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INTRODUCTIO

N TO NURSING
THEORY
Prepared By: JOEL C. ESTACIO, RN, RM, MANc

WHAT IS NURSING?

Henderson

To assist clients (sick or well) in the


performance of activities contributing to
health, its recovery or peaceful death
that clients will perform unaided, if they
had the necessary will, strength or
knowledge.

ANA, 1980

Nursing is the diagnosis and treatment


of human responses to actual or
potential health problems

International Council of
Nurses/ICN

Nursing encompasses autonomous and


collaborative care of individuals of all
ages, families, groups, and communities
sick or well and in all settings.

Association of Deans of
Philippine Colleges of Nursing
(ADPCN)

Nursing is a Dynamic Discipline. It is an


Art and Science at caring for individuals,
families, groups, and communities
geared toward promotion and
restoration of health, prevention of
illness, alleviation of suffering, and
assisting clients to face Death with
dignity and peace

Nursing is involved in identifying


its own unique knowledge base
that is, the body of knowledge
essential to nursing practice, or
so-called nursing science. To
identify this knowledge base,
nurses must develop and
recognize concepts and theories
that are specific to nursing.

WHAT IS
THEORY?

KERLINGER
A set of interrelated concepts, definitions,
and propositions that present a
systematic way of viewing phenomenon
by specifying relations among the
variables with the purpose of explaining,
describing, and predicting the
phenomenon

CONCEPT idea formulated by the mind or an


experience perceived and observed such as
justice, love, war, and disease
PROPOSITION explains the relationships of
different concepts.
DEFINITION composed of various descriptions
which convey a general meaning and reduce the
vagueness in understanding a set of concepts.
ASSUMPTION a statement that specify the
relationship or connection of factual concepts or
phenomena.

NURSING THEORY
~ a group of interrelated concepts that are
developed from various studies of
disciplines and related experiences
which aims to view the essence of
nursing care.

NURSING THEORY

An articulated and communicated


conceptualization of invented or
discovered reality (central phenomena
and relationships) in or pertaining to
nursing for the purpose of describing,
explaining, predicting, or prescribing
nursing care.

THE METAPARADIGM
OF NURSING

TYPES OF THEORIES
DESCRIPTIVE
EXPLANATORY
PREDICTIVE
PRESCRIPTIVE

DESCRIPTIVE
THEORIES
AKA: Factor-Isolating theories
Identify and describe major concepts of
phenomena
To know the properties and workings of
a discipline
EX. A descriptive research about the
Filipino nursing practices like use of
herbal medicines and other alternative
forms of treatment.

EXPLANATORY
THEORIES
AKA: Factor-Relating Theories
Present relationship among concepts
and propositions
Present How and Why concepts are
related
Ex. A research study about the factors
affecting newborns on failing to thrive

PREDICTIVE THEORIES
AKA: Situation-Relating theories
Achieved when the relationships of
concepts under a certain condition are
able to describe future outcomes
consistently.
Ex. A theoretical model based on the
observation of the effects of unsanitary
environmental condition on the recovery
of postoperative clients.

PRESCRIPTIVE
THEORIES
AKA: Situation-Producing Theories
Deal with nursing actions, and test the
validity and certainty of a specific nursing
intervention
To identify under which conditions
relationships occur
Ex. Laurentes theory validates and explains
the different nursing management in the
emergency room in relieving anxiety among
clients.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A
THEORY
1.

2.
3.
4.

Can correlate concepts in such a way


as to generate a different way of looking
at a certain fact or phenomenon
Logical in nature
Simple but generally broad in nature
Can be the source of hypotheses that
can be tested for it to be elaborated

CHARACTERISTICS OF A
THEORY
4.

5.
6.

Contribute in enriching the general


body of knowledge through the studies
implemented to validate them
Can be used by practitioners to direct
and enhance their practice
Must be consistent with other validated
theories, laws and principles but will
leave open, unanswered issues that
need to be tested

CONCEPTUAL OR
THEORETICAL?

Representations of an idea
or body of knowledge
based on the own
understanding or
perception of a person or
researcher on a certain
topic, phenomena or
theory.
It is a structure of concepts
or theories which are pulled
together as a map for the
study.

CONCEPTUAL MODEL

Highly established set of


concepts that are testable.
It is a structure of
concepts which exist or
tested in the literature, a
ready-made map for the
study.
THEORETICAL MODEL

DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS

COMPARABLE TO
DEFINITION FROM A
LITERATURE SUCH AS
A DICTIONARY,
ENCYCLOPEDIA, AND
JOURNALS.
The time during which a
person is a registered
patient in a certain
hospital
CONCEPTUAL

SPECIFIES EXACTLY HOW


THE CONCEPT WILL BE
DETERMINED AND
ASSESSED. IT ALSO
IDENTIFIES PROCEDURES
AND OPERATIONS
SIGNIFICANT TO
DETERMINE CONCEPTS
The total of days as patient,
beginning with admission day
and finishing with discharge.

OPERATIONAL

SCIENTIFIC
METHOD

OBSERVATION
GATHERING INFORMATION/DATA
FORMING HYPOTHESIS
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
CONCLUSION OR THEORETICAL
EXPLANATION

Integration of knowledge and/or


phenomenon by a rational/sentinent
being.

Example: Elmer, a nurse-researcher


observes a certain nursing phenomena
and makes a study about it.

An attempt to explain or suggest a


nature of a phenomenon

Example: The researchers make an


intelligent guess on the nature of the
phenomenon.

Set of examinations done to solve the


particular query raised through the
hypothesis process.

Example: The researchers conducts a


survey and interview and apply
statistical treatment on the data.

Recognition and collecting data for a


particular scientific problem or inquiry.

Example: The researchers collect


information that are related to the
problem from currently existing
literatures.

A statement explaining a set of natural


phenomena or a scientific query derived
from experimental investigation

Example: Based from the analyzed data,


the researchers draw a conclusion. As
new data emerges, the study is reexamined and verified.

KNOWLEDGE

Information, skills, and expertise


acquired by a person through various
life experiences, or through
formal/informal learning such as formal
education, self-study, vocational.

TYPES of COGNITIVE
PROCESS

PERCEPTION Achieving understanding of


sensory data
ASSOCIATION Combining two or more
concepts/ideas to form a new concept, or for
comparison.
LEARNING Acquiring experience, skills,
information and values
REASONING mental process of seeking
conclusions through reason
COMMUNICATION transferring data from
sender to receiver using different mediums
or tools of communication

SOURCES OF
KNOWLEDGE

TRADITIONAL
AUTHORITATIVE
SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

TRADITIONAL
KNOWLEDGE

Nursing practice passed down from


generation to generation
Its always been practiced this way
Example: Routine changing of bed
linens whether it is soiled or not

AUTHORITATIVE
KNOWLEDGE

An idea by a person of authority which is


perceived as true because of his/her
expertise

SCIENTIFIC
KNOWLEDGE

A type of knowledge which came from a


scientific method through research.
Measured systematically using objective
criteria.
Example: A student nurse providing TSB
to a patient with fever should know the
rationale behind this procedure.

TRADITIONAL &
AUTHORITATIVE

PRACTICAL TO
IMPLEMENT
ADVANTAGE

BASED ON SUBJECTIVE
DATA
LIMITED USE IN A
VARIETY OF PRACTICE
SETTING
EVB SERVES AS THE
MAIN FOCUS IN
NURSING PRACTICE
DISADVANTAGES

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

SYSTEMATIC AND
ACCURATE
LESS SUBJECTIVE
THAN THOSE GAINED
BY OTHER METHODS
ADVANTAGES

REQUIRES TIME AND


EFFORT TO PRODUCE
CREDIBLE RESULTS
DISADVANTAGE

PHENOMENON

A phenomenon can be defined as sets


of empirical data or experiences that can
be physically observed or tangible such
as crying or grimacing when in pain.
it is concerned with how an individual
person reacts using the human senses
concerninf the surrounding and
assessing the different behaviors and
factors that affect such behaviors.

PHENOMENON
In nursing, phenomena can be:
Clinical or environmental setting of
nursing health center
Disease process stomach ulcer
Clients behavior guarding behavior at
the pain site
Interventions care of the client in pain
Practices that are utilized in nursing
theories and metaparadigm

PHENOMENON
All natural events that the human senses
can perceive can be called a
phenomenon.

INDUCTION &
DEDUCTION

Type of reasoning
that uses specific
details to form a
general conclusion

Type of reasoning
wherein general
conclusions are
made based on
specific concepts