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CIE 678 Group 4

Alexandra Lynae Marple
Omkar Ajay Mohitepatil
Satya Bhargav Chowdary Medikonda

1. Quick overview of foundation types
2. Need for seismic retrofit
3. Evaluation of foundations
4. Foundation capacity testing
5. Goals of foundation rehabilitation
6. Soil material improvements
7. Shallow foundation retrofit
8. Deep foundation retrofit
9. Foundation of a bridge

Foundation types
Pile Footing

Spread footing

Drilled footing

Why seismic retrofit?

New structures versus old

Modern design technologies

Foundation and anchorage is a

Retrofit of superstructure is
more common. Why?
1. Foundation rehabilitation is

2. Little loss of life or damage
resulting from foundation failure
Bottom line: if a structure can

be made seismically safe

without retrofitting the
foundation, the rehabilitation will
be simpler and much less

Evaluation of foundations
One of the most difficult areas of seismic

Must perform extensive analysis to fully understand
interactions between foundation and superstructure
with the surrounding soil under earthquake loading.
Assumptions made can cause widely varying
Previously, emphasis was on strength capacity.
However, amount of soil movement is more critical

Estimating foundation capacity

As-built capacity may vary from design capacity
In-situ testing
Plate bearing tests
Performed on shallow foundations
Provides estimation of load-deformation characteristics of soil


Static load tests

Performed on deep foundations
May be used in tension or compression
Provides estimation of load-deformation characteristics of deep
foundation elements

Plate Bearing Test

Requires access to

bottom of foundation
Access pit with tunnel
dug underneath
Place bearing plates and
hydraulic jack
Impose load on soil
below lower bearing
Measure resulting
Best used on stiff clays
or sandy or gravelly soil

Static load tests

More often used on

new deep foundations

Determines axial
Installation procedures
can affect capacities
of new micropiles
May be used on new
drilled piers installed
as part of retrofit
Figure at right is for
compression setup

Static load tests (continued)

Figure at right is for

tension setup
Interpretation of loaddeformation results
done in two phases
1. axial capacity in

tension or
2. interpret axial
capacity relative to
known foundation

Goals of foundation rehabilitation

Goals of evaluation:
Identify deficiencies
Determine likelihood of deficiency causing problem
Establish resulting hazard possible if seismic event occurs
First step: Identify foundation mechanism
Resulting goals:
1. Provide sufficient strength, stiffness, and ductility for compression,
tension, and lateral loading
2. Identify a defined and ductile mechanism of energy dissipation
3. Minimize gravity stress redistribution within the existing foundation
Factors to be considered:
. Effect of new foundation on old foundation
. Relative lower stiffness of unconsolidated soil under new foundations versus
that of old.

Building foundation retrofit methods

Soil material improvements
Shallow foundation rehabilitation
Footing enlargement
Addition of new footings
Deep foundation rehabilitation
Shallow concrete mat
Driven piles
Addition of RC extension

Soil material improvements

Improvement in vertical bearing capacity of

footing foundations.
Increase in the lateral frictional resistance
at the base of footings.
Increase in the passive resistance of the
soils adjacent to foundation or grade

General types of grouting

1. Cement grouting
2. Chemical grouting
3. Compaction grouting
4. Fracture grouting
5. Jet grouting
6. Polyurethane grouting

Cement grouting

Chemical grouting

Compaction grouting


Fracture grouting

Jet grouting

Polyurethane grouting


What happens after ground is improved?

1. Bearing capacity of the soil is increased
2. Prevents further settlement of soil
3. Provides stability to the ground
4. Reduces seepage
5. Reduces settling of the structural


Shallow foundation retrofit methods

Existing footings may be enlarged


Shallow foundation retrofit (continued)

Addition of new footings

Techniques for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. 2006. Chapter 23

Shallow foundation retrofit (continued)

Under pinning of the footing

ASCE 41-06, Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings

Deep foundation retrofit methods

Provide a shallow mat

Techniques for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. 2006. Chapter 23

Deep foundation retrofit (continued)

Driven piles made of

concrete or steel

Techniques for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. 2006. Chapter 23

Deep foundation retrofit (continued)

Uplift forces can be overcome by

increasing the resisting soil mass above

the footing or by pouring an integral slab to
increase shear and moment capacity.
Differential lateral displacement of different
locations of the foundation can be
mitigated by providing interconnection with
grade beams and reinforced grade slab or

Reminders for building foundation retrofit

Detailed Analysis
Check requirements and feasibility
Eliminate unwanted and

unsymmetrical loading
Load should be transferred from top to
bottom elements

Rehabilitation of bridge foundation

Extended footing
Footing Tiedowns
Cast-in-Drilled-Hole Piles
Drilled Piles
Ground improvement

Bridge foundation retrofit methods

Extended footing

Bridge foundation retrofit methods

Footing Tie-Downs

Bridge foundation retrofit methods

Cast-in-drilled-hole piles

Bridge foundation retrofit methods

Drilled piles

Ground Improvement

Bridge abutment retrofit methods

Friction Slab
Abutment drag Slab
Abutment tiebacks

Friction Slab

Abutment drab slabs

Abutment Tie-Back

Foundation retrofit methods are complex and expensive
Tests such as plate bearing test and static load test can

be used to determine actual foundation capacity

Methods for building foundation retrofit include:
Soil improvement
Shallow foundation retrofit methods
Deep foundation retrofit methods

Methods for bridge foundation retrofit include:

Extended footing
Footing Tiedowns
Cast-in-Drilled-Hole Piles
Drilled Piles
Ground improvement

[1] ASCE 41-06. Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. 2007.

[2] CalTrans. Bridge Seismic Retrofit and Strengthening. 2009.

[3] D.C. Rai. Review of Documents on Seismic Strengthening of Existing Buildings. IIT Kanpur, 2007.

[4] D. W. Look, T. Wong, S.R. Augustus. The Seismic Retrofit of Historic Buildings: Keeping Preservation in the

Forefront. NPS, 1997.

[5] FEMA. Techniques for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. 2006. Chapter 23.

[6] FHA. Seismic Design and Retrofit Manual for Highway Bridges. US Department of Transportation, 1987.

[7] Indian Building Congress. Handbook on Seismic Retrofit of Buildings. 2007. Chapter 12.

[8] R. Aboutaha, F. Jnaid, S. Soutoud, M. Tapan. Final Report: Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Deteriorated

Concrete Bridge Components. Syracuse University, 2013.

[9] S. Rizkalla. Rehabilitation of Structures and Bridges. ISIS Canada, 1998.

[10] T. B. Jackson. Bridge Inspection and Rehabilitation: A Practical Guide. Chapter 12: Seismic Retrofitting of

Highway Bridges. John Wiley & Sons, 1993.