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Direction

Direction :The process of telling a person what to do.


According to Dale, direction is telling people what to do and seeing
that they do it to the best of their ability. It is through directing that
managers get the work done through people.
It consists of:
Issuing orders and instructions by a superior to his subordinates
(Communication).
Guiding, advising and helping subordinates in the proper methods of
work (Leadership).
Motivating them to achieve goals by providing incentives, good
working environment, etc. (Motivation).
Supervising subordinates to ensure compliance with plans
(Supervision).

Features:

Deals with people


Seeks performance
Provides a link
Pervasive
Dynamic and continuous

Principles of Direction
Principle of harmony of objectives
Principle of unify of command (receive command from only one boss
or superior)
Principle of direct supervision
Appropriate techniques (democratic and autocratic style)
Managerial communication (two way communication)
Informal organization
Principle of maximum individual contribution
Use of motivation techniques
Principle of follow-up (never-ending activity)

Elements of Direction (Newmann)


issuing orders and instructions to subordinates,
follow-up of instructions,
explanations,
consultative direction.

Motivation: It is a process of stimulating people to action to


accomplish desired goals. According to Scott, motivation is a
process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals.
The word motivation has been derived from the word motive which
means any idea, need or emotion which proms a person in to action.
According to Dubin, motivation is the complex of forces starting and
keeping a person at work in an organization.
The process of motivation is characterized by the following:
Motivation is an internal feeling
Motivation is produces goal-directed behavior
Motivation contains systems orientation
Motivation can be either positive or negative
Motivation means bargaining

Motivation process

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory: Abraham Maslows form


this theory of motivation during the 1940s. Maslows acknowledge
that people have multiple needs. It is based on five categories.
Social
Safety
Esteemneed
Physiological
and
need
security
need need

Physiological needs: are the essential of survival. They include food,


clothing, water, shelter, sex etc.
Safety and security need: include the needs for protection against
physical and psychological threats in the environment and confidence
that physiological needs will be met in the future. E.g., bank
deposits, buying an insurance policy, seeking a secure job with a
pension plan etc.
Social needs: sometimes call the needs for affiliation, includes a
feeling of belonging, of being accepted by others or interacting
socially and receiving affection and support.
Esteem need: includes self respect, achievement, competence (or
capability), respect of others and recognition.
Self actualization: includes fulfillment of ones potential for
continued self-development and growth as a person.

Alderfers ERG Model: Clayton Alderfers modified need hierarchy


collapse Maslows five hierarchical levels into three: Existence,
Relatedness and Growth (ERG).

Physiological
safety

Social needs

Esteem selfactualization needs

Existence needs

Relatedness needs

Growth needs

Needs required to
preserve human
life. They include
all of what
Maslow termed as
physiological
needs relating to
material safety.

They refer to all socially


intended needs, i.e., how
people relate to their
surroundings social
environment. These include
the need for meaningful
social and interpersonal
relationships.

They reflect the


individuals desire to
be self-confident,
productive and
creative; the desire to
engage in tasks that
require the full
utilization of abilities
and that develop
additional

Achievement motivation theory (or Three needs theory)


David C. McClelland, studied this phenomenon for over twenty years
at Harvard University and proposed achievement theory.
According to McClelland, achievement, power and affiliation are
three important needs that help to understand human motivation in
organization setting.
Power need: this is the need to dominate, influence and control
people.
Affiliation need: need for affiliation is a social need, for
companionship and support, for developing meaningful relationships
with people. Here the person is concern with forming friendly
relations with others and a desire to help others.
Achievement need: need for challenges, for personal
accomplishment and success in competitive situations. It confer
status, but with process of carry work to its successful competition.

Herzbergs Two Factor Theory (or Herzberg motivation hygiene


theory)
During the late 195 0s Frederick Herzberg and its associates
develops a need based model of motivation.
Herzberg research team asked 200 engineers (or manager) and
accountants of a large company to respond to their two questions:
can you describe, in detail when you felt exceptionally good about your
job?
can you describe in detail, when you felt exceptionally good about your
job?
The responses could be grouped in to two general categories which he
called hygiene factors and motivation.
This model is based on two factors:
1. Maintenance or hygiene factors: represent the need to avid pain in
the environment. They are related to the conditions under which a job
is performed. It is related to negative feelings of the employees.
2. Motivational factors: it is associated with positive feelings of
employees about the job. They are related to the content of the job.
They make people satisfied with their job.

Herzbergs Motivation-Maintenance Factors

Hygiene Factors
Company Policy and Administration
Relationship with Supervisors
Work Conditions
Salary
Relationship with Peers
Personal Life
Relationship with Subordinates
Status
Security
Supervision

Motivational Factors
Achievement
Recognition
Work Itself
Responsibility
Advancement
Growth

Difference between Maslows and Herzberg Theories


B asis
Motivational factors

Maslow
Self actualization
Esteem need

Herzberg
Challenging work
Achievement
Advertisement,
recognition

Social needs
Safety needs
Physiological needs

Interpersonal
relationships
Policy and Administration
Supervision
Security
Salary
Working conditions
Incentives

Hygiene factors

Theory X
It contends that people have that people have an inherent dislike of
work.
They avoid the work.
Most people, being lazy, prefer to be directed, want to avoid
responsibility and are relatively unambitious.
Managers have to be strict and authoritarian.
X theory assumes that lower-order needs (Maslow) dominate human
behavior.
Money fringe benefits and threats of punishment play a great role in
putting people on the right track, under this classification scheme.

Theory Y
Y presents a much more optimistic view of human nature.
It assumes that people are not, by nature lazy and unreliable.
They will direct themselves towards objectives if their achievements
are rewarded.
If the organizational climate is conducive, people are eager to work;
and they derive a great deal of satisfaction from work, and they are
capable of doing a good job.

Theory Z
In early 8 0s, this theory proposed by William Ouchi.
The strengths of Japanese management (social cohesion, job security,
concern for employees) as well as American management (speedy
decision making, risk taking skills, innovation and creativity) and
proposes a mixed US-Japanese management system for modern
organizations.
It includes several characteristics like trustworthy environment,
organization-employee relationship, employee participation,
structureless organization.

Chris Argyris theory of M aturity- I mmaturity


Immaturity

Matuurity

Passivity, dependence

Activity, independence

Few ways behaving

Diverse behavior

Shallow interest

Deep interest

Short term perspective

Long term perspective

Subordinate position

Superordinate position

Lack of self awareness

Self awareness & control

Equity theory: This theory clearly revealed that unpaid workers were
less productive than equitably paid workers and overpaid workers
were more productive than equitably paid workers.

Reinforcement

1.

2.

3.
4.

theory, states that behavior that results in rewarding


consequences is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that results in
punishing consequences is less likely to be repeated. There are four types of
reinforcement:
Positive reinforcement- A method of strengthening behavior with rewards
or positive outcomes after a desired behavior is performed. E.g., immediate
praise for an employee who arrives on the time and completes the assigned
work (A pat on the back).
N egative reinforcement- termed as avoidance learning, occurs when an
unpleasant or undesirable situations is removed or withdrawn following
some behavior. E.g., A supervisor may continually reprimand and harass an
employee until the employee begins performing a job correctly, the point at
which the harassment stops, if the employees continues to perform the job
correctly in future, then the removal of unpleasant situations ( the
harassment) is said to have negatively reinforce effective job performance.
Extinction- is an effective way to control undesirable behavior. If a teacher
ignores a noisy student, the student may drop the attention getting behavior.
Punishment- is a control device employed in organizations to discourage
and reduce annoying behaviors of others. Punishment reduces the
frequency of, it weakens behavior.

V ROOMS V ALA N CE EXPECTA N C Y THEORY :


M (Motivational force) = (E * I * V ) (Expectancy, Instrumentality, V
alence)

Vroom offered an expectancy approach to the understanding of


motivation. According to him, a persons motivation towards an action at
any time would be determine by his anticipated values of all the outcomes.
Expectancy (effort reward probability): This is a persons perception of the
likelihood that a particular outcome will result from a particular action (or
behavior).
Instrumentality (performance reward probability):
-It refers to the relationship between performance and reward.
-It is the answer to such question Will I be rewarded if I perform the job
well ?
-This factor relates o a persons beliefs and expectations that his performance
will lead to a particular outcome or reward.
-It is the degree o association of first level outcome of a particular efforts to
the second level outcome which is the ultimate reward.

Valence :
People have preferences (valences) for various outcomes or
incentives that are potentially available to them.
V alence refers to the personal value workers place on the
rewards they believe they will receive for performing.
It is not the actual value of reward, but the perceptual value of the
reward in the mind of the workers i.e., important.
People have different valence (value) for various outcomes. It is
influenced by conditions such as age education and type of work.
The valence of a person may be + ve or ve depending upon his +
ve or ve preference for his goal.