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CALORIFIC VALUE OF FUEL

USING JUNKERS GAS


CALORIMETER

CALORIFIC VALUE OF
FUELS
It is defined as the heat liberated in kJ by

complete combustion of 1 kg of fuel, solid or


liquid.
For gases it is the heat liberated in kJ per
cubic metre at STP.
For example:
Fuel
kJ/kg
kCal/kg
Hydrogen

141900

33900

Butane

49200

11800

Diesel

45000

10700

Anthracite

27000

7800

Wood

15000

3600

Natural Gas

54000

13000

TYPES OF CALORIFIC
VALUES
Higher Calorific Value: It is the total heat

liberated when all the products of combustion are


brought back to pre-combustion temperature and in
particular, condensing any vapour produced. (kJ/kg)
Lower Calorific Value: It is determined by

subtracting the latent heat of vaporization of the


water produced from the Higher Calorific value.
(kJ/kg)
Thus, (HHV)p = (LHV)p + m hfg
(HHV)v = (LHV)v + m(ug uf)

COMPARISON OF HCV
AND LCV
Here is a comparison of HCV and LCV of some

fuels.

FUEL

HCV (MJ/kg)

HCV (kj/mol)

LCV (MJ/kg)

Hydrogen

141.80

286.00

121.00

Butane

49.50

20900

45.75

Gasoline

47.30

44.40

Propane

50.35

2220

46.35

Anthracite

2700

Kerosene

46.20

43.00

Paraffin

46.00

41.50

THE JUNKERS GAS CALORIMETER

APPARATUS
The apparatus mainly consists of a
cylindrical shell with copper coil arranged in
two pass configuration with water inlet and
outlet to circulate through the copper coil, a
pressure regulator, a wet type gas flow meter
& a gas Bunsen burner, temperature sensors
for measuring inlet, outlet water temperature,
and for flue gas temperature and a
measuringjar.

WORKING
PRINCIPLE
This Gas Calorimeter works on the Junker's
principle of burning of a known volume of gas
and imparting the heat with maximum
efficiency to steadily flowing water and finding
out of the rise in temperature of a measured
volume of water.
The formula, Calorific Value of Gas X Volume
of Gas = Volume of water X Rise in
Temperature, is then used to determine the
Calorific Value of the Gas (assuming that heat
capacity of water is unity).

DETERMINATION OF CALORIFIC
VALUE
This Calorimeter covers a wide range between

120 BTU (1000 to 26000 K Cal/m3).


The Calorimeter is fixed on a tripod stand
having levelling screws to keep the
Calorimeter in perfectly verticalposition.
A constant water head maintenance device
provided in the feed water pipe along with the
inlet water flow regulator is fixed to the outer
housing ofthe calorimeter.

PROCEDURE(Contd.)
The gas source is connected to the pressure

regulator, gas flow meter and the burner


respectively in series.
The water and gas flows are started to flow at
a constant rate and the burner is lighted
outside the calorimeter.
The gas flow is regulated at a steady state to
any designed flow (volume).
The burner is inserted into the calorimeter
and the outlet water is allowed to attain a
steady temperature.

PROCEDURE(Contd.)
The outlet is let into a 1000mL flask and

started and the initial gas flow rate is noted.


The time taken for the 1000mL flask to be
filled and the final gas flow rate is also noted.

FORMULA TO BE USED
CVg=( Vw x w x CPw x T ) / Vg x g
where
w is the density of water
Vw is the volume of water collected in
litres
CPw is the specific heat of water
T is the change in temp. of water
Vg is the volume of gas burnt in litres
g is the density of the gas burnt

APPLICATIONS
Petroleum Industries
Coke Oven Batteries
Thermal Power Houses
Cement Industries
Fuel Gas Producers & Consumers
Steel Plants
Fertilizer Units