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Fact-Gathering Techniques:

1. Confirm understanding.
2. Ask specific questions.
3. Fully clarify answers.
4. Try to develop awareness.
5. Avoid stating own opinions.
6. Ask additional ideas, thoughts, and/or suggestions.
7. Make it short.
8. Summarize the main points, express gratitude and indicate that he/she will be contacted if further questions are necessary.

Fact-Gathering Techniques:
1. Explain the purpose, use, security and disposition of the responses generated by the questionnaire.
2. Provide detailed instructions.
3. Provide a time limit or deadline for the return.
4. Format questions so that responses can be tabulated mechanically or manually.
5. Ask pointed, concise questions if possible.
6. Provide an opportunity for a clarifying comment.
7. Provide sufficient space for complete responses.
8. Include a section in which respondents can state opinions and criticisms.
9. Identify each questionnaire.

Fact-Gathering Techniques:
1. Identify and define.
2. Explain what and why.
3. Note time periodically.
4. Record as specific as possible, avoid generalities and/or vague descriptions.
5. Avoid expressing value judgments.
6. Document all impressions and organize the notes.
7. Review the facts obtained and conclusions drawn.

Fact-Gathering Techniques:
Document Gathering
Collect all relevant documents. From these documents, one can gain an understanding of what is presently done and how it is
organized, what is not available, and what client considers to be important.

Fact-Gathering Techniques: Charting

Organization chart. It provides facts concerning reporting relationships, quantities of resources, and levels of authority and
responsibility within client's organization.
Data flow diagram. This is a logical view of data flows through a system.
System flowchart. It depicts an overall view of a system in terms of major elements.
Detail flowchart. It graphically represents the logic of a process.
Decision table. It is a viable alternative to a detail flowchart. It facilitates understanding and communication of decision processes
having complex logic.


: Decision Level Analysis

1. It has the purpose of depicting the varied interrelationships among decisions made throughout the segments and levels of
2. It begins with interviews of key client managers.
3. The consultant focuses on resources. The initial concern is to categorize major tangible and intangible resources. The consultant
then identifies resources required at each decision level of the organization. The consultant ascertains the specific items of
information needed to make decisions.

: Input/Output Analysis
A problem situation may be analyzed in terms of its inputs and outputs.

: Structured Analysis
1. The key assumption is that any organization is comprised of a number of well-defined functions.
2. It begins with the top level and then work down to the lowest activity level.
3. The resulting structure is an upside-down treelike function diagram which helps to see relationships among activities of a function.

: Less-Structured Analysis
Brainstorming. It involves a free flow of ideas which are received without restriction or criticism.
Delphi approach. Opinions are obtained concerning impending present problems or future conditions. A consensus of the opinions is
used to arrive at a decision.

Analysis Strategies: Categorization

It is a process whereby data, facts or items are sorted into different groups by virtue of their features.
SWOT model
PEST model

Analysis Strategies: Classification

It is a process whereby items are sorted into different groups.
Porter's generic strategy

Analysis strategies: Numerical

It is technique where numbers are combined in order to understand how they relate to each other. An equation or function is a
recipe, which describes in definite terms how the numbers should be combined.
Financial analysis
Statistical analysis

Analysis Strategies
It is the recognition that two thins are connected in some way.
qualitative market research

Analysis Strategies: Correlation

t is the recognition that the variation in one variable occurs in step with that of another.

Analysis Strategies: Causation

Causation. It explains correlation. It suggests that two variables are correlated because there is a cause and effect link between them.