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Quality Control

control

Chapter 1

Quality Control

William J. Stevenson

9th edition

10-2

Quality Control

Quality Control

Quality control is a process that measures

output relative to standard, and acts when

output doesn't meet standards.

The purpose of quality control is to assure that

processes are performing in an acceptable

manner.

Companies accomplish quality control by

monitoring process output using statistical

techniques.

10-3

Quality Control

Figure 10.1

Inspection

before/after

production

Acceptance

sampling

The least

progressive

Inspection and

corrective

action during

production

Process

control

Quality built

into the

process

Continuous

improvement

The most

progressive

10-4

Quality Control

Inspection

Inspection is an appraisal activity that compares

goods or services to a standard.

Inspection can occur at three points:

- before production: is to make sure that inputs

are acceptable.

- during production: to make sure that the

conversion of inputs into outputs is proceeding

in an acceptable manner.

- after production: to make a final verification

of conformance before passing goods to

customers

10-5

Quality Control

Inspection

Inspection before and after production

involves acceptance sampling procedure.

Monitoring during the production process is

referred as process control

Inputs

Acceptance

sampling

Figure 10.2

Transformation

Process

control

Outputs

Acceptance

sampling

10-6

Quality Control

Inspection

The purpose of inspection is to provide

information on the degree to which items

conform to a standard.

The basic issues of inspection are:

1 - how much to inspect and how often

2- At what points in the process inspection

should occur.

3 - whether to inspect in a centralized or on-site

location.

4- whether to inspect attributes (counts) or

variables (measures)

10-7

Quality Control

inspection of each item many times.

Low-cost, high volume items such as paper clips and pencils

often require little inspection because:

1. the cost associated with passing defective items is quite

low.

2. the process that produce these items are usually highly

reliable, so that defects are rare.

High-cost, low volume items that have large cost associated

with passing defective items often require more intensive

inspection such as airplanes and spaceships.

The majority of quality control applications ranges between

these two extremes.

The amount of inspection needed is governed by the cost of

inspection and the expected cost of passing defective items.

10-8

Quality Control

Inspection Costs

Cost

Figure 10.3

Total Cost

Cost of

inspection

Cost of

passing

defectives

Optimal

Amount of Inspection

10-9

Quality Control

Inspection always adds to the cost of the product;

therefore, it is important to restrict inspection efforts to

the points where they can do the most good. In

manufacturing, some of the typical inspection points

are:

Finished products

10-10

Quality Control

Table 10.1

Type of

business

Fast Food

Inspection

points

Cashier

Counter area

Eating area

Building

Kitchen

Hotel/motel Parking lot

Accounting

Building

Main desk

Supermarket Cashiers

Deliveries

Characteristics

Accuracy

Appearance, productivity

Cleanliness

Appearance

Health regulations

Safe, well lighted

Accuracy, timeliness

Appearance, safety

Waiting times

Accuracy, courtesy

Quality, quantity

10-11

Quality Control

performed on site such as inspecting the hull of

a ship for cracks.

performed in a lab such as medical tests,

analyzing food samples, testing metals for

hardness, running viscosity tests on lubricants.

10-12

Quality Control

conformance of a process: Does the output of a

process conform to the intent of design?

Managers use Statistical Process Control (SPC) to

evaluate the output of a process to determine if it

is statistically acceptable.

Statistical Process Control:

Statistical evaluation of the output of a process

during production

Quality of Conformance:

A product or service conforms to specifications

10-13

Quality Control

Control Chart

random (in control) or not (out of control).

obtained from an on going process (e.g. sample

means).

acceptable variation.

10-14

Quality Control

Control Chart

Figure 10.4

Abnormal variation

due to assignable sources

Out of

control

UCL

Mean

Normal variation

due to chance

LCL

Abnormal variation

due to assignable sources

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Sample number

10-15

Quality Control

The

control is to assure that the output of a

process is random so that future output

will be random.

10-16

Quality Control

Measure the attribute or the variable to be

controlled

Compare with the standard

Evaluate if the process in control or out of control

Correct when a process is judged out of control

Monitor results to ensure that corrective action is

effective.

10-17

Quality Control

in the output of a process, created by countless

minor factors. It would be negligible.

source can be identified (it can be assigned to a

specific cause)

10-18

Quality Control

Sampling Distribution

The variability of a sample statistic can be

described by its sampling distribution.

The sampling distribution is a theoretical

distribution that describe the random variability of

a sample statistic.

The goal of the sampling distribution is to

determine whether nonrandom-and thus,

correctable-source of variation are present in the

output of a process. How?

10-19

Quality Control

Sampling distribution

Suppose there is a process for filling bottles with

soft drink. If the amount of soft drink in a large

number of bottles (e.g., 100) is measured

accurately, we would discover slight differences

among the bottles.

If these amounts were arranged in a graph, the

frequency distribution would reflect the process

variability.

The values would be clustered close to the process

average, but some values would vary somewhat

from the mean.

10-20

Quality Control

If we return back to the process and take samples

of 10 bottles each and compute the mean amount

of soft drink in each sample, we would discover

that these values also vary, just as the individual

values varied. They, too, would have a distribution

of values.

The following figure shows the process and the

sampling distribution.

10-21

Quality Control

Sampling Distribution

Figure 10.5

Sampling

distribution

Process

distribution

Mean

10-22

Quality Control

Sampling distribution

Properties

The sampling distribution exhibits much less

variability than the process distribution.

The sampling distribution has the same mean as

the process distribution.

The sampling distribution is a normal distribution

regardless of the shape of the process distribution.

(central limit theorem).

10-23

Quality Control

Process distribution

Mean =

Variance = 2

Standard deviation =

Where:

n = sample size

Sampling distribution

Mean =

Variance =

Standard deviation =

10-24

Quality Control

Normal Distribution

Figure 10.6

Standard deviation

Mean

95.44%

99.74%

10-25

Quality Control

Control limits

variation and nonrandom variation.

Control limits are based on sampling distribution

Theoretically, the normal distribution extends in either

direction to infinity. Therefore, any value is theoretically

possible.

As a practical matter, we know that 99.7% of the values

will be within 3 standard deviation of the mean of the

distribution.

Therefore, we could decide to set the control limit at the

values that represent 3 standard deviation from the mean

10-26

Quality Control

Control Limits

Figure 10.7

Sampling

distribution

Process

distribution

Mean

Lower

control

limit

Upper

control

limit

10-27

Quality Control

SPC hypotheses

Null hypothesis

H0: the process is in control

Alternative hypothesis

H1: the process is out of control

Actual situation

Decision

Reject H0

Dont reject H0

H0 is true

H0 is false

Type I error

Correct

Correct

Type II error

10-28

Quality Control

SPC Errors

Type I error

actually is. The probability of rejecting H0 when

it is actually true.

Type II error

The probability of accepting H0 when it is

actually not true.

10-29

Quality Control

Type I Error

Figure 10.8

/2

/2

Mean

Probability

of Type I error

LCL

UCL

the probability of Type I error

10-30

Quality Control

Figure 10.9

UCL

LCL

1

2

Sample number

10-31

Quality Control

There

for variables, and two for attributes

Attribute: counted data (e.g., number of

defective items in a sample, the number of

calls per day)

Variable: measured data, usually on a

continuous scale (e.g., amount of time

needed to complete a task, length, width,

weight, diameter of a part).

10-32

Quality Control

process.

X-bar charts

R charts

10-33

Quality Control

The control limits of the mean chart is calculated as follows: (first approach)

x z x

x z

x

Where:

n = sample size

z = standard normal deviation (1,2 and 3; 3 is recommended)

10-34

Quality Control

Example

A quality inspector took five samples, each with

four observations, of the length of time for glue to

dry. The analyst computed the mean of each

sample and then computed the grand mean. All

values are in minutes. Use this information to

obtain three-sigma (i.e., z = 3) control limits for

the means of future time. It is known from

previous experience that the standard deviation of

the process is 0.02 minute.

10-35

Quality Control

Mean chart

Sample

1

Observation

10-36

Quality Control

Solution

n=4

z=3

= 0.02

x

12.11

5

0.02

UCL : 12.11 3

12.14

4

0.02

LCL : 12.11 3

12.08

4

10-37

Quality Control

Control chart

UCL

12.14

12.11

LCL

12.08

3

Sample

10-38

Quality Control

Mean chart

This approach assumes that the range is in control

UCL x A2 R

LCL x A2 R

Where:

A2 = A factor from table 10.2 Page 441

This approach is

recommended when

the process standard

deviation is not

known

10-39

Quality Control

Example

cleaning operations. The average sample range for the

20 samples was 0.016 minute, and the average mean

was 3 minutes. Determine three-sigma control limits for

this process.

Solution

x = 3 min. R,

10.2)

LCL x A2 R 3 0.37(0.016) 2.994

10-40

Quality Control

they are sensitive to changes in process dispersion.

Although the underlying sampling distribution of the

range is not normal, the concept for use of range charts

are much the same as those for use of mean chart.

Control limits:

UCL D4 R

LCL D3 R

Where values of D3 and D4 are obtained from table

10.2 page 441

10-41

Quality Control

R-chart

Example

Twenty-five samples of n = 10 observations have been

taken from a milling process. The average sample range

was 0.01 centimeter. Determine upper and lower control

limits for sample ranges.

Solution

R = 0.01 cm, n = 10

From table 10.2, for n = 10, D4 = 1.78 and D3 = 0.22

LCL = 0.22(0.01) = 0.0022 or 0.002

10-42

Quality Control

R-Chart

Example

Small boxes of cereal are labeled net weight 10

ounces. Each hour, a random sample of size n = 4

boxes are weighted to check process control. Five hours

of observation yielded the following:

Time

9 A.M.

10 A.M

11 A.M

Noon

1 P.M

Box 1

9.8

10.1

9.9

9.7

9.7

Box 2

10.4

10.2

10.5

9.8

10.1

Box 3

9.9

9.9

10.3

10.3

9.9

Box 4

10.3

9.8

10.1

10.2

9.9

Range

0.6

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.4

10-43

Quality Control

R-Chart

Solution

n=4

For n = 4 , D3 = 0 and D4 = 2.28

0 .6 0 .4 0 .6 0 .6 0 .4

0.52

5

UCL D4 R 2.28(0.52) 1.1865

R

LCL D3 R 0(0.52) 0

limits, we conclude that the process is in control

10-44

Quality Control

provide different perspectives on a process.

mean, whereas range charts are sensitive to

changes in process dispersion.

types of charts might be used to monitor the same

process.

10-45

Quality Control

Figure 10.10A

(process mean is

shifting upward)

Sampling

Distribution

UCL

Detects shift

x-Chart

LCL

UCL

R-chart

LCL

Does not

detect shift

10-46

Quality Control

Figure 10.10B

Sampling

Distribution

UCL

x-Chart

LCL

Does not

reveal increase

UCL

R-chart

Reveals increase

LCL

10-47

Quality Control

To use the Mean and Range control chart, apply the

following procedure:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

sample statistics (mean and range) for each sample.

Establish preliminary control limits using the formulas.

Determine if any points fall outside the control limits.

If you find no out-of-control signals, assume that the

process is in control. If not, investigate and correct

assignable cause of variation. Then resume the process

and collect another set of observations upon which

control limits can be based.

Plot the data on a control chart and check for out-ofcontrol signals.

10-48

Quality Control

the process characteristic is counted rather

than measured. Two types are available:

proportion of defectives in a process

number of defects per unit

Attributes generate data that are counted.

10-49

Quality Control

Use of p-Charts

Table 10.3

categories.

Good or bad

Pass or fail

of several observations each

10-50

Quality Control

P-Charts

distribution, although for large sample sizes, the normal

distribution provides a good approximation to it.

A P-chart is constructed and used in much the same way

as a mean chart.

The center line on a P-chart is the average fraction

defective in the population, P.

The standard deviation of the sampling distribution when

P is known is:

p (1 p )

n

10-51

Quality Control

P-Chart

UCL p z p

LCL p z p

estimates p, replaces p in the preceding formulas, and

^

p replaces p.

p

Total number of observations

10-52

Quality Control

P-Chart

Example

An inspector counted the number of defective

monthly billing statements of a company

telephone in each of 20 samples. Using the

following information, construct a control chart

that will describe 99.74 percent of the chance

variation in the process when the process is in

control. Each sample counted 100 statements.

10-53

Quality Control

P-Chart

Example (cont.)

Sample

# of defective

Sample

# of defective

11

10

12

12

12

13

14

10

15

21

11

16

10

10

17

22

18

12

13

19

10

10

10

20

16

Total

220

10-54

Quality Control

P-Chart

Solution

Z for 99.74 percent is 3

p

^

220

0.11

20(100)

p (1 p )

0.11(1 0.11)

0.03

100

^

UCL p z

LCL p z

10-55

Quality Control

P-Chart

Solution (cont.)

Fraction

defective

0.20

UCL

0.11

0.02

LCL

1

10

Sample number

20

10-56

Quality Control

Use of c-Charts

Table 10.3

unit of measure can be counted; nonoccurrences cannot be counted.

Cracks or faults per unit of distance

Breaks or Tears per unit of area

Bacteria or pollutants per unit of volume

Calls, complaints, failures per unit of time

10-57

Quality Control

C-Chart

defects) per unit, a C-chart is used.

Units might be automobiles, hotel rooms, typed papers, or rolls of

carpet.

The underlying sampling distribution is the Poisson distribution.

Use of Poisson distribution assumes that defects occur over some

continuous region and that the probability of more than one

defect at any particular point is negligible.

The mean number of defects per unit is c and the standard

deviation is:

10-58

Quality Control

C-Chart

Control Limits

UCL c z c

LCL c z c

case, the sample estimate, c , is used in place

of c. where:

10-59

Quality Control

C-Chart

Example

Rolls of coiled wire are

monitored using c-chart.

Eighteen rolls have been

examined, and the number

of defects per roll has

been recorded in the

following table. Is the

process in control? Plot

the values on a control

chart using three standard

deviation control limit.

sample # of

Sample # of

defects

defects

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

3

2

4

5

1

2

4

1

2

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

1

3

4

2

4

2

1

3

1

45

10-60

Quality Control

C-Chart

Solution

Average number of defects per coil = c = 45/18 =2.5

LCL c 3 c 2.5 3 2.5 2.24 0

When the computed lower control limit is negative, the

effective lower limit is zero. The calculation sometimes

produces a negative lower limit due to the use of normal

distribution as an approximation to the Poisson

distribution.

The control chart is left for the student as a homework

10-61

Quality Control

control charts

part of the process that (1) have tendency to go out of

control, (2) are critical to the successful operation of

the product or service.

between sample size and the cost of sampling.

10-62

Quality Control

Run Tests

considered random.

limits, the data may still not reflect a random process.

in the output indicates that assignable, or nonrandom,

cause of variation exist.

test, which is another kind of test for randomness.

10-63

Quality Control

Figure 10.11

movement.

Cycles: a wave pattern

Bias: too many observations on one side of

the center line

Mean shift: A shift in the average

Too much dispersion: the values are too

spread out

10-64

Quality Control

Run Test

A run is defined as a sequence of observations with a

certain characteristic, followed by one or more

observations with a different characteristic.

The characteristic can be anything that is observable.

For example, in a series AAAB, there are two runs; a

run of three As followed by a run of one B.

The series AABBBA , indicates three runs; a run of

two As followed by a run of three Bs, followed by a

run of one A.

10-65

Quality Control

Run test

There are two types of run test:

1.

2.

Runs above and below the median

into a series of Us and Ds (for up and down) and into

a series of As and Bs (for above and below the

median).

There are three U/D and four A/B runs for the data:

25

29

42

40 35 38

U

U

D

D U

B

B

A

A

B

A

10-66

Quality Control

Counting Runs

Figure 10.12

B A

Figure 10.13

(7 runs)

B A

(8 runs)

10-67

Quality Control

1.

2.

control charts, one must do the following:

Transform the data into both As and Bs and Us and

Ds, and then count the number of runs in each case.

Compare the number of runs with the expected

number of runs in a completely random series, which

is calculated as follows:

N

1

2

2N 1

E ( r ) med

E (r ) u / d

points, and E(r) is the expected number of runs

10-68

Quality Control

3. Calculate the standard deviations of the runs as:

med

N 1

4

u/d

16 N 29

90

Z test

Z test

Z test

standard deviation of number of runs

N

1)

2

N 1

4

2N 1

r (

)

3

16 N 29

90

r (

Up and down

If the Ztest is

within 2 or 3;

then the process

is random;

otherwise, it is

not random

10-69

Quality Control

Run test

Example

Twenty sample means have

1

10

11

10.7

been taken from a process.

2

10.4

12

11.3

The means are shown in

3

10.2

13

10.8

the following table. Use

median and up/down run

4

11.5

14

11.8

test with

5

10.8

15

11.2

z = 2 to determine if

6

11.6

16

11.6

assignable causes of

7

11.1

17

11.2

variation are present.

Assume the median is 11.

8

11.2

18

10.6

9

10.6

19

10.7

10

10.9

20

11.9

10-70

Quality Control

Run test

Solution

sample

mean

A/B

U/D

Sample

Mean

A/B

U/D

10

11

10.7

10.4

12

11.3

10.2

13

10.8

11.5

14

11.8

10.8

15

11.2

11.6

16

11.6

11.1

17

11.2

11.2

18

10.6

10.6

19

10.7

10

10.9

20

11.9

10-71

Quality Control

Run test

Solution (cont.)

1. A/B: 10 runs

and

U/D: 17 runs

2. Expected number of runs for each test is:

N

20

1

1 11

2

2

2 N 1 2(20) 1

13

3

3

E (r ) med

E (r ) u / d

med

N 1

20 1

2.18

4

u/d

16 N 29

90

16( 20) 29

1.8

90

10 11

0.46

2.18

17 13

2.22

1.8

Z med

Zu / d

test doesnt reveal any

pattern, because its Ztest

value is within 2, the

up/down test does; its

value exceed +2.

consequently,

nonrandom variations

are probably present in

the data and, hence, the

process is not in control

10-72

Quality Control

Process Capability

Tolerances or specifications

Process variability

engineering design or customer requirements

Process capability

10-73

Quality Control

Capability analysis

variability inherent in the output of a process falls within

the acceptable range of variability allowed by the design

specification for the process output.

If it is within the specifications, the process is said to be

capable. if it is not, the manager must decide how to

correct the situation.

We cannot automatically assume that a process that is in

control will provide desired output. Instead, we must

specifically check whether a process is capable of meeting

specifications and not simply set up a control chart to

monitor it.

A process should be both in control and within

specifications before production begins.

10-74

Quality Control

Process Capability

Figure 10.15

Lower

Specification

Upper

Specification

A. Process variability

matches specifications

Lower

Specification

Upper

Specification

B. Process variability

Lower

Upper

well within specifications Specification Specification

C. Process variability

exceeds specifications

10-75

Quality Control

Capability analysis

If the product doesnt meet specifications (not capable) a

manager might consider a range of possible solutions such

as:

1. Redesign the process.

2. Use an alternative process.

3. Retain the current process but attempt to eliminate

unacceptable output using 100% inspection.

4. Examine the specifications to see whether they are

necessary or could be relaxed without adversely affecting

customer satisfaction.

10-76

Quality Control

Calculate the capability and compare it to

specification width. If the capability is less than the

specification width, the process is capable.

Where: Capability = 6; where is the process SD

Or calculate

Process capability ratio, Cp =

Cp =

specification width

process width

6

implies only about 30 parts per million can be expected

to not be within the specification

10-77

Quality Control

Capability analysis

Example

A manager has the option of using any one of three

machines for a job. The machines and their standard

deviations are listed below. Determine which machines

are capable if the specifications are 10 mm and 10.8 mm.

Machine

Standard deviation

(mm)

0.13

0.08

0.16

10-78

Quality Control

Capability analysis

Solution

Capability = 6

Machine

Standard

deviation (mm)

Machine

capability

Capable

A

B

C

0.13

0.08

0.16

0.78

0.48

0.96

Yes

Yes

No

capable, since the capability is less than the

specification width (10.8 10 = 0.8)

10-79

Quality Control

Capability ratio

Example

Compute the process capability ratio for each machine

in the previous example

Solution

Machine Standard Machine

deviation capability

(mm)

6

Cp

Capable

0.13

0.78

0.8/0.78= 1.03

No

B

C

0.08

0.16

0.48

0.96

0.8/0.48 = 1.67

0.8/0.96 = 0.83

Yes

No

10-80

Quality Control

Upper

specification

Lower

specification

1.350 ppm

1.350 ppm

1.7 ppm

1.7 ppm

Process

mean

+/- 3 Sigma

+/- 6 Sigma

10-81

Quality Control

Cpk ratio

process is not in the center of the specification), a

more appropriate measure of process capability is

the Cpk ratio, because it does take the process mean

into account.

The Cpk is equal the smaller of

Upper specification process mean

3

And

Process mean lower specification

3

10-82

Quality Control

Cpk Ratio

Example

A process has a mean of 9.2 grams and a standard

deviation 0f 0.3 grams. The lower specification limit

is 7.5 grams and upper specification limit is 10.5

grams. Compute Cpk

Solution

1. Compute the ratio for the lower specification:

9.2 7.5 1.7

1.89

3(.3)

0. 9

10.5 9.2 1.3

1.44

3(0.3)

.9

(greater than 1.33), so this is the Cpk .

Therefore, the process is capable

10-83

Quality Control

Simplify the process

Standardize the process

Mistake-proof

Upgrade equipment

Automate

10-84

Quality Control

Method

Examples

Simplify

Standardize

Make

Design parts that can only be assembled

mistake-proof the correct way; have simple checks to

verify a procedure has been performed

correctly

Upgrade

equipment

advantage of technological improvements

Automate

processing

10-85

Quality Control

Figure 10.17

Traditional

cost function

Cost

Taguchi

cost function

Lower

spec

Target

Upper

spec

10-86

Quality Control

1.

2.

distributed

3.

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