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Prepared by;
Emedya Murniwaty Samsudin,
Department of Construction Engineering & Architecture
Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UTHM


Sustainability of economic, development and social

Components of Sustainable frameworks
Sustainable project development and challenges.
Sustainable construction concept,
Advantages and Disadvantages
Sustainable Design elements, construction (IBS etc)
and principles
Green rating tools GBI, LEED, GREENSTAR,


Sustainable: the ability to

maintain at certain rate or
For development/
exploitation or agricultural
sustainable means
Conserving an ecological
by avoiding depletion of
natural resources
Achieving sustainability will
enable the earth to continue
supporting human life.

Introduction to Sustainable

The concept of sustainability -people

and their communities are made up of
social, economic, and environmental
systems that are in constant interaction
and that must be kept in harmony or
balance if the community is to continue
to function to the benefit of its
inhabitants now and in the future.
Human action is the primary cause of
the rapid degradation of nature.
Planners, environmentalists, architects,
engineers, policy makers and
economists have to work together in an
integrated way and in accordance with
the principles of sustainability.

Introduction to Sustainable

The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development fleshes out the

definition by listing 18 principles of sustainability:1) People are entitled to a healthy and
productive life in harmony with nature.
2) Development today must not
undermine the development and
environment needs of present and
future generations.
3) Nations have the sovereign right to
exploit their own resources, but
without causing environmental
damage beyond their borders.
4) Nations shall develop international
laws to provide compensation for
damage that activities under their
control cause to areas beyond their

Introduction to Sustainable

5) Nations shall use the precautionary approach to protect the

environment. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage,
scientific uncertainty shall not be used to postpone cost-effective
measures to prevent environmental degradation.
6) In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection
shall constitute an integral part of the development process, and cannot
be considered in isolation from it. Eradicating poverty and reducing
disparities in living standards in different parts of the world are essential
to achieve sustainable development and meet the needs of the majority
of people.
7) Nations shall cooperate to conserve, protect and restore the health and
integrity of the Earth's ecosystem. The developed countries
acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit
of sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place
on the global environment and of the technologies and financial
resources they command.
8) Nations should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of
production and consumption, and promote appropriate demographic

Introduction to Sustainable

Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all

concerned citizens. Nations shall facilitate and encourage public
awareness and participation by making environmental information
widely available.
10) Nations shall enact effective environmental laws, and develop
national law regarding liability for the victims of pollution and other
environmental damage. Where they have authority, nations shall
assess the environmental impact of proposed activities that are likely
to have a significant adverse impact.
11) Nations should cooperate to promote an open international
economic system that will lead to economic growth and sustainable
development in all countries. Environmental policies should not be
used as an unjustifiable means of restricting international trade.
12) The polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution.
13) Nations shall warn one another of natural disasters or activities that
may have harmful transboundary impacts.

Introduction to Sustainable
14) Sustainable development requires better scientific understanding
of the problems.
15) Nations should share knowledge and innovative technologies to
achieve the goal of sustainability.
16) Sustainable development requires better scientific understanding
of the problems. Nations should share knowledge and innovative
technologies to achieve the goal of sustainability.
17) The full participation of women is essential to achieve sustainable
development. The creativity, ideals and courage of youth and the
knowledge of indigenous people are needed too. Nations should
recognize and support the identity, culture and interests of
indigenous people.
18) Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development, and
Nations shall respect international laws protecting the environment
in times of armed conflict, and shall cooperate in their further

The Interpretation of the Principles of

Sustainability Development
The Principles of
Sustainable Development

The Interpretation of Sustainability Principles

within Construction Industry

Putting people at the centre

Show concern for people by ensuring they live in a healthy,

safe and productive built environment and in harmony with

Taking a long term perspective

Safeguarding the interests of future generations while at the

same time, meeting todays needs

Taking account of costs and


Evaluate the benefits and costs of the project to society and


Creating an open and supportive

economic system

Creating a system which can flourish trades, improve

collaboration and resource efficiency

Combating poverty and social


Improving the quality of buildings and services, create jobs

opportunities and promote social cohesiveness

Respecting environmental limits

Minimising damage to the environment and its resources

The precautionary principle

Assessing risk and uncertainties before any action and rectify

possible damage at source.

Using scientific knowledge

Using technology and expert knowledge to seek information

and in improving project efficiency and effectiveness

Transparency, information
participation and access to justice

Opportunities to improve access to information and

encourage ethics and professionalism

Making the polluter pay

Legislation compliance and responsibility

Introduction to Sustainable

Humanity has the ability to make development sustainableto

ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising

the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
The United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland
Commission), sustainable, in their widely cited report, Our Common Future (1987).

Introduction to Sustainable
Sustainable development comprises of three broad themes:

Economic Sustainability

Definition: The term used to

identify various strategies that
make it possible to use available
resources to their best
The idea is to promote the use of
those resources in a way that is
both efficient and responsible,
and likely to provide long-term
In the case of a business
operation, it calls for using
resources so that the business
continues to function over a
number of years, while
consistently returning a profit.

Economic Sustainability

Objectives for economic

sustainability are to:
1. Consider life-cycle cost
2. Internalize external costs
3. Consider alternative
financing mechanism
4. Develop appropriate
economic instruments to
promote sustainable
5. Consider the economic
impact on local structure.


It is about making responsible decisions

in reducing the amount of waste produce
or using less energy, but is concerned
with developing processes that will lead
to businesses becoming completely
sustainable in the future.
responding to the needs of people at
whatever stage of involvement in the
construction process, providing high
customer satisfaction and working closely
with clients, suppliers, employees and
local communities.

preventing harmful and potential irreversible effects on the

environment by careful use of natural resources, minimizing
waste, protecting and where possible enhancing environment.


Environmental sustainability involves making

decisions and taking action that are in the
interests of protecting the natural world, with
particular emphasis on preserving the capability
of the environment to support human life.

Objectives for Environmental Sustainability are to:

1. Increase materials efficiency by reducing the material demand of nonrenewable goods.
2. Reduce the materials intensity via substitution technologies
3. Enhance materials recyclability
4. Reduce and control the use of dispersion of toxic materials
5. Reduce the energy required for transforming goods and supplying services.
6. Support the instruments of international conventions and agreements.
7. Maximize the sustainable use of biological and renewable resources
8. Consider the impact of planned projects on air, soil, water, flora and fauna.

Social Sustainability

Social sustainability
encompass human rights,
labor rights and corporate
Environmental +social
sustainability= future
generations should have the
same or greater access to
social resources as the current
generations ("intergenerational equity"), while
there should also be equal
access to social resources
within the current generation
("intra-generational equity").

Social Sustainability

Relate to the distribution of wealth

and services within and between
generations as well as the
distribution of rights to use
environmental services contained
within a given ecosystem.
Objectives of social responsibility
are 1.
to: Enhance a participatory approaches by involving

Promote public participation
Promote the development of appropriate institutional
Consider the influence of the existing social framework
Assess the impact on health and the quality of life

Introduction to Sustainable
We have now reached a critical
juncture in time where Engineers need to
review, change and adapt our practices
so that the built environment will not be
at the expense of, but in harmony with
the natural environment. This is the
essence of sustainable development.
Dato Sri Prof Ir. Dr. Judin bin Abdul Karim
The Ingenieur, Vol 44, Dec 2009-Feb 2010

Introduction to Sustainable

Engineers credited for their

contributions in providing the
necessary infrastructure resulted
in improving the quality of life for
modern society.
The integrated and complex
infrastructure systems or the
built environment provided at
the expense of the natural
Sustainable development - key to
ensuring that the Earth continues
to support and sustain life for us
today and for future generations.

Introduction to Sustainable

The term sustainable construction

was originally proposed to describe the
responsibility of the construction
industry in attaining sustainability.
Sustainable construction means
creating a healthy build environment
using resource-efficient, ecologicallybased principles.

Introduction to Sustainable

Sustainable Construction is all about

Building a Better Quality of Life.
Sustainable Construction can be achieve by:
1. design for minimum waste
2. lean construction & minimize waste
3. minimize energy in construction & use
4. do not pollute
5. preserve & enhance biodiversity
6. conserve water resources
7. respect people & local environment
8. monitor & report, (i.e. use benchmarks)

Introduction to Sustainable

Construction process

Utilization or earth
resources for the
production of
materials (e.g. fossil,
wood, cement,
hydrogen, air, water,
ore etc.)
to/from factory
involving fuel
consumption and
causing pollution and
green house


Clearing of forest,
and land for
pollution (air,
water, land)
High Solid waste

Contributing to:
High energy
High CO2
Large water
Large Solid

Introduction to Sustainable

Impacts of Construction
Activities to the
Solid Wastes

construction projects generally generate tonnes of waste

include demolition material, concrete, bricks, timber,
plastic, glass, metals, bitumen, etc
usually disposed to a landfill

Impacts of Construction
Activities to the
Air pollution

burning of waste, the emission of

dust and smoke, and the emission
of chemical impurities such as
heavy metals, acid and other toxic
effects are on human health,
aesthetic values (sight and smell)
adjacent land uses, temperature
modification and humidity changes
increased dust and airborne
emissions of construction
equipment and vehicles
Emission from demolition works

Impacts of Construction
Activities to the
Water Pollution
potential for soil erosion and
impacts on water quality
removal of vegetation for initial
clearing/grading activities
exposes soil, susceptible to

Impacts of Construction
Activities to the
Depletion of resources
loss of important natural assets
and imposes severe stress on
the environment
agricultural land is often lost
through urbanization
many raw materials used in
construction are limited

Impacts of Construction
Activities to the
Noise and vibration
noise and vibration would be generated by
various activities and equipment
adverse impact resulting from construction
noise and vibration are expected

Project Management vs

(source: adapted from Silvius and Schipper, 2011)

Project Management vs
Sustainable Development
The definitions of a project and
project management seem to be at
odds with the definitions of
sustainable development that aim to
recognise the long-term nature of
environmental or societal impacts
arising from business activities.

Sustainable project management is

a response to the realisation that
The concept of sustainable project many of the current project
management frameworks do not
management (or Green Project
Management in the U.S.) is relatively effectively address the three goals
of sustainable development, i.e.,
new, but its role in contributing to
social equity, economic efficiency
sustainable development is
and environmental performance.
increasingly gaining interest
amongst project management
practitioners and industry bodies.

Sustainable Project

Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP) 2006-2015 introduced

by Construction Industry Development Board, (CIDB) lining their
7th Strategic Thrusts
The CIMP is also intended to ensure that the construction
industry is well positioned to support the nation's overall
economic growth and in meeting various challenges, such as the
need to enhance productivity and quality along the entire
construction industry value chain.
The CIMP is a comprehensive plan charting the strategic position
and future direction of the Malaysian construction industry over
the next 10 years.
It is intended to provide industry stakeholders with a clear
direction of the Malaysian construction industry through its
clearly defined vision, mission, critical success factors, strategic
thrusts, recommendations and action plans

Sustainable Project Development:

The 7 Strategic Thrusts-CIDB

Strategic Thrust 1: Integrate the construction industry

value chain to enhance productivity and efficiency
Strategic Thrust 2: Strengthen the construction industry
Strategic Thrust 3: Strive for the highest standard of
quality, occupational safety and health and environmental
Strategic Thrust 4: Develop human resources
capabilities and capacities in the construction industry
Strategic Thrust 5: Innovate through research and
development and adopt new construction methods
Strategic Thrust 6: Leverage on information and
communications technology in the construction industry
Strategic Thrust 7: Benefit from globalization including
the export of construction products and services

Sustainable Project
Development in Malaysia

Malaysias initiative for sustainable

development started with the formation of:

National Energy Policy 1979 (NEP79),

National Depletion Policy 1980 (NDP80)
Four Fuel Diversification Policy 1981 (4FDP81)
Fifth Fuel Policy 2000 (5FP2000)

Manifesto by the Malaysian Government in

showing their seriousness in implementing
green initiative: National Green Technology
Policy (NGTP), 2009.

Sustainable Project
Development in Malaysia

For building industry Malaysian Government promotes the

application of :
Renewable energy (RE)
Energy Efficient (EE)
Green Building Index (GBI)
Projects that exhibits energy efficiency and other criteria
for green building constructed in Malaysia

Green Energy Office

(GEO) building, MTGC,

Energy Efficiency Building,

Suruhanjaya Tenaga,
Low Energy Office (LEO)
Building, MEGTWs building,Putrajaya Malaysias GBI
Platinum Rating Building

Concept of Sustainability

Concept of Sustainability

Concept of Sustainability

Concept of Sustainability

Sustainability and green concept in construction is

focusing on providing services for better quality of life and
The six criteria for this concept focusing on:
Energy Efficiency Strategy
ii. Indoor Environmental Quality
iii. Sustainable Site Planning and Management
iv. Materials and Resources
Water Efficiency
vi. Innovation.
In Malaysia, there is currently no policy which mandates a
sustainable building; the closest we have is the MS
1525:2007 which is the Code of Practice on Energy
Efficiency and the Use of Renewable Energy for NonResidential Buildings.

Advantages & Disadvantages

1. Economy :
Environmental :
a. Higher initial cost than
a. improve air and water quality
ordinary building
b. Reduce energy
Lack of experiences
c. Water consumption
d. Reduce waste disposal
Economy :
a. Reduce operating costs
b. Reduce maintenance costs
c. Increasing sale prices and rent
Health / Community :
comfort, health and reduce

Others Benefits from

Sustainable Construction

more comfortable and far healthier living environment,

reduced overall living expenses,
fewer repairs and maintenance,
higher resale values
better place to leave our children and grandchildren.
Involves local people and provides them with rewarding,
immediate work, income, and education
Preserves functionality and diversity of system while
providing a wide range of economic benefits
Promotes the diversification of forest products including
non-wood forest products (NWFPs)
Preserves the natural services provided by forests
Provides a site for indigenous peoples in the society , free
market society should they choose

Scarifies needed
Current generations must :
1. preserve the future, you can not splurge all at a time
because you have to respect the renewal fees on appeal.
Example: Do not kill the small fish as they have to grow and if
you have to do it to the big.

2. Use what you need and nothing more and save for the
future the things that you dont use
Example: If you extract too much water too fast, the tank is
dry. Be recharged with water from rainfall and groundwater
sources, but does so slowly. Therefore, we must uphold that
reload speed, not to undermine the source, because otherwise
in a few years we will be left without water there.

End of Chapter 1
(Part 1)