process?

Control
How can we keep the process fixed?
2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

14

Define
Customer Expectations of the Organization

Contents - Define
1

DETERMINE THE PROJECT CTQs


Identify your customers
Gather VOC
Organize VOCs
Prioritize VOCs
Translate VOC to CTQs 2
DEFINE THE PROJECT
In-Frame/Out-Frame
15 Word Flip Chart
Backward Imaging

CHARTER
Business Case
Problem & Goal Statement
Project Scope
Milestones
Roles & Responsibility
4

Deliverables:
Deliverables:

CTQs
CTQsIdentified
Identified Charter
Charter SIPOC
SIPOC

MAP THE PROCESS


Process Operational Definition
Benefits of Process Mapping
SIPOC Model
Levels of Mapping
Mapping Guidelines

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

16

Charter

A Charter:

Clarifies what is expected of the team


Keeps the team focused
Keeps the team aligned with organizational priorities

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

17

Sample Project Charter

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

18

Sample Project Charter

CTQ:

Accuracy

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

19

Elements of a Project Charter


Business Big Ys

Process Ys

The problem statement


is a description of what
is wrong & where?
(quantify - % / $$$)

What is the improvement


team seeking to achieve?

Does project Y
link to business Ys?

Business
BusinessCase
Case/ /
Benefits
Benefits

What is & what is not


included? What are the
boundaries? In scope/
out scope?

Problem /
Opportunity
Statement

Goal
Statement

Project
Scope

Key Milestones /
Timelines / Detailed Plan

Milestone /
Project Plan

Resources /
Team Members
Roles

Start with a verb (e.g., reduce, eliminate, control, increase) Who are the key resources ?
Focus of project (cycle time, accuracy, etc.)
What will be the roles of BBs /
Target (by 50%, by 75%)
GBs / Sponsor / MBBs
Deadline
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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

20

Project Scope

What process will the team focus on?


What are the boundaries of the process we are to improve?
Start point? Stop point?
What resources are available to the team?
What (if anything) is out of bounds for the team?
What (if any) constraints must the team work under?
What is the time commitment expected of team members?
What will happen to our regular jobs while we are doing the project?

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

21

In Frame / Out Frame - Project Scoping Tool

Draw a large square picture frame on a flip chart (or use tape on a wall) and use
this metaphor to help the team identify what falls inside the picture of their project
and what falls out. This may be in terms of scope, goals, and roles

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

22

Process Definition & Elements

A collection of activities that takes one or more inputs and transforms them into
outputs that are of value to the customer

The Business Process


Inputs

Outputs

Customer(s)
Supplier(s)

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

23

Process Mapping & Benefits

CTQs

CTQs

Suppliers

Inputs

Process

Outputs

Customers

Measures

Measures

Process
Map

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

24

Process Mapping & Benefits

Supplier: The provider of inputs to your process

Output: The products or services that result from the process

Boundary: The limits of a particular process, that define the start and stop points
of the process

Input: Materials, resources or data required to execute your process


Process: A collection of activities that takes one or more kinds of input and
creates output that is of value to the customer
Customer: The recipient of the process output may be internal or external
CTQs: Critical to quality characteristics; A specific attribute or quality of the
output that is a key requirement for customer satisfaction

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

25

Levels of Process Mapping

Credit
Ops

Core Process
(Level I)

Messaging

Payments

Trades

Exports

Subprocesses
(Level 2)

Negotiation

Subprocesses
(Level 3)

Payments

Billing

Imports

Collections

Microprocesses
(Level 4 & Below)

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

26

Process Mapping Guidelines


Supplier
s

Process

Inputs

Outputs Customer
s

CTQs

Define business process to be reviewed name it agree on beginning and end of process
bound it.

Refer to CTQ work to identify primary outputs, the customers who receive them, and the
customers CTQs

Use nouns for outputs (e.g., sales call, proposal, etc.)


Use adjectives for CTQs (.e.g., timely, knowledgeable, accurate)

Identify the process steps using brainstorming and affinity techniques

Write large

One step per card

All steps should begin with a verb

Don't try to establish order


Don't discuss process steps in detail

Use brainstorming and affinity techniques to identify critical inputs which affect the quality of
the process

For each critical input, identify the supplier who provides it


Validate to be sure the map represents the situation as it really is today (the as is map)
not how you think it is, or how it should be
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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

27

G.R.P.I

G.R.P.I. Check List - This tool is based on a simple model for team formation. It
challenges the team to consider four critical and interrelated aspects of
teamwork:

Goals, Roles, Processes and Interpersonal relationships.


It is invaluable in helping a group become a team.

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

28

G.R.P.I

Uses: An excellent organizing tool for newly-formed teams or for teams that have
been underway for a while, but who have never taken time to look at their
teamwork.

Ideally, this tool should be used at one of the first team meetings. It can and
should be updated as the project unfolds.

Steps:

Distribute copies of the check list to all team members prior to a team meeting. Invite
team members to add details/examples on each of the four dimensions of the check list.
Ask each team member to bring his/her completed checklist to the team meeting.

At the team meeting discuss and resolve issues related to the check list.
Share certain aspects with Champion/Functional Leader if appropriate.
OPTION: When there is considerable disagreement or tension within the team
environment, team members can choose to complete the questionnaire individually and
turn it in to a neutral party who will collate the data and give it back to the team in an
aggregate fashion (thus protecting the anonymity of individual team members).

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

29

G.R.P.I

Expanded Version of the Tool: Useful when a more detailed look at team elements
is required.

How would you rate the degree to which your team presently has CLARITY,
AGREEMENT and EFFECTIVENESS on the following GRPI-related elements?

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

30

G.R.P.I

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

31

Great Project

Be clearly bound with defined goals

Be aligned with critical business issues and initiatives

There should be a significant impact

Work with other projects for combined effect

It enables full support of business

Be felt by the customer

If it looks too big, it is

Global or local Beta Themes

Show improvement that is locally actionable


Relate to your day job

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

32

Project Selection

Success Factors

Project scope is manageable


Project has identifiable defect
Project has identifiable impact
Adequate buy-in from key stakeholders

To be successful

Set up project scope charter and have it reviewed


Measure where defects occur in the process
Assess and quantify potential impact up-front
Perform stakeholder analysis

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

33

Project Selection

Common Pitfalls

Re sourcing of project is inadequate


Duplicating another project
Losing project momentum
Picking the easy Y, not the critical Y

Avoiding Pitfalls

Identify and get committed resources up-front


Research database and translate where possible
Set up milestones and communications plan

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

34

Define Deliverables

Identify project through business theme and personal issue


Review Six Sigma Quality Project Tracking database for similar projects
Identify internal/external CTQs
Create high-level process map
Identify potential data sources
Identify team members and business functions required
Identify Information Technology (IT) requirements
Identify financial impact
Open project in Six Sigma Quality Project Tracking database

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

35

Work out session


Create a Project Charter

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

36

Key Learning Points and Summary

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

37

Measure
Quantification of problem and causes

Measure
1

SELECT PROJECT Y
Measures
CTQ Prioritization
Types of Data
Fishbone Diagram2
DEVELOP DATA COLLECTION PLAN
Establish Data collection
Plan
Define Operational
Definitions
Define Sampling
3
Procedures
Measurement System
Analysis

VARIATION
Display & Describe Variation
Causes of Variation
Run Chart
Bar Chart
Normal Curve

Deliverables:
Deliverables:

Data
DataCollection
CollectionPlan
Plan

MSA
MSAResults
Results

Data
DataPlots
Plots

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

39

Select Project Y
Example :

Big Ys

VOC

CTQs

Process CTQs/
Process Metrics

Project CTQ/
Project Ys

Employer
of Choice

Retention Rate

Attrition %

Essential
Essentialto
tovalidate
validatethe
thelinkage
linkagebetween
betweenProject
ProjectCTQ,
CTQ,Process
ProcessCTQs
CTQs&&Big
BigYs
Ys
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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

40

Select Project Y

The foundation of the measure phase as the name suggests lies in the data
collection plan keeping the target of the project, process and business in mind

The above steps have an inherent linkage in the sense that it would enable us to
cross check if our project CTQ is aligned to the process output characteristic

The process output characteristic can than be rolled up into process and
business metric

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

41

Understanding Measures

Measure : Any element relating to the process under study which is operationally
definable & quantifiable. Measures can be understood better by classifying them
in the following ways:

Classificati
on of
Measures
Based on SIPOC

Based on Focus

Based on
Statistics

Input

Efficiency

Continuous

Process

Efectiveness

Discrete

Output

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

42

Based on SIPOC
INPUT

Garbage in Garbage out

PROCESS

How good is my
process

OUTPUT

Timely??

Accurate?
?

Y = f(X1, X2, X3. Xn)

Productive??

Output Y is a function of various Inputs and Process Steps


Measures
Measurescan
canbe
beclassified
classifiedas
asInput,
Input,Process
Processor
orOutput
OutputMeasures
Measures
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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

43

Based on SIPOC

Where should parameters for measuring be focused?

Output - because that is what our customers get


Process - because thats the way we perform
& Input - because potentially Garbage in could be Garbage out

Y is the output Measure where as X relates to various Inputs and Process


Measures

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

44

Based on Focus
Measures for looking at Process Performance
Customer Focussed

Process Focussed

Effectiveness
The degree to which customer
CTQs are met and exceeded

Examples

Percent Defective
Response Time
Billing Accuracy

Efficiency
The amount of resources allocated
in meeting and exceeding
customer CTQs

Examples

Cost per transaction


Turnaround time
Time per activity
Amount of rework

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

45

Based on Statistics
Continuum of Data Types

Discrete

Binary

Description

Example

Classified
into one of
two categories

Is this group ready to


travel 100 km daily to
reach office
Yes or No
Decision of Group

Continuous

Ordered
categories

Rankings
or ratings

Count

Counted
discretely

Classification of the group into


categories based on distance
each travels daily to reach office
Categories : (0 - 2 Kms)
Number of people
(2- 5 Kms)
who have come late
(5-10 Kms)
today
(10-20 Kms)
(20-50 Kms)
(50-100 Kms)

Measured
on a continuous
scale

Actual distance
traveled by each
in this group
measured in Kms

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

46

Exercise Type of Data


1.
2.
3.
4.

Percent defective parts in hourly production

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Daily test of water acidity

Percent cream content in milk bottles (comes in four-bottle container sets)


Amount time it takes to respond to a request
Number of blemishes per square yard of cloth, where pieces of cloth may be of
variable size
Number of accidents per month
Number of defective parts in lots of size 100
Length of screws in samples of size ten from production lots
Number of employees who had an accident

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

47

Based on Statistics

Some more examples:

An instrument processed is defective or non defective


Turn Around time for the batch processing
Ratings for a Trainer on a point scale (say 5 point)

Points to Remember:

It is possible to convert Continuous Data to Discrete, however visa-versa is not possible


Continuous Data gives more insight on the process performance than Discrete

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

48

Must be for Measures

Following criteria should be kept in mind while choosing Measures

Choose the Output Measure from a Customers View (Outside-In)

The measure should truly be a representative of the deepest understanding of the


process

Include efficiency & effective measures for process excellence

The Cost Benefit Ratio for the data collection should be justifiable
The measure should be relevant to the process
A clear Operational definition of the measure has been agreed upon by all Stakeholders
The measure and subsequent data collection should enable analysis, evaluations and
actions

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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

49

Cause & Effect Diagram

Material

Write the possible


causes here

Or use 4
Ps

Method

Changes made in
operational data

Write the
efect here

High Level Prompters


to help generate
possible causes

Printer Problem
Printing not clear

Bank Profile with


wrong Swift IDs

Handwriting not legible


Correction of errors
in previous deal
Delays current deall

Full doc not


scanned

Why do we have Late


Processing
Awaiting Memo Replies
Creation of Bank ID,
(Clarifications)
Cust ID
Availability of Imex
To many amendments
for
long hours
Learning Curve
Bunching of Documents
Complicated Deals
Lack of Training
Program
Late Scanning & Receipt
for new recruits

Linked Deals not getting


released on time
Forced Priority of deals

Machine

To many deals held


with same person
Changes in Bill
category
by Spoke

Lack of Typing Skill


Fear of committing errors
Alternations of Errors making
in previous steps
Instns not clear

Measurement

Absenteeism

Man

Mother
nature
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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

50

Cause & Effect Diagram

How do we carry it out?


Brainstorming without any prior preparation as the methodology
Be sure that everyone in the team agrees on the problem statement
Bring down the problem statement to a level more in detail as compared to the
statement in the Project Charter
Follow the principle of 5 Why s ?. Keep asking Why till the group arrives at a
logical end to the chain of causes
Include maximum possible information on

What
Where
When &
How Much

Minitab Software helps you to generate the template of a Fish-Bone Diagram. You
can draw a blank diagram, or a diagram filled in as much as you like. Although
there is no "correct" way to construct a fishbone diagram, some types lend
themselves well to many different situations.
Menu Pull-Down Sequence
Stat > Quality Tools > Cause-and-Effect
in Minitab
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with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

51

Data Collection Plan

Why collect
Data?
The
purpose of
the Data
Collection
exercise

What to
Collect ?
Identify
Measure
Define
Operational
Definitions
What Data
to be
collected

How to
Collect?

Ensure
Consistency &
Stability

Formulate
Data
Collection
Plan

Develop
Measurement
System
Analysis

Sampling
Strategy

Test and
Validate

Pilot Data
Collection
Plan

Collect
Data
Pilot
Collection
and
Validation
Plan
Train Data
Collectors
Monitor and
Improvise

Word
Wordof
ofCaution
Caution::Wrong
WrongData
DataLeads
Leadsto
toWrong
WrongConclusions
Conclusions
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52

Data Collection Plan

Data collection occurs multiple times throughout DMAIC. The data collection plan
described here can be used as the guide for data collection. This help us ensure
that we collect useful, accurate data that is needed to answer our process
questions

It is important to be clear about the data collection goals to ensure the right data
is collected. If your data is in the wrong form or format, you may not be able to
use it in your analysis

Operational definition is a helps to guide thinking on what properties will be


measured and how they will be measured. There is no single right way to write an
operational definition. There is only what people agree to for a specific purpose.
The critical factor is that any two people using the operational definition will be
measuring the same thing in the same manner.

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53

Template - Data Collection Plan

A format of an excel spread sheet that can be used for data collection plans for
our projects. The sample data collection plan above is for the Project CTQ, in this
example, Number of Rejections.
However one should remember that based on C-E Diagram and the SIPOC all
those Xs which the team feels to have a influence over the Y should also be
included in the data collection plan.

Example of a Data Collection Plan

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54

Work out session


Complete till Fish Bone and
Data Collection in the
project

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55

Sampling

What is Sampling all about??

Sampling is a process of collecting a portion or a sub-set of the total data available. This
total data available or could be available is often referred to as population. The sample
so drawn up from the population should help us to draw conclusions about the
population.

Some points to consider while collecting data

What amount of time is needed?


How much cost is involved?
Is it really possible?

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56

Sampling

The Six Sigma team would always face a question How much data do we need
to have a valid sample? Though an important part of data collection is to obtain a
sample of reasonable size, it is one of many questions to be addressed during the
planning and development of a data collection strategy. Sample size is just one
aspect of a valid data collection activity

The validity of the data is impacted by many things for example, operational
definitions, data collection procedures and recording

In process improvement, there are a number of questions to keep in mind relative


to sampling:

Is the data representative of the situation or is bias possible?

What are the key considerations for either a process or population situation?

Why am I sampling? To improve or control a process or to describe some


characteristic of a population?
What is the approach to sampling (e.g., random, systematic, etc.) and
approximately how many to sample?

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Sampling

When to sample?

Collecting all the data is impractical


High cost implications due to population study
Time availability
Data collection can be a destructive process (crash testing of cars)
When measuring a high-volume process

When not to sample?

The subset of data so collected may not be truly representative of the population thus
leading to a wrong conclusion (every unit is unique e.g., structured deals or auctioning
events)

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Types of Sampling
Types of Sampling

Non
Random/Judgmental
The
groups knowledge and

Random /
All
items in the population
Probability
have an equal chance of
getting selected

Examples:

Cycle tyres being produced


in the assembly line have a
random check on the daily
production
10% quality check on daily
processed transactions

opinions are used to identify


items from the population

Examples:

Every third tyre used with


an aircraft is cut open and
checked for quality

Sampling for deducing the


error rates during high
volumes / near cut off times

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59

Approaches for Sampling

What do you want to study.the Process or the Output???

Process Data

Population
Data

Process Approach

Population Approach

Assess the stability of the population over time

Make probability statements about the


population from the sample

Are the shifts, trends, or cycles occurring?


Do I take a special or common cause
variation approach to process
improvement?

I have 95% confidence that the mean of the


population for Turn Around Time is between
1.5 and 2.5 seconds

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60

Approaches for Sampling


Approaches for
Sampling

Process

Systematic
Sampling

Measurement of AC
Room Temperature.
Collect one data point
every 1 hour for the
entire day.

Population

Rational Subgrouping

While studying the arrival rate


of documents as dispatched
by the customer. The entire
day is split up into quadrants,
rational being the arrival rate
of documents is similar within
each quadrant and different
between quadrants

Stratified
Random
Sampling

Random
Sampling

Survey across our


organization to know
what percentage of our
employees have visited
the intranet in last 7
days. Select employees
from population at
random and collect
data.

Average Cycle Time for


LC Issuance Process of
different countries.
Each Country is a
Strata (Segment).
Collect random data
from each Strata

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Approaches for Sampling

Systematic sampling is typically used in process sampling situations when data


is collected real time during process operation. Unlike population sampling, a
frequency for sampling must be selected

Systematic sampling involves taking samples according to some systematic rule


e.g., every 4th unit, the first five units every hour, etc. One danger of using
systematic sampling is that the systematic rule may match some underlying
structure and bias the sample

For example, the manager of a billing center is using systematic sampling to monitor
processing rates. At random times around each hour five consecutive bills are selected
and the processing time measured

Like random samples, stratified random samples are used in population sampling
situations, when reviewing historical or batch data

Stratified random sampling is used when the population has different groups
(strata) and we need to ensure that those groups are fairly represented in the
sample. In stratified random sampling, independent samples are drawn from each
group. The size of each sample is proportional to the relative size of the group

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62

Rational Subgrouping
The Process
12noon to 12.20pm

12.45pm to 1pm

1.20pm to 1.45pm

Sample
Subgroup of
samples

What does it mean


Sample at point A in the process every Xth hour to discover the patterns in operation hunch plays a role - data drives decision

Points to Remember
Monitor process frequently enough to catch it in various phases of operation
Several small subgroups to be measured at different points in time
Higher frequency of measurements for an unstable & unpredictable process
The frequency can be lowered in case of a stable process
Processes working on lower Turn Around Time need a higher Frequency and vise versa
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Rational Subgrouping

Rational subgrouping is the process of putting measurements into meaningful


groups to better understand the important sources of variation

Rational sub grouping is typically used in process sampling situations when data
is collected real time during process operations. It involves grouping
measurements produced under similar conditions, sometimes called short-term
variation. This type of grouping assists in understanding the sources of variation
between subgroups, sometimes called long-term variation

Guidelines For Using Rational Sub grouping

Form subgroups with items produced under similar conditions


To ensure items in a subgroup were produced under similar conditions, select items
produced close together in time

Minimize the chance of special causes in variation in the subgroup, and


maximize the chance for special causes between subgroups

Sub grouping over time is the most common approach; sub grouping can be done
by other suspected sources of variation (e.g., location, customer, supplier, etc)

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Sampling Bias

Sampling Bias

Opinion on the abolition of a Student Union is being considered in an


University..the target audience are students.a large number of those involved
in some political activity

Deduction: 93% of the respondents were against the move.


Bias occurs when systematic differences are introduced into the sample as a
result of the selection process

Not representative of the population


Will lead to incorrect conclusions about the population

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Determining the Sample Size

3 metrics that determine the Sample Size

Level of confidence (ZC):

The Team needs to be sure of the adequate representation of the population with the
sample chosen

The term used for the same is Level of confidence which increases with an increase
in the sample size

Precision ()

How accurate is the result as a deduction from the samplewhat is the level of
accuracy needed in my samplewhat kind of process are we dealing with

Precision increases as sample size increases

Standard deviation of the population (s)

How much variation is in the total data population?


As standard deviation increases, a larger sample size is needed to obtain reliable
results

Sample
SampleSize
Sizeisisnot
notdependent
dependenton
onthe
thePopulation
PopulationSize
Size
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Sample Size for Continuous Data

ZC

Is defined as the Z value at c level of confidence


For example a 95% level of confidence is taken for which Z value is 1.96
2

The Sample Size (n) can then be determined asn

Hence at 95% level of confidence

1.96 (s)

What do we infer??

(ZC) (s)

The measured
value can lie
between these
limits

Target Value

The Six Sigma Team can thus infer that the mean for the population lies within m
95% confidence - For service industry purposes we will use 95% confidence Interval
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67

Sample Size for Discrete Data

Is the estimate of the proportion defective for the population


The maximum sample size is obtained at p = 0.5
2

The Sample Size (n) can then be determined asn =

(ZC)

p (1-p)

Hence at 95% level of confidence n

1.96

p (1-p)

What do we infer??

Proportion Defective -

The Six Sigma Team can thus infer


p
with 95% confidence

Proportion
Defective
that
the population

The measured
value can lie
between these
limits

Proportion
Defective +

proportion defective lies between

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Measurement System Analysis (MSA)

TOTAL VARIANCE
Apparent variation = Process variation + Measurement
variation

Double Challenge:
Reduce variation in both processes!
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Terms of MSA

Accuracy

Repeatability

Reproducibility

Measures the differences between Observed


average measurement against a Standard
Measures variation when one Operator
repeatedly takes the measurements of the
same unit with the same measuring
equipment
Measures variation when various Operators
measure the same unit with the same
measuring equipment

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GRR Example

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GRR Example

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GRR Example

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GRR Example

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Analyzing GRR Results

Analyzing Gage R&R Results


R&R% of Tolerance

R&R less than 10% - Measurement System acceptable

R&R over 30% - Not acceptable. Find problem, re-visit the Fishbone Diagram, remove
Root Causes. Is there a better gage on the market, is it worth the additional cost?

R&R 10% to 30% - May be acceptable make decision based on classification of


Characteristic, Application, Customer Input, etc.

% Contribution (or Gage R&R StdDev): GR&R Variance should be small


compared to Part-to-Part Variance

Number of Distinct Categories

< 2 - no value for process control, parts all look the same
= 2 - can see two groupshigh/low, good/bad
= 3 - can see three groupshigh/mid/low
4 or more acceptable measurement system (higher is better)

Effective Resolution 50%, or more, of Xbar Chart outside control limitsimplies


part variation exceeds Measurement System variation

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AAA - Example

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AAA - Example

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AAA - Example

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Analyzing AAA Results

Within Appraiser Assessment Agreement graph

shows you the consistency of each operator's answers. For each appraiser, the graph
consists of the following:
Blue circle, which provides the actual percent matched
Red line, which provides a 95.0% confidence interval for percent matched
Blue cross and blue X, which provide the lower and upper limits for the 95.0%
confidence interval, respectively.

Appraiser versus standard graph

If you have a known standard for each part, then the percent matched between appraiser
and standard is plotted.
The Appraiser versus Standard Assessment Agreement graph shows you the
correctness of each operator's answers. For each appraiser, the graph consists of the
following:
Blue circle, which provides the actual percent matched
Red line, which provides a 95.0% confidence interval for percent matched
Blue cross and blue X, which provide the lower and upper limits for the 95.0%
confidence interval, respectively

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Analyzing AAA Results

Kappa
If kappa = 1, then there is perfect agreement. If kappa = 0, then agreement is the same as
would be expected by chance. The higher the value of kappa, the stronger the agreement
between rating and standard. Negative values occur when agreement is weaker than
expected by chance, but this rarely happens. Depending on the application, kappa less than
0.7 indicates the measurement system needs improvement. Kappa values above 0.9 are
considered excellent.

Kendall's
Use the p-values to choose between two opposing hypotheses, based on your sample data:
H0: There is no association among multiple ratings made by an appraiser
H1:The ratings are associated with one another

The p-value provides the likelihood of obtaining your sample, with its particular Kendall's
coefficient of concordance, if the null hypothesis (H0) is true. If the p-value is less than or
equal to a predetermined level of significance (a-level), then you reject the null hypothesis
and claim support for the alternative hypothesis.

Alternate hypothesis is good here as you are trying to judge if the match is due to chance or
significant match

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Analyzing AAA Results

Choosing between Kappa statistics or Kendall's coefficients

When your classifications are nominal (true/false, good/bad,


crispy/crunchy/soggy), use kappa statistics.

When your classifications are ordinal (ratings made on a scale), in addition to


kappa statistics, use Kendall's coefficient of concordance.

When your classifications are ordinal and you have a known standard for each
trial, in addition to kappa statistics, use Kendall's correlation coefficient.

Kappa statistics represent absolute agreement among ratings. Kappa statistics


treat all misclassifications equally.

Kendall's coefficients measure the associations among ratings. Kendall's


coefficients do not treat all misclassifications equally.
The consequences of misclassifying a perfect (rating = 5) object as bad (rating =
1) are more serious than misclassifying it as very good (rating = 4).

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Work out session


Measurement System
Analysis

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Tools Displaying Data Variation


For a period of Time

Over a period of Time

PERCENTAGE

I and MR Chart for C1


12%
8%

INPUT ERROR
PROCEDURE

Pie Chart

OTHERS

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

30

UCL=30.00

20
Mean=15
10
0

Subgroup

Errors
commited

LCL=3.68E-04
0

10

20

30

20

Not updated

Mov ing Range

62%

No. of errors

Discrete
Data

Indiv idual Value

OMISSION
18%

UCL=18.43

10
R=5.640
0

LCL=0

Error fields

Bar Chart

Frequency

Run Chart
Time

Box Plot

I and MR Chart for C1


Indiv idual Value

Measurement

Frequency Diagram

30

UCL=30.00

20
Mean=15
10
0

Subgroup

LCL=3.68E-04
0

10

20

Mov ing Range

Continuous
Data

Measurement

Histogram

20

30

UCL=18.43

10
R=5.640
0

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LCL=0

83

Characteristics of Data
Characteristics of data

Dispersion
(Variation)

Central Tendency

Mean

A set of Data points can be compared and interpreted based on their Central
Tendency and Variation.

Median
Mode
Quartile Values

Standard Deviation
(SD)

Range
Span
Stability Factor

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Central Tendency

Consider the time taken for people to withdraw Cash (including queue time) from
two different ATM counters. Which Counter is better !!
Counter 1 Counter 2
10
10
12
12
13
13
9
9
8
8
7
7
8
8
10
100
14
14
10.11
20.11
10
10

Mean
Median

Median is not
affected by
the presence
of extreme
values

Mode

Mode is the data point which occurs the most


often

Mode is extensively used in the case of


discrete data which are ordered categories

Mean

The arithmetic
average

Can get skewed


with extreme
observations

The deviations are


measure as
distance from the
mean

Median (the middle


data point)

The positioning of
the data set helps
determine median

Takes into account


all values but does
not get skewed

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Dispersion

Standard Deviation

How much does each


point in the data set differ
from the mean

The aggregate score can


help determine variation
of the process

Range is the difference


between the highest and
the lowest value of a set
of data points

The range of the data


helps determine the span

Extreme 5% observations
on either side can be
discounted

(When central tendency is mean)

Range

(When central tendency is mean)

Span

(When central tendency is median)

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Normal Curve

A Normal Curve originates from a Histogram. A histogram is a frequency


distribution chart showing the number of times a given value of the parameter we
are trying to measuring occurs.

Frequency

Normal Curve generated


by the Minitab Software
for curve-fitting

Histogram of Processing Cycle Time, with Normal Curve

20

Histogram showing the


Number of times 55
has occurred in the data

10

0
45

50

55

Processing Cycle Time

Menu Pull-Down
Sequence
in Minitab

Stat > Basic Statistics > Display Descriptive Statistics > Graphs

Minitab Software can be used to display a histogram, a histogram with a normal


curve & other graphical summary to be learnt later.
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87

Normal Curve

34.13%

34.13%

13.60%
2.14%

2.14%

13.60%

0.13%
-3s

0.13%
-2s

-1s

0
68.26%
95.46
%
99.73%

+1s

+2s

+3s

Percentage of Data
getting covered under
the curve

Properties of a Normal Curve:

The curve never touches the X axisasymptotic


Mean, Median and Mode coincide
Curve can be divided in half with equal pieces falling either side of the most frequently occurring value
The peak of the curve represents the center of the process
The area under the curve represents virtually 100% of the product the process is capable of producing

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Normality Plot
The minitab output of normality plot for a data set
Normal Probability Plot

.999
.99

Probability

.95
.80
.50
.20
.05
.01

P-Value
Determines
the normality
of the data

.001
24.8

25.8

26.8

27.8

28.8

29.8

30.8

31.8

32.8

33.8

C1
Average: 29.9371
StDev: 1.72224
N: 90

Stat > Basic Statistics > Normality Test

Anderson-Darling Normality Test


A-Squared: 0.366
P-Value: 0.427

Menu Pull-Down
Sequence in Minitab

Generates a normal probability plot and performs a hypothesis test to examine


whether or not the observations follow a normal distribution.
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Normal Probability Plot


Straight Line
7
6

Frequency

Normal Probability Plot


for a Normal Distribution

Exponential Curve

20

Roughly Normal Distribution

4
3

Exponential Distribution

Normal Probability Plot for an


Exponential Distribution

10

Percent

2
1
0

90
0

12

13

14

15

16

17

10

20

30

50

60

70

80

18

S curve

Bimodal curve
Bimodal Distribution

Long Tailed Distribution

Frequency

Normal Probability Plot


for a Bimodal Distribution

3
2

99

Normal Probability Plot For


Long-Tailed Distribution

3
99

95

95

90

90

0
7

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

80
70
60
50
40
30

80

Percent

Percent

Frequency

40

0
7

20

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

70
60
50
40
30
20

10

10

1
0

10

20

30

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10

20

90

30

Types of Distribution

The Shape of the distribution depicted by the data can be studied with the help of
a histogram or more precisely with Normal Probability Plot
Roughly Normal Distribution

Exponential Distribution

20

Frequency

6
5
4
3

10

2
1
0

0
12

13

14

15 16

17

18

19

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Bimodal Distribution
6

Frequency

Frequency

5
4
3
2
1
0
7

11 13 15 17 19 21 23

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Quartile Value

Quartile Values (Q1, Q3)

Q1

Of great Use when the data is highly skewed

Each Quartile contains 25 percentile of the data

Q3

Aims at dividing the data set in 4 quartiles and measuring the range in each
subsequently

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Stability Factor

Skewed or Stable Ops Distributions:

The stability factor (SF) is the ratio of the first quartile and third quartile values. The
formula for Stability Factor is:

SF = Q1/Q3

The stability factor is interpreted such that the closer SF is to 1, the less variation there
is in the process. The further SF is from 1, the more
variation there exists in the process
Q1
Q3

Q1

Q1
Q3

Q3

<1

0 More Variation

More
Variation

Q1
Q3

Less
Variation

Less Variation 1

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Box Plot
*
*
*

Outlier
Highest Value

Third Quartile (75%) value

Each segment
represents
25% of the
data points

Median
First Quartile (25%) value

Lowest Value

Box
BoxPlot
Plotisisanother
anothertool
toolto
tovisually
visuallydisplay
displayprocess
processdispersion
dispersion
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Box Plot

Box Plots are graphical summaries of the patterns of variation in sets of data

Points noted with an asterisk(*) represent extreme values or outliers

The horizontal lines at the top and bottom of the plot represent the highest and
lowest values beyond which the data becomes an outlier. The horizontal line in
the middle of the solid box represents the median, and the solid box represents
the middle 50% of the data, with 25% of the data on the top side of the box and
25% of the data on the bottom side of the box

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Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Variable: Processing Cycle
Time
Anderson-Darling Normality Test
A-Squared:
P-Value:

45

47

49

51

53

55

57

Mean
StDev
Variance
Skewness
Kurtosis
N
Minimum
1st Quartile
Median
3rd Quartile
Maximum

95% Confidence Interval for Mu

0.836
0.030
50.4118
2.2972
5.27718
0.424275
0.339406
100
44.7533
48.9910
50.0208
51.8229
56.5353

95% Confidence Interval for Mu


49.9560
49.8

50.3

50.8

2.0170
95% Confidence Interval for Median

50.8676

95% Confidence Interval for Sigma


2.6686

95% Confidence Interval for Median


49.6825

50.5014

Descriptive Statistics can be run on Minitab. The result will be shown as above.
One would be able to get information on Normality of the data, visual display of
data ( Normal curve), Box Plot, outliers, Mean, Median, Standard Deviation,
Menu Pull-Down
Quartile values.
Sequence
Stat > Basic Statistics > Display Descriptive Statistics
in Minitab
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96

Run Chart
A tool used to depict the behavior of the process under investigation over a period

Parameter

of time

Median

Time

A run is defined as a single point or a series of sequential points where no point is


on the other side of the median

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97

Patterns Observed in Run Charts


Shift / Mixtures

Same Value / Clusters

Trend

Cycle / Oscillation

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98

Run Charts

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99

Run Charts

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100

Causes of Variations
Type of Variation
Common Cause

Characteristics
Characteristics
Inherent to the
process
Expected
Predictable
Normal
Random

Not Always Present


Special Cause

Unexpected
Unpredictable
Not Normal
Not Random

To distinguish between common & special causes variation, use display tools that
study variation over time such as run charts & control charts.

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101

Analyze
Confer the assumption

Analyze
1 PROCESS CAPABILITY
Base lining
DPMO/DPU
Cp/Cpk
Calculate Sigma

2 IDENTIFY POSSIBLE CAUSES


Segmentation & Stratification
Sub-process Mapping
Process Map Analysis
Graphical Analysis Tools
Work Value Analysis
3 NARROW TO ROOT CAUSES
MUDA/MURI
Hypothesis Testing
ANOVA
t -Tests
Chi-square Test

Regression Analysis

QUANTIFY THE OPPORTUNITY


Determine the quantum of
Benefits from Root Causes

Deliverables: Process Sigma

Verified Root Causes

Estimate of Benefit

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103

Rolled Throughput Yield

Final Yield (FY) Yield at the end of the process excluding


scrap
100 Units

Scrap

Step 1

10 Units

Step 2

10 Units

Step 3

70 Units

10 Units

Final Yield, FY = U/S = Units Passed/Units Submitted


FY = (100-30)/100 = .70 or 70%

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104

Rolled Throughput Yield

Final Yield Ignores the Hidden Factory


HIDDEN FACTORY
Rework

10 Units

10 Units

10 Units

100 Units

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Scrap

10 Units

10 Units

70 Units

10 Units

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105

Rolled Throughput Yield

Classical Yield Ignores the Role of Hidden Factory


Scrap

HIDDEN FACTORY

Rework

Operation

Verify

Product

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106

Rolled Throughput Yield

Product of Throughput Yields


across the entire process

Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)


HIDDEN FACTORY
Rework

100 Units

10 Units

Step 1

10 Units

90 Units

Scrap 10 Units

Step 2

80 Units

10 Units

10 Units

= 30 Units

Step 3

= 100 Units

10 Units

FTY 90 %

FTY 88.9 %

FTY 87.5 %

TPY 80 %

TPY 77.8 %

TPY 75.0 %

RTY .80

RTY .778

RTY .75

= 30 Units

FTY 70 %
= 46.7 %

Probability of Zero Defects


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107

Rolled Throughput Yield


Product of Throughput
Yields across the entire
process

Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)


HIDDEN FACTORY
Rework 10 Units

100 Units

10 Units

10 Units

Step 1 90 Units Step 2 80 Units Step 3

Scrap10 Units

10 Units

10 Units

= 30 Units

How much is
= 100 Units this
performance
level costing
= 30 Units us

FTY 90 %

FTY 88.9 %

FTY 87.5 % FTY 70 %

TPY 80 %

TPY 77.8 %

TPY 75.0 %

RTY .80

RTY .778

How long can


we sustain this
situation

Where should
we focus to
improve the
process

= 46.7 %
RTY .
75
Probability of Zero Defects

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108

Sigma Calculation

Percentage

Defects Per Million


Opportunities
(DPMO)

99.99966%

3.4

99.9770%

230

99.3790%

6,210

93.320%

66,800

69.20%

308,000

Process Sigma
(Z ST)

Defects in the Process


defects w.r.t performance
standards
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Common Terms

Critical-To-Quality Characteristics (CTQ): Customer performance requirements of


a product

Defect: Any event that does not meet the specifications of a CTQ

Defective: A unit with one or more defects

Defect Opportunity: Any event which can be measured that provides a chance of
not meeting a customer requirement
Dashboard: Graphical representation of process Measures providing a snapshot
of process health

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110

Sigma Calculation

Calculating Process Sigma:

No. of Units Processed / sample size observed (N)


No. of defects observed (D)
No. of Opportunities of defect per unit (O)
Defects Per Opportunity =

D
N*O
D
x 1,000,000
N*O

Defect Per Million Opportunities =

Look up for the Sigma value in the Sigma Table


Yield = 1 - Percentage Defective (The goodness of the process output)

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Abridged Sigma Table

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112

How to improve the process performance

The Statistical Problem can be deduced from the data by concentrating our efforts
in 2 Directions
Are we
missing on
achieving
the Target
Mean??

OR

Is the
problem
around the
variations
??
Six
SixSigma
SigmaChallenge.
Challenge.Center
CenterMean
Meanand/or
and/orReduce
Reducevariation
variation
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113

The Statistical Problem


USL

LSL

Target

Target
Reduce the process variation (control case)

Shift the process mean (technology case)

The process variation is well under control


The problem lies with the centering or the
mean target of the process output
Indicates a need for a look at the
technology being used for the process
Starting with a DMAIC.if need be a
DMADV/DFSS approach can also be taken
up

USL

LSL

The process is capable of performing around


the mean target of the process
However the variation is beyond acceptable
limits
The technology is supportive but the control
mechanisms are not very effective
Look at process improvements

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114

Process Capability

What is it & how does it help us?

Process capability is a simple tool which helps us determine if a process, given its natural
variation, is capable of meeting the customer requirements or specifications

Tells us if the process is capable?


Helps to determine if there has been a change in the process &
Also enables the six sigma team to determine the percent of the product / service not meeting the
customer requirement to enable Root Cause Analysis

A stable process can be represented by a measure of its variation - six standard deviations
Comparing six standard deviations of the process variations to customer specifications
derives Process Capability
Cp : Process Capability
USL : Upper Specification Limit
Cp = USL - LSL
6

LSL : Lower Specification Limit

s : Estimated Standard Deviation

While Cp looks at the spread of variation it DOES NOT look at how well the process is
centered to the target value
Stat > Quality Tools > Capability Analysis (Normal)

Menu Pull-Down Sequence


in Minitab

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115

Process Capability
Upper Spec
Limit

Lower Spec
Limit

Cp<1

Cp=1

Cp>1

-3 -2 -1

+1 +2 +3

Process Variation
exceeds Specification
in this case. Process
is producing
Defectives
Process is just about
meeting the
specification but
Centering needs
attention from the six
sigma team
Process Variation well
under control. Keep a
check on the
centering of the
process

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Other Indices
But we can definitely estimate the process capability in terms of centricity...

The indices of Cpl and Cpu (for single sided specification limits)
or

& Cpk (for two sided specification limits) measure


- Process variation with respect to specifications
- Location of the process Average
Cpl = X LSL

Cpu = USL- X
3s

3s

Cpk is considered a measure of process capability and is taken as the smaller of either Cpl or Cpu
can then be estimated
Cpk = min (Cpl , Cpu )

Last but not the least Minitab helps us do all of it


Target a Cp greater than 1 and a Cpk nearer to 1
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117

Control Impact Matrix

HIGH

The Difficult
Piece
Use Change
Management
Strategy

Target it
Why
wait???
now
!!!
Just Do it

Check the effort


vis a vis the
results

LOW

IMPACT

When we know the possible root causescan we attack all??

LOW

HIGH

IN OUR CONTROL
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118

Control Impact Matrix


Classify all the causes that the group arrives at in the brainstorming session for

the Control and Impact Matrix


Use your teams process knowledge and business experience to list possible Xs
in a Control/Impact Matrix, then use process data to verify or disprove placement
of the Xs

Prioritization Steps
Using the Control/Impact Matrix shown above, examine each X in light of two
questions:

What is the impact of this X on our process?


Is this X in our teams control or out of our teams control?

With your team, place each X in the appropriate box on the matrix
Use process data to verify or disprove your assertions
The validated matrix is a guide used to addressing the Xs. Begin with the High

Impact/In Our Control category


Out of Our Control Xs may require special solutions and CAP( Change
Accelerating Process) tools for successful sustainable solutions

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119

Segmentation and Stratification

Segmentation

A process used to divide a large group of data into smaller, logical categories for
analysis.
Segmentation is commonly used by us in our day to day business to understand
and interpret information

Example : Segmentation of customers based on the cities

Stratification

A process which uses summary metrics (central tendency, dispersion) to make


the decision about when to separate different processes for continued analysis

Unlike segmentation, stratification involves the uses data rather than just
information. Values of the Central Tendency and Dispersion are used to stratify
the given data set.

Example : Stratification of the customers based on the business volumes they provide us

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120

Segmentation Tools
Pie Charts

Can be used to represent the %

No. of errors

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Bar
Charts

Various combinations &


Errors
commited
Not updated

Error fields

break up or the absolute


numbers
Use excel to develop the graph
Further break up of each slice is
also possible

patterns of the Bar chart make it


the most widely used tool
Can depict process
performance in various pockets
as against the targets
Multiple axes can help depict
comparative effects of factors

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121

Pareto Chart

180

April 1 June 30

160

80

f* of D+B

70

120
f* of D

100

60

80

50

60
40

40

30

20
0

Type of Defect

Cumulative
Summation Line
(Cum Sum line)

90

f* of D+B+F

140
Frequency

100

Number Of Units Investigated: 8,000


*f = frequency

Other

Cumulative Percentage

200

LEGEND
A: Typographical Errors
B: Incomplete Info
C: Sign not verified
D: Illegible
E: Process understanding
F: Poor Scan Quality

20
10

Approximately 80% of Defects from Defects D+B+F.


80 % of the effect on Y is caused by 20 % of the factors (X).
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122

Pareto Chart

A fully documented Pareto chart will include the Cumulative Summation line or
Cum Sum line, which depicts the running total of the frequency of each
subsequent bar (stratification level). The right- hand axis on the graph will show
the cumulative percent of defects. By reading the Cum Sum line against the
cumulative percentage, your team can determine which of the stratification levels
comprise 80% of total for the problem, and direct their attention to those levels

The pareto chart is an important tool to further focus improvement efforts.


However, the top bars on the chart are not root causes and the team may need to
fully investigate each category in order to pinpoint the root cause. Like the Five
Whys, the pareto chart can be used in an iterative fashion in order to cascade
deeper into a process

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Pareto Chart

Pareto Chart can be used in the Define Phase to narrow-down the scope of the
project and focus on key-factors if historical data available

Pareto Chart be used the Measure and Analyze Phase to analyzing the data
gathered to identify which are the 20 % Root-causes which cause 80 % of the
Effect

Pareto Chart should not be used in series repeatedly on the same set of causes
as this will reduce the focus area to 80 % of 80 % or 80 %.

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124

Process Mapping

Points to Remember:

People who work on the process know it the best. Involve people who know
(focus on) the As Is Process

Decide, Clarify and Agree upon Process Boundaries


Use Group Activities like Brainstorming

Use verb - noun format (e.g., Prepare contract not contracting )


Dont aim at the person taking care of the activity

Respect the boundaries


Dont start problem solving
Validate and refine before analyzing

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125

Process Mapping

Earlier in Define, you developed a high-level or SIPOC process map. By looking at


a process from a big picture perspective, you evaluated customer needs and
supplier inputs, and determined initial measurement objectives

Now, you will look in more detail at the sub processes defined in the SIPOC map.
Sub process maps provide specifics on the process flow that you can then
analyze using several useful techniques. Choose what to sub process map by
determining which of the major steps in the SIPOC have the biggest impact on the
output (Ys). The block (or blocks) selected is the one on which you create a sub
process map using it to understand how and why it impacts the output

If the output is a time measure, which of the blocks consumes the largest portion of total
time, or which one has the most variation or delays?

If the output is a cost measure, which of the blocks adds the most cost?
If the output is a function measure, which block has the most errors or problems?

Like working with a puzzle, you begin to assemble the pieces of an area on which
it makes sense to focus our efforts

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Sub Process Mapping

Core Process

Business Process

SIPOC

Suppliers

(ext.) Customers
(int.) Cust.
Service Dept.

Sub Process map


Tasks

Procedures

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Sub Process Mapping

Here are some guidelines on building a sub process map. These are not absolute
but they should help you avoid some of the pitfalls of process mapping:

Focus on As Is To find out why problems are occurring in a process, you need to
concentrate on how its working now

Clarify Boundaries If youre working from a well-done high level map, this should be
easy. If not, youll need to clarify start and stop points

Brainstorm Steps Its usually much easier to identify the steps before you try to build
the map

Starting each step description with a verb (e.g., Collate Orders; Review Credit Data)
helps you focus on action in the process

Who does the step is best left in parentheses (or left out) you want to avoid equating a
person with the process step

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Examples: Sub Process Mapping


Process flowchart

Top Down Flow Chart

functional map/flowchart

Planning for a party

No
Yes

1.0

2.0

Determin
e Party
Size

Find
Location

1.1

2.1

Decide
on
Budget
1.2

Decide
Theme

Decide
on Guest
list

Select
Location

2.2

Deployment Or cross-

3.0
Invite
Guests
3.1
Complet
e
Invitation
s
3.2
Send
Invitation
s

Dept 1

Dept 2

Dept

Creates
List

Writes
invitation

Yes
Is the
Guest List
covered

Sends out
the invitation

No

Completes
List

Invitation task
completed

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129

LEAN

Muda means waste, where waste is any activity that does not add value. Reducing
or eliminating muda is, of course, one of the fundamental objectives of any
quality-oriented person.

Defects
Overproduction
Inventories
Unnecessary processing
Unnecessary movement of people
Unnecessary transport of goods
Waiting
Designing goods and services that done meet customers needs

Muda is one of the '3Ms': muda, or waste, mura, meaning irregular, uneven or
inconsistent, and muri, meaning unreasonable or excessive strain.

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Types of Waste
Type of waste

Example

Complexity

Unnecessary steps, excessive documentation, too may permission needed

Labor

In efficient operations, excess head count

Overproduction

Producing more than the customer demands. Producing before the customer needs it

Space

Storage for inventory, parts awaiting disposition, parts awaiting rework and scrap storage.
Excessively wide aisles. Other wasted space

Energy

Wasted power or human energy

Defects

Repair, rework, repeated service, multiple calls to resolve problems

Materials

Scrap, ordering more than is needed

Idle materials

Material that just sits, inventory

Time

Waste of time

Transportation

Movement that adds no value

Safety Hazards

Unsafe or accident-prone environments

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Work Value Analysis


VALUE ADDED WORK
Can be recognized and classified as steps that are:
Essential for the process
Change the form of the input in some way
Are done right the first time
The customer is willing to pay for them

Data Input

App waiting in
the queue

Rechecking

Developmental
Training

Processing

NON VALUE ADDED WORK


Can be recognized and classified as steps that are
Non Essential for the process
Do not Change the form of the input in some way
Are Repetitive in nature
The customer is NOT willing to pay for them

VALUE ENABLING WORK


Can be recognized and classified as steps that are
Essential for the process
Even if the customer is not willing to pay for them
Like trainings for employees

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Work Value Analysis

Value-enabling work is just a different type of nonvalue-added work. While this


terminology can be difficult, it does attest the perspective: If the customer isnt
willing to pay for it, it must be nonvalue-added by definition.

Value-enabling may be tasks and steps that are still needed given todays
condition. Consider what it would be like if things were perfect.

Clues To Nonvalue-Added Work Symptoms:

Your organization is grouped by functions

REs usually cause you to loop back to an earlier point in your process

To get work done, you need multiple approvals


Your policies address only control issue
REs are things in your process that are done more than one time (REdo, REcall,
REissue)
REs consume time, add to the complexity, and use additional resources & costs the
organizations more in terms of $$s

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133

Cycle Time Analysis


Movement of
the goods

5 hrs

Processing

2 hrs

Movement

4 hrs

Processing

Output waiting
to be shipped

4 hrs

4 hrs

The entire process is taking 1.5 dayscan we reduce the TAT??


Experts say that a 66% of the time spent in a process can be targeted for reduction which is usually
spent in activities like:

Movement
Storage
Waiting Time etc
We can by a simple Cycle time Analysis select and target such potential areas / activities
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Cycle Time Constituents

Process Time + Delay Time = Total Cycle Time


Process
Step

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

TOTAL

% TOTAL

Time
Taken

120

15

120

180

120

10

15

90

15

120

120

957

100 %

Where & Why are we


spending the highest
time??

What kind of
activities are
these.
VA / NVA / VE??

% STEPS

Why should we
retain activities
which are NVA
and contributing
to total TAT???

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Process Flow Analysis


Looking at the process together..work flow & value analysis
Process Step

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Total

% Total

Est. Avg. Time


(Mins)

120

15

120

180

120

10

15

90

15

120

120

957

100%

48

5%

180

18.80%

- Control/ Inspection

0.80%

- Delay

690

72.10%

- Move

30

3.10%

- Value-Enabling

0.10%

957

100%

Value-Added

% Steps

Nonvalue-Added
- Internal Failure

- External Failure

- Prep/Set-Up

Total

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Process Flow Analysis

Cycle Time
The total time from the point in which a customer requests a good or service until the good or service is
delivered to the customer. Cycle time includes process time and delay time
Process Time
The total time that a unit of work is having something done to it other than time due to delays or waiting.
It includes the time taken for value-added steps, internal failure, external failure, control, inspection,
preparation/set-up, and move
Delay Time
Total time in which a unit of work is waiting to have something done to it

Linking value analysis with cycle time analysis creates a compelling business case for change
Displaying this information on process maps emphasizes focus areas for improvement and begins building
data for Quantify the Opportunity

Tips/Traps
Dont get stuck on deciding if a step is value-added or nonvalue-added
Allow team to discuss it
Consensus with 2/3s majority vote
Push team to make process map a true as is.
The ratio for an average as is map is 20% value-added, 80% nonvalue-added

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137

Hypothesis Testing

What is Hypothesis Testing?

When you suspect some of the Xs to cause differences (variation) on the Y, then that is
the hypothesis.

Hypothesis Testing involves statistical validation of the Hypothesis.


Examples :

Two of the processors (X) have same efficiency (Y)


There has been no increase in business volumes (Y) this year (X) compared to last

When to test for Hypothesis ?

Increases your confidence that probable Xs are statistically significant


Used when you need to be certain that a statistical difference exists

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Hypothesis Testing

What kind of differences are we trying to detect with the help of Hypothesis Testing?

Continuous data:

Differences in averages
Differences in variation
Differences in distribution shape of values

Discrete data:

Differences in proportions

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Types of Hypothesis Testing

Normal
Data

There are different types of the Hypothesis Tests. The type of the test depends on
Statistical definition (Discrete or Continuous) of Xs & Y

Each of these have a differential statistical treatment


However the interpretation of results are common.

n
o
i
s
s
e
r
Reg

ANOVA

a
S
1-

le
p
m

st
e
tT

t
s
e
T
t
ple
m
a
S
2

Chi-Square Test

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140

Hypothesis Testing

ANOVA The simplest type of problem that is studied with the help of the analysis
of variance is one in which a single factor is under consideration and this factor
possesses several categories of levels, which could have a possible effect on a
variable of interest. Example, suppose an office manager is interested in knowing
which of the four brands of typewriters has to be purchased for the office. The
hypothesis tested is that all brands of the typewriters yield same result.

Regression The regression analysis is basically useful for two primary


purposes:

It can be used to predict the value of one variable when the value (s) of other related
variable(s) is (are) known; and

It can be used to examine whether there is relationship between two or more variables
and it can further describe the strength of that relationship.

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Hypothesis Testing

One sample t test

Example: A state agro canning company uses an automatic machine to fill cans to a
specified weight. As the automatic machine has a tendency to drift out of adjustments,
the quality assurance department draws a random sample of 20 cans from each days
production and weighs these cans. The average weight of the sample can is found to be
485 g instead of the specified weight of 500 g and the sample standard deviation was
16.5 g. Would you specify, on the basis of the sample information, a readjustment for the
automatic machine?

Two sample t test

Test concerned two populations and two samples. Is the average expenditure of the male
customer is equal to the average expenditure of the female customer. Sales of the
product before and after an advertising campaign.

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Hypothesis Testing of Mean - Roadmap


Are
Xs
Discrete?

No
Regression Topics

Yes
Are
Ys
Continuous
?

No, Y Is Discrete

2 (Chi Square)

Yes, Y Is Continuous

Parametric

F test and Barlett test for


variance

Comparing
only 2
Groups ?

No, Multiple Groups


ANOVA

Non Parametric

Mann Whitney for 2


sample t test
Sign Test for 1 sample t
test
Moods Median for ANOVA
Levenes test for variance

Yes
Are
You
Comparing To
A Standard?

Yes

No

2 Sample t-Test

1 Sample t-Test

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Minitab Directions
Stat>Basic Statistics>2 Sample t.

There are two ways to make a two-group comparison, depending on how you have
recorded data in Minitab

If each group is in its own column, select the Samples in different columns option
If all the data is in one column and you have factor labels in a second column, select the
Samples in one column option

While you can assume that the variation in the two groups is equal, its usually more
appropriate to leave the Assume equal variances box unchecked

Stat>Basic Statistics > 1-Sample t


Stat>ANOVA

In Minitab, there are two ways to compare several groups:

If you have all the response data in one column and the group identity labels in another

column, choose the One-way option


If you have each group in its own column, choose the One-way (Unstacked) option

Stat > Tables > Chi-Square Test

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T-test: An example
The t-test is used when we wish to compare the average performance of two groups.

A brand Bulbs

B brand Bulbs

The statistical test examines whether the data supports or disputes the
Null Hypothesis no difference between the means of the two populations .
m1 = m2

Alternate Hypothesis that the means are not equal or when there is a difference between the two population means
m1 m2

when you dont have a clear preference: less than or greater than
m1 < m2

or m1 > m2

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One Sample t Test

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One Sample t Test

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Homogeneity of Variance

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Homogeneity of Variance

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Two sample t test

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Two sample t test

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ANNOVA

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Chi Square Test An example

A process was producing 106 non defectives and 376 defectives per day. After improvement it was
performing at a level of 503 non defectives and 0 defectives. Do the two processes differ significantly?

Defectives
Non defectives

C2
503
310.99

C3
0
192.01

TOTAL
503

106
298.01

376
183.99

482

Total

609

376

985

Chi-Sq =118.547 +192.008 +


123.712 +200.374 = 634.640
DF = 1, P-Value = 0.000

Since p value is less


than 0.05 we Reject Null
Hypothesis.
The processes are
significantly different

Thus the two processes are proved to be significantly different from each other on performing a Chi
Square test on the values for the before and after the change scenarios

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Chi Square

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Chi Square

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155

Chi Square

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156

Types of Hypothesis Testing

1-

Tes
n
g
i
S
e
l
Samp

Kruskal-Wallis

Non
Normal
Data

ey
n
t
i
h
W
Mannre
a
u
q
S
Chi
Mood's Median Test

t
s
e
T
s
n
u
R
Above are test to be used when the data is not normal

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Hypothesis Testing

1 Sample sign test

It is used to test whether the two different group data has changed by analyzing the
signs of the result.

Run Test

It is used to test the sample for randomness.

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Correlation & Regression

To narrow down upon the key variables (root causes) we next go on to a topic that
Helps us determine the NATURE & STRENGTH of a relationship between 2 variables

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Correlation

A Correlation problem arises when the 6s team discusses whether there is any relationship
between a pair of variables

A Scatter Diagram is a graphical tool for exploring the relationship between

predictor variables (Xs) and the response variable (Ys) (i.e., causes and the effect).
The equation under consideration stands at Y = f(x)
This technique can be used to

See whether the potential cause variable and the effect variable are related to one another

Range Of The Predictor Variable (Xs)

The range is the difference between the largest and smallest values
The range of the potential cause variable should be wide enough to show possible
relationships with the effect variable

Irregularities In The Data Pattern

Check whether the data pattern indicates possible problems in the data

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Cycle Time (Days) (Y)

Scatter Diagram

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
1K

2K

3K

4K

5K

6K

7K

8K

9K

10K

Amount to be
Sanctioned (X)

A Scatter Diagram is an important graphical tool for exploring the relationship


between predictor variables (Xs) and the response variable (Ys) (i.e., causes and
the effect)

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Some Scenarios
1

Strong Positive
Correlation

Strong Negative Correlation

Positive
Correlation

For all charts:


best)

No Correlation

Negative
Correlation

Other Pattern

Y = Participant satisfaction (scale: 1 worst to 100


X = Trainer experience (# of hours)

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162

Some Scenarios

Interpretation Of Patterns:
Positive Relationship: X Increases/Y Increases

Graphs 1 and 2 as X increases, Y increases


Graph 1 Strong, positive relationship between X and Y. Not much scatter. Points form a

line with a positive slope


Graph 2 Weaker, positive relationship between X and Y. Scatter is wider. Points still form
a line with a positive slope

Negative Relationship: X Increases/Y Decreases

Graphs 2 and 3 as X increases, Y decreases


Graph 3 strong negative relationship between X and Y. Not much scatter. Points form a

line with a negative slope


Graph 4 weaker negative relationship between X and Y. Scatter is wider
As trainer experience increases, participant satisfaction decreases

No Relationship: For any value of X, there are many values of Y

Graph 5 there is no relationship between X and Y. No one line best describes the data

Non-Linear relationship The relationship between X and Y is complex and cannot


be summarized with a straight line

Graph 6 Inverted U. This is not a linear relationship


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Growing
Population of ants

Word of Caution

Growing Population of Human


Beings

Lesson learnt : Correlation doesnt imply causation


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Regression

The correlation coefficient r measures the strength of linear relationships; 1 r


1

When a relationship exists, the variables are said to be correlated

Perfect negative relationship

r = 1.0

No linear correlation

r= 0

Perfect positive relationship

r = +1.0

r2 Measures the percent of variation in Y explained by the linear relationship of X


and Y

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Regression

Y = mX + C
Line of
Best Fit

X
Regression Equation: Y = mX + C, where
C = Predicted Value Of Y When X = 0
m= Slope Of Line
Change in Y Per Unit Change in X
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166

Forecasting and optimization are complex

Come on! It cant go


wrong every time...

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Work out session


Complete the project till
choosing hypothesis & Minitab
session

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Quantify the Opportunity

WHAT: Quantifying the Opportunity is all about the Six Sigma Team visiting the Benefits to be
accrued from the project. The index at this point of time would comprise of both Hard &
Soft gains (with a $ figure attached to hard gains) however no cost factors are involved at
this time
WHY: To provide the financial rationale of continuing the project, and to gauge the allowable
spending on the specific solution (s) that will be identified in Improve. It is a key milestone
to be covered before the Analyze tollgate
WHEN: Usually after the verification of the vital few root causes

Quantify The Opportunity

Done in the Analyze phase

It is not for a specific


solution

Considers only Gross


numbers

Covers the entire process


as the scope

Cost/Benefit Analysis

Done in the Improve stage

Calculated for a specific


solution

Talks about Net gains

Scope: A portion of the


process

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169

Key Learning Points and Summary

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Improve
Fix the process (es)

Improve
GENERATE/SELECT SOLUTIONS
Brainstorming
TRIZ
DOE
Criteria Matrix

REFINE SOLUTION

NGT

FMEA

Idea Screening Tools

Error Proofing

TEST SOLUTION
Pilot planning
Verification of Results

JUSTIFY SOLUTION
Cost Benefit Analysis

Deliverables:

Solution Design

Developed Solution Tested on a small Scale

Cost

Benefit Analysis
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172

Improve - Steps

Creative
Approach

Analytical
Approach

Brainstorming

Data
Analysis
(DOE)

Select Best Idea


Filter

Refine the Idea


Error
Proofing /
FMEA

Test the
new Idea

Pilot

Justify

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173

Design of Experiments

We will understand the following:

Understand the strategy behind Design of Experiments (DOE)


Create a design matrix
Code factors
Understand the limitations of OFAT experiments
Interpret interactions

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174

Why Learn about DOE?

Properly designed experiments will improve

Efficiency in gathering information

Resources

Predictive knowledge of the process


Ability to optimize process

Planning

Response
Control input costs

Capability of meeting customer CTQs

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175

What is DOE?

A DOE is a planned set of tests on the response variable(s) (KPOVs) with one or
more inputs (factors) (PIVs) each at two or more settings (levels) which will:

Determine if any factor is significant


Define prediction equations
Allow efficient optimization
Direct activity to rapid process improvements
Create significant events for analysis

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176

DOE Terminology

Response (Y, KPOV): the process output linked to the customer CTQ

Level: setting of a factor (+, -, 1, -1, hi, lo, alpha, numeric)

Factor (X, PIV): uncontrolled or controlled


studied

variable whose influence is being

Treatment Combination (run): setting of all factors to obtain a response


Replicate: number of times a treatment combination is run (usually randomized)
Repeat: non-randomized replicate
Inference Space: operating range of factors under study

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DOE Objectives

Learning the most from as few runs as possible; efficiency is the objective of DOE
Identifying which factors affect mean, variation, both or none
Screening a large number of factors down to the vital few
Modeling the process with a prediction equation:
Optimizing the factor levels for desired response
Validating the results through confirmation

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Strategy of Experimentation

Planning Phase

Execution Phase

Define the problem


Set the objective
Select the response (s), Ys
Select the factors (s), Xs
Select the factor levels
Select the DOE design
Determine sample size
Run the experiment

Collect data
Analyze data
Validate results
Evaluate conclusions
Revise SOPs
Train affected workforce
Document results
Consider next experiment

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179

Response Relationship to Other Tools

Power On

Inputs

Process Map

Bulb life

Projector

Instructor Training

Outputs
Projector has
bright light
Projector is quiet

Cause
Colors correct

Computer Interface

& Effect Matrix

Environment
Method Machine
Bulb
Room
Brightness Instructions
Computer Settings

Low Bulb
Brightness
Instructor
Light Meter

Process
Inputs
1
2
3
4

Quiet

Customer

Bright Light

Cause & Effect Diagram for Bright Light

Importance to

Color Correct

Rating of

Power on 9 3
Bulb Life 8 1
Instructor1 1
Computer 2 1

10

2
3
1
9

11

12

13

14

15

Total
119
95
23
95

5
6
7

Power On

Measurement
Person

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180

Factor Relationship to Other Tools

Process Map

Bulb life

Outputs

Projector

Instructor Training

Projector is quiet
Colors correct Cause

Machine

Room
Brightness Instructions

7 8

Quiet

Cause & Effect Diagram for Bright Light

Rating of
Importance to
Customer

Total

Power on 9 3
Bulb Life 8 1
Instructor1 1
Computer 2 1

2
3
1
9

119
95
23
95

Process
Inputs

Bulb
Computer Settings

Low Bulb
Brightness

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

& Effect Matrix

Color Correct

Computer Interface

EnvironmentMethod

Projector has bright


light

Bright Light

Power On

Inputs

10

11

12

13

14

15

Instructor
Light Meter
Power On

MeasurementPerson

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181

Experimental Design Considerations


Experimental
Objective
Many
K
PI
V
s

Experimental Design Types

OFAT (One Factor at a Time)


Screen

Fractional Designs
2k Full Factorial

Optimize

2k Full Factorial ( w center


points/replication)
Full Factorial (replication)

Model
Few

RSM (Response Surface


Method)

Less
K
N
O
W
L
E
D
G
E

More

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Less

C
O
S
T

More

182

Factors and the Process

X1 Price
X2 PO
X3 Terms

X1 Temp
X2 Press
X3 Time

Business
Process

Y:
Accounts
Receivable
Hold

Manufacturing
Process

Y:
Scrap
Reduction

DOE can be applied to both business and industrial processes

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183

Coding Three Factors

Low-1

High+1

Press = 2

Press = 10

Temp = 10

Temp = 125

Resin = 56

Resin = 3560

temp

+1

+1
re

-1

-1

si n

Coding convention often uses


+ for high and - for low
press

+1

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184

TRIZ Theory of Inventive Problem Solving

A theory of problem solving based on the recognition of the power of


psychological inertia and the importance of having a process to move problem
solving activities beyond this inertia by identifying contradictions (barriers to an
ideal solution) and providing specific tools and strategies for eliminating them

Genrikh Altshuller (developer of TRIZ) screened thousands of patents looking for


inventive problems and how they were solved. Only 40,000 had inventive
solutions; the rest were straightforward improvements.

Altshuller categorized these patents by identifying the problem-solving process


that had been used repeatedly. He found that the problems had been solved using
one of forty inventive principles.

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TRIZ Key Concepts

Overcoming Psychological Inertia

Psychological Inertia is the sum total of an


individuals personal bias, previous experience
and technological knowledge. When
challenged with a problem, the solution path
will be constrained by the individuals
psychological inertia. Psychological inertia
predisposes not only the solution path, but the
types of solutions as well. Psychological
inertia defines the boundaries of the solution
space; if the ideal solution for a problem
demands out-of-the-box thinking,
psychological inertia confines the thought
process to the conventional box.

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186

TRIZ Key Concepts

Inventive Principles are rules for system transformations. Each principle is


intended to eliminate a single contradiction or several contradictions. Also, these
principles can be used simply to stimulate, or initiate, the thought process to
create the ideal solution to a problem. They can be used for inspiration in
conceptual design, directly utilized in the case-based design or used in various
forms of analogical reasoning.

Two of the forty principles are listed in next page with accompanying service examples.
Apply Selected Inventive Principles To Your Contradiction/
Problem To Develop Innovative Solutions

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187

TRIZ Key Concepts

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188

Brainstorming Techniques

Structured Brainstorming

Smooth Flow of Ideas


Everyone has an opportunity to express opinions
Efficient process in terms of idea generation
Less Creative in approach

Unstructured Brainstorming

Smooth
Random Flow of Ideas
All opinions may not be captured
Lesser number of ideas generated
Effective process for creative ideas

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189

Brainstorming Techniques

Structured Brainstorming: This is a process in which the ideas are generated in a


systematic method by moving from one person to another and obtaining an idea.
The person who does not wish to provide an idea, passes. The process is
continued until each participant passes and the facilitator determines no fresh
ideas are being generated. As with all forms of brainstorming, the ideas are then
taken up for discussion. At the end discard any ideas that are similar and debate
on each idea to come up with the finalized list of possible solutions

Unstructured Brainstorming: In this form of brainstorming, ideas are generated


randomly and there is no need to pass. The solutions are discussed freely and
can be proposed at any time. This type of brainstorming process is effective when
the representation of each of the diverse groups involved in the discussion is
large. However, the facilitator should be careful that even in this randomized
discussion with large representations, ideas may not be captured completely

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190

Brainstorming Principles

Must be for all Brainstorming forms

Allow Free Flow of Ideas


Create Heterogeneous Groups
Focus on Critical Xs & CTQs
Avoid Large Groups (6 - 10 optimum)
Prevent Biases (Group/Function/Subject)
Manage Time
Scribe all Details
Use Voting Techniques

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Channeling / Anti Solution

Anti Solution

Channeling

Structured approach to brainstorm


on specific category of solutions
available to the team

Structured approach to brainstorm


on the opposite of the objectives of
the discussion

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Analogy / Brain writing

Analogy

Brainstorm on ideas on related


topic to unblock the thought
process

Brain Writing

Build on ideas written on a sheet


of paper randomly distributed
amidst the group

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Brainstorming Techniques
Channeling: This form of brainstorming entails channeling of thoughts of the participants similar

to the discussion in Fishbone diagram. The discussion revolves on specific stream/section of


solution. E.g While discussion on methods to improve the sales of soaps, potential solutions can
be channeled into: Improvements related to the packaging, fragrance, cutting of costs or
distribution system for the product

Antisolution: Here the objective of the team is reversed to exactly the opposite of what is to be

determined. E.g. In an effort to improve the training program, the team can debate about the ways
in which the training program can be worsened. The solutions are opposite of what is determined
during the discussion

Analogy: Analogy form of brainstorming encompasses a discussion on a process/product that is


similar to the one which is being improved.e.g. Instead of discussing on What are ways to
improve the productivity of call center associates for an insurance customer service call center,
the team can discuss opinions on productivity of associates in the customer service call center
for Automobile Leasing. Make associations at the end of the discussion

Brain writing: Written ideas are exchanged in this process. Each person who receives a written
idea tries to expand on it or adds a totally new idea to it. The pieces of paper are rotated & a
collections of ideas or solutions are then debated & prioritized. This is used when the team
members are unknown to each other

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Solution Selection
Screening against
Must Be

Benefits

Pay Off Matrix

Compliance, Policies &


regulations
Customer CTQs
Business CTQs

Effort

Solutions for further


discussions

N/3 Voting

Criteria Based Matrix


Combine all similar
choices with
consensus

Generate/Update
List of Solutions

Rationalize/Justify/
Reject solutions

Tally Votes
for each
choice

Allow members
to choose 1/3 of the
list as choices

Establish Criteria

Assign
Wt.

# of
Votes

Soln. 1

Soln. 2

Ease of Use
Inter site availability
Preparation of Charts
Information Real time
Auto escalation of
unresolved issues
Filters & Regulated
Access

Total Score:

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195

Solution Selection

Pay-off Matrix: After the possible solutions are generated, they can be assigned to
different quadrants of the pay off matrix. The ideas which are low on benefits, are
rejected. The discussion is then focused on the high effort/high benefits and
these are rationalized for implementation. Some of the solutions in this quadrant
are so prohibitively expensive that they can be eliminated without further
analysis. Caution needs to be maintained when eliminating potential solutions
from this quadrant

Screening against Must be criteria: Company policies, Local laws & Social
considerations are extremely important before proceeding further on any
solution. Finally, the extent to which the customer CTQs of the project are
satisfied is a key consideration for selection (Use Kano model to evaluate
expected extent of satisfaction generated)

N/3 Voting: The key consideration in this form is that all rejected solutions should
be justified

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196

Criteria Based Matrix

Where to use CBM


More than a few criteria for solution selection
Solutions scoring differently under each criteria
The weight for each criteria differs
How to use CBM
Identify Criteria and assign weightage
The Team members to give votes to each idea
The votes are then multiplied with the weights of the criteria established for
selection

The total scores obtained at the bottom of the solution are used to select the
same

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197

N G T: Nominal Group Technique


What is the best method to reduce cost per
transaction?
Member 1 Member 2 Member 3 Totals

Solutions

Simplify Application process


Automation
Employ Six Sigma
Consolidate sites
Implement Web Services
Reduce Workforce

6
1
3
5
4
2

4
1
3
6
5
2

6
1
2
4
3
5

16
3
8
15
12
9

Simplify Application process & consolidate Sites

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198

Error Proofing

Error Free Designs or Processes

Eliminate the Possibility of setting the Xs beyond the limits

Can also be used in conjunction with the Risk Management or SPC

Warns Operators before the Xs move to the outside limit so that the preventive
action can be taken
The opportunity for error needs to be minimized or eliminated

Get it right during process design!

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199

FMEA

Definition

Failure Mode & Effects Analysis is a tool to identify the relevant importance of possible
failure of the process/solution & establish clear mitigation strategy associated with the
risks

Principle of FMEA

Impact of any failure on a process is not only severity of the failure but also the
frequency of occurrence & the ability of the control mechanism to detect the failure

A Team activity with the subject matter experts!

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200

FMEA

Objective:

Addressing rational concerns that have significant affect on the performance of the
proposed solution

To evolve a consensus on the recommended corrective actions and procedures to


follow.

Suggestions for completion of the activity in time:

It would be best to address concerns from a process perspective rather than have a
business contingency plan activity which would affect the entire business (e.g
Earthquake, Fires, Natural calamities, Geo-political exigencies, Power back ups etc.).

Each individual SME/functional expert would position the argument. More often than not
the suggestions/action plans would come from him/her or through a judicious
discussion within the group.

The process owner takes the final call on the impact except when issue is related to a
Legal or a Compliance issue.

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201

FMEA

FMEA is carried out on the Process/Product being introduced or redesigned

FMEA is a live document

Calculate the Risk Priority Number by multiplying the scores associated with
Severity, Occurrence & Detection-revisit frequently to update

Process
Step/Part
Number

Actions
Recom
mended

Potential
Failure
Mode

Resp.

Potential
Failure
Effects

Target
Date

Actions
Taken

S
E
V

Potential
Causes

S
E
V

O
C
C

O
C
C

D
E
T

Current
Controls

D
E
T

R
P
N

R
P
N

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202

Calculating RPN
RPN = Severity x Occurrence x Detection

Severity Scale
Rating

Bad

10

Criteria A Failure Could:


Injure a customer or employee

Be illegal

Render product or service unfit for use

Cause extreme customer dissatisfaction

Result in partial malfunction

Cause a loss of performance which

More the
severity,
higher is
the
rating

is likely to result in a complaint


4

Cause minor performance loss

Cause a minor nuisance, but be


overcome with no performance loss

Be unnoticed and have only minor


effect on performance

Good

Be unnoticed and not affect the


performance

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203

Calculating RPN
RPN = Severity x Occurrence x Detection

Occurrence Scale
More
Bad

Rating
10

Good

Time Period

Probability

often it

More than once per day

> 30%

occurs,

Once every 3-4 days

30%

higher is

Once per week

5%

the rating

Once per month

1%

Once every 3 months

Once every 6 months

Once per year

Once every 1-3 years

Once every 3-6 years

Once every 6-100 years

.03%
1 Per 10,000
6 Per 100,000
6 Per Million
3 Per 10 Million
2 Per Billion

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204

Calculating RPN
RPN = Severity x Occurrence x Detection

Detection Scale
Lower the

Bad
Rating
10

Definition

ability

Defect caused by failure is not detectable

to detect,

Occasional units are checked for defect

Units are systematically sampled and inspected

All units are manually inspected

is the

Units are manually inspected with mistake-proofing

rating

higher

modifications
5

Process is monitored (SPC) and manually inspected

SPC is used with an immediate reaction to out-ofcontrol conditions

SPC as above with 100% inspection surrounding out of-control conditions

Good
2

All units are automatically inspected

Defect is obvious and can be kept from


affecting the
customer

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205

Testing for Solutions

Why Test Solutions

Confirm to potential solution


Obtain feedback and buy-in for proposal
Opportunity for refining solution

How to Test Solution

Small scale experimentation-Piloting


Modeling-Physical Models
Simulation- Computer models

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206

Testing Essentials

Create a Data collection plan & monitor activities for Data consistency & Stability
Verify that the process has improved-Process capability, Hypothesis Testing for
evaluating Statistical significance of the old & the improved process

Why collect
Data?

What to
Collect ?

How to
Collect?

Ensure
Consistency&
Stability

Ensure robust Measurement plan for testing the solution

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207

Justify Solution

Tangible Benefits
Savings
Incremental Revenue
Interest Cost & Income
Cash Flow
Reduced Workforce

Intangible Benefits
Customer Retention
Improved VOE/VOC/VOS
Ease of Work
Better Governance

Prepare Net Financial Gains & supplement with Intangible gains and Obtain
Business & Finance Leader approvals before proceeding

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208

CBA
Hard Gains
Cost Heads
Trainer Cost
T& L
Q Team Support
Facilities
Equipment
Stationary & Manuals
GB Examination
Total Cost

Vendor
250,000
30,000
4,444
20,000
1,000
15,000
50,000
370,444

In House Training
0
0
11,111
20,000
1,000
10,000
2,222
44,333

Soft Gains

Trainings customized to
the need of the employees

Calendar & Duration of


the training according to
Organizations need

Estimated annual cost


Per Training
12 Training per year

Cost with QAI Cost with Quality Team


370,444
44,333
4,445,333
532,000

Cost of creating the training manual


Average per
day cost
Man Days Spent
30
2,222

Total Cost incurred


66,667

Savings per year


3,846,667

Benefits of Training
In-house
vs.
Employing a Vendor

Assumptions
1. Hypothetical Costs assumed
2. Recurring cost of upgrading the content is INR 66, 667
* All Figures in INR

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209

Key Learning Points and Summary

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210

Control
Sustaining the benefits

Control
1

PROCESS CONTROL PLAN


Process Management Chart
Process Documentation
Selection of Control Charts
Interpreting Control Charts
Response Plan
2

IMPLEMENT SOLUTION
Stakeholder Analysis
Implementation elements
3

CLOSE PROJECT
Documentation
Communication of Learning
Project Closure

Deliverables:

Process Control Developed

Fully Implemented Solution

Communication

of Project
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212

Why Control?
Improvements

Process Control

No Process Control
Time

To hold the gains of the DMAIC project there by ensuring that the efforts of
the project team are not written off
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213

Why Control?

Process Control is essential to prevent the loss of gains over a period of


time

Detect the out of control state of processes & determine the appropriate
actions

Control System incorporates Risk Management, SPC, Measurement & Audit


Plans, Response plans, Documentation & Ownership

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214

What To Control?

Input
Measures
(Xs)

Output
Measures
Process Measures

Monitoring
Points

At the barest minimum, measure CTQs


Strive to measure the critical Xs to provide chances to make corrections
Install the appropriate data collection plan
Audit appropriately
Early warning system prevent $$ Impact ( Rework reduction )

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215

Process Management System


New special cause variations identified

Deployment flow
chart

Documentation
&
Standardization

What, Who, Where of the


process

Activity Details

Key Measures

Monitoring

Response
plan
Ongoing Auditing

What, Who, When, How of


data collection &
measurements

What, Who, When, How of


action upon process
failure

Standards
Measurement &
Process

Procedure for
adjustment
Containment
Procedure for
improvement

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216

Process Management Charts


Documentation
The
PlanFor
ForDoing
DoingThe Work
The Plan
Deployment
Flowchart

Detail On
Key Tasks

Monitoring

Response Plan

Checking
CheckingThe
TheWork
Work
Key Process
And Output
Measures

Monitoring
Standards

The
TheResponse
ResponseTo
ToSpecial
SpecialCauses
Causes
Method For
Recording
Data

Containment

Procedure
For Process
Adjustment

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Procedure
For System
Improvement

217

Documentation

Documentation process is an activity that ensures that the knowledge


gained by the project team is:

Implemented successfully
Retained by the business
Used to standardize the business processes
Future resources can be trained easily
Improvements can be shared and translated across
Institutionalized

Documentation Levels
Process
Management
System

Core Process

Flowcharts

Procedures

Checklist

Increasing level of detail


Sub Process

Micro Process

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218

SPC

Control Charts

Monitor Changes in the Xs & detect changes that are due to Special Causes
Used when the Xs cannot be mistake proofed or need to be controlled for inherent
variations

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219

Control Charts
Common
Cause/Random Variation

Upper Control Limit

6000
3.0SL=5587
5000
X=4198

4000
3000

-3.0SL=2810
1

2000
Subgroup

Week

10

20

30

40

10/22/00

12/31/00

3/11/01

5/20/01

Special Cause
Variation

Average

Time/Sequence Axis

Lower Control Limit

Select Process, Measures to be charted


Establish Data Collection & sampling plan
Calculate the Statistics
Plot Control Charts(2 Charts for Continuous Data & 1 for Discrete Data)

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220

Interpretation of Variation
How you interpret variation . . .
True Variation Type

Common Causes

Common
Causes

Special
Causes

Focus on systematic
process change

Mistake 2
Under-reacting
(missed prevention)

Special Causes

Mistake 1
Tampering
(increases variation)

Investigate
special causes
for possible
quick-fixes

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221

Selecting Control Charts

Continuous

Discrete

Type Of Data
?

Need To
Detect
Small
Shifts
?

No
Rational

Individuals

Individual Subgroups
Measurements
Or
Subgroups
?

Sample
Size
<10
Yes

Individuals
and Moving Range
Chart

Type Of
Discrete
Data
?

Classification
(defectives)

X and R
Chart

Constant
Sample
Size
?

Yes

Yes

Count
(defects)

Constant
Opportunity
?

No

No

X and S
Chart

p-Chart

np Chart

c-Chart

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u-Chart

222

Work out session Q & A

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223

Selecting Control Charts


1. A team from Marketing is tracking response rates (yes, no) on telemarketing calls. Each day they
randomly sample 100 responses from their outgoing calls. The number of positive responses is
plotted on the chart.

2. The technical support area is monitoring average response time on help requests. Each hour 5
calls are sampled.

3. A team is monitoring the number of applications received each day with incomplete fields. All
applications are being audited. Each day 200-250 applications are received.

4. A team is monitoring the cycle time for the underwriters loan decisions. The data comes in
slowly; that is, one loan is completed daily.

5. A team is tracking the number of fields left blank on an application. Each day a sample of 100
applications is audited.

6. Another team is doing the same thing as the team in example 5 (counting the number of fields left
blank on an application), only they are looking at all the applications that come in daily. Each day
50-100 applications are turned in.

7. The team is tracking the number of abandoned calls to a customer call center in a shift. Each shift
takes from 200-400 calls.

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224

Types of Control Charts


p-Chart

np-Chart

Rejected Items based different Sample sizes

Rejected Items based on constant Sample Size


1

30

3.0SL=0.3324

0.2
P=0.1685
0.1

Number Defectives

Proportion Defective

0.3
1

NP=12.00

10

-3.0SL=3.101

-3.0SL=0.004728

0.0

0
0

10

20

10

u-Chart

Number of Blemishes per unit sq. m of


Artificial Leather

c-Chart
Defects reported on 100 sq. m of Artificial Leather
3.0SL=7.677

7
6
5
4
3

C=2.725

2
1
0

-3.0SL=0.00E+00
10

20

30

Sample Number

40

0.08

Number of Defect/sq. m

20

Sample Number

Sample Number

Number of Defects Reported

3.0SL=20.90

20

3.0SL=0.07520

0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03

U=0.02705

0.02
0.01
0.00

-3.0SL=0.00E+00
0

10

20

30

40

Sample Number

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225

Types of Control Charts

1050

11

1
1

Weight of Each bag

3.0SL=1011

Weight of each bag

I-MR Chart for each bag of raw material.


Individuals Chats for the each bag of raw material

1050

3.0SL=1011

950

X=936.9

850

Subgroup

950

11

-3.0SL=862.8

10

20

30

40

50

X=936.9
1

1
0

10

1
20

30

40

50

Moving Range

850

-3.0SL=862.8

100

3.0SL=90.96

50
R=27.84
0

-3.0SL=0.00E+00

Xbar/R Chart for size of steel


rod(requirement 600+/-3mm)
3.0SL=602.4

602
601

X=600.2

600
599

-3.0SL=598.1

598

Subgroup

Range within
individual
Subgroups of
Samples

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

10

Subgroupl Mean

603

Xbar/S Chart for size of a steel


Rod(Specification 600+-3mm)

3.0SL= 7.866

X=600.2

600
599

-3.0SL=598.6

598
0

10

3
2

R=3.720

3.0SL=601.9

601

Subgroup

20

602

Subgroup
Standard
Deviation

Mean of Subgroups of
Samples Collected

Bags received during the day

20

3.0SL=2.909

S=1.695

-3.0SL=0.00E+00

-3.0SL=0.4808

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226

Examples

Ex1: You work at an automobile engine assembly plant. One of the parts, a
camshaft, must be 600 mm +2 mm long to meet engineering specifications. There
has been a chronic problem with camshaft length being out of specification,
which causes poor-fitting assemblies, resulting in high scrap and rework rates.
Your supervisor wants to run control chart to monitor this characteristic, so for a
month, you collect a total of 100 observations (20 samples of 5 camshafts each)
from all the camshafts used at the plant, and 100 observations from each of your
suppliers

Ex2: You are conducting a study on the blood glucose levels of 9 patients who are
on strict diets and exercise routines. To monitor the mean and standard deviation
of the blood glucose levels of your patients, create a control chart. You take a
blood glucose reading every day for each patient for 20 days

Ex3: As the distribution manager at a limestone quarry, you want to monitor the
weight
(in pounds) and variation in the 45 batches of limestone that are shipped weekly
to an important client. Each batch should weigh approximately 930 pounds
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227

Examples

Ex4: Suppose you work in a plant that manufactures picture tubes for televisions.
For each lot, you pull some of the tubes and do a visual inspection. If a tube has
scratches on the inside, you reject it. If a lot has too many rejects, you do a 100%
inspection on that lot

Ex5: You work in a toy manufacturing company and your job is to inspect the
number of defective bicycle tires. You inspect 200 samples in each lot and then
decide to create a control chart to monitor the number of defectives. To make the
chart easier to present at the next staff meeting, you decide to split the chart by
every 10 inspection lots

Ex6: Suppose you work for a linen manufacturer. Each 100 square yards of fabric
can contain a certain number of blemishes before it is rejected. For quality
purposes, you want to track the number of blemishes per 100 square yards over a
period of several days, to see if your process is behaving predictably

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228

Examples

Ex7: As production manager of a toy manufacturing company, you want


to monitor the number of defects per unit of motorized toy cars. You
inspect 20 units of toys and create a control chart to examine the
number of defects in each unit of toys

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229

Implementation

Elements of Good Implementation planning

Objectives
Incorporation of Pilot learning
Resources & Time Frame
Influence Strategy
Control plan
Documentation

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230

Implementation Strategy

3 2 -P o rt P a tch P a n e l

3 2 -P o rt
P a tc h P a n e l

W or k g ro u p
Hub

S W - W in g , 4 t h - F lr .
C a r d io lo g y N u r s e S t a t io n
3 2 -P o rt P a tch P a n e l

W or k g ro u p
Hub

S E - W i n g , 8 t h - F lr .
O B / G Y N N u r s e S t a t io n
3 2 -P o rt P a tch P a n e l
C is c o 7 5 0 7
M u lti p r o to c o l
R o u te r
C a b l e tr o n M M A C
P lu s C h a s s is

W or k g ro u p
Hub

S E - W in g , 3 r d - F lr .
T I - C A T /M R I N u r s e S t a t i o n

F i b e r P a tc h C o r d s

3 2 -P o rt P a tch P a n e l
6 4 -P o rt
P a tc h P a n e l

W or k g ro u p
Hub

N W - W in g , B s m t . C o m p u te r R o o m
T IT L E

S E - W in g , G n d . - F l r .
E R N u r s e S ta tio n

D E S C R I P T IO N

S a m p le L o g i c a l D i a g r a m

Quality of
solution

A V is i o s a m p l e d r a w in g f il e s h o w i n g t h e a p p l ic a t io n o f s h a p e s f r o m v a r io u s
N e t w o r k E q u i p m e n t s t e n c il s i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a l o g i c a l n e t w o r k d i a g r a m .

S C A LE
R E V IS E D

NT S

DA T E
D RA W N
B Y

1 2 /1 5 / 9 6
JL

Acceptance of
Solution

Effectiveness of Implemented
Solution
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231

Acceptance Strategy
Key constituents Map

Stakeholders Analysis
Stakeholder Analysis
Names

Strongly
Against

Moderately
Against

Neutral

Moderately
Supportive

Associates

SLT

X
X

Quality
SWAT
Team

Identify Stake holders to be addressed first

Stakeholder 1

Stakeholder 2

Stakeholder 3

Identify Stakeholder Support Profile

Influence Strategy
Issue/Concern Identify Wins

Additional Pertinent Information

Customers

Mid
Management

Strongly
Supportive

TPC Analysis
Strategy
Data

Demonstrate

Demand

Determine Influence Strategy

Cause of
resistance

Examples

Ranking

Technical

Political

Cultural

Identify Causes for Stakeholder Resistance

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232

Acceptance Strategy

Key Constituents Map: This tool is used for mapping out the size of the
stakeholder team that would be affected by the change that is going to be
implemented. The tool helps the team identify what should be the right
composition of the implementation team (proportional to the key constituents
map sections). It also helps determine (based on size) the stakeholder that needs
to be addressed first

Stakeholder Analysis: Stakeholder analysis helps provide an insight on the extent


of support/resistance that should be expected by the project team during the
implementation of the project. It also establishes the requirements for successful
implementation for the project team. Using this information the team would be
able to determine which key stakeholders need to be influenced or sought
support from during the implementation

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233

Implement Solution
3 2 -P o r t P a tc h P a n e l

3 2 -P o rt
P a tc h P a n e l

W o rk g ro u p
H ub

S W - W in g , 4 t h - F lr .
C a r d io lo g y N u r s e S ta tio n
3 2 -P o r t P a tc h P a n e l

W o rk g ro u p
H ub

S E - W in g , 8 t h - F l r .
O B /G Y N N u r s e S t a t io n
3 2 -P o r t P a tc h P a n e l
C is c o 7 5 0 7
M u l t ip r o t o c o l
R o u te r
C a b le t r o n M M A C
P lu s C h a s s is

W o rk g ro u p
H ub

S E - W in g , 3 r d - F lr .
T I -C A T /M R I N u r s e S t a t io n

F ib e r P a tc h C o r d s

3 2 -P o r t P a tc h P a n e l
6 4 -P o rt
P a tc h P a n e l

W o rk g ro u p
H ub

N W - W in g , B s m t. C o m p u t e r R o o m
T IT LE

S E - W in g , G n d . - F lr.
E R N u r s e S ta t io n

D E S C R IP T IO N

S a m p le L o g i c a l D ia g r a m

A V is i o s a m p l e d r a w i n g f i l e s h o w i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s h a p e s f r o m v a r i o u s
N e t w o r k E q u i p m e n t s t e n c il s i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a l o g i c a l n e t w o r k d i a g r a m .

S CA LE

NTS

DATE

1 2 /1 5 / 9 6

D RA W N
BY

R E V IS E D

JL

Issue/Concern Identify Wins Strategy


Stakeholder 1

Stakeholder 2

Stakeholder 3

Data

Demonstrate

Demand

+
Project management
tools

Successful
Implementation

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

234

Project Closure

Essentials of Project Closure

Document & Communicate Results


Recommend Translation Opportunities
Evaluate Team success-Results, Process & Relationships
Celebrate
Disband Project Team

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

235

Summary

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

236

Presenter Details:

2010 KPMG, an Indian partnership and a member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated
with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

237