Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

Thermochemistry

Problems

A 610. g piece of copper tubing is


heated to 95.3 C and placed in an
insulated vessel containing 45.0 g of
water at 36.5 C. Assuming no loss of
water and heat capacity for the
vessel of 10.0 J/K, what is the final
temperature of the system (Cpof
copper = 0.387 J/g-K)?

1) This problem can be summarized thusly:


qlost by copper= qgained by water+ qgained by calorimeter2) Therefore:
(610. g) (95.3 C - x) (0.387 J g -1K-1) = (45.0 g) (x 36.5 C) (4.184 J g-1C-1) + [(10.0 J/K) (x - 36.5
C)]Comment: The K and the C cancel because the
C in this problem is a temperature difference (not
one single specific value) and the "size" of one K =
one C.
3) Isn't algebra fun?
22497.471 - 236.07x = 198.28x - 7237.22424.35x =
29734.691
x = 70.1 C

Problem #2:A 45.0 g sample of a substance at 55.0 C (s = 1.66 cal/g


C) was placed into a coffee-cup calorimeter (c = 4.20 cal/C) which
contained 50.0 g of ethyl alcohol at 25.0 degrees c (s = 0.590 cal/g C).
What is the resulting temperature?
Comment prior to solution: note that this problem uses calories rather
than Joules. This does not affect the solution technique.
Solution:
1) Set up the following equation:
(mass substance) (t substance) (Cpsubstance) = (mass alcohol) (t
alcohol) (Cpalcohol) + (calorimeter constant) (t alcohol)There is an
implicit assumption that the alcohol and the calorimeter start at the
same temperature. This is a very safe assumption.
2) Insert appropriate values:
(45.0 g) (55.0 - x) (1.66 cal/g C) = (50.0 g) (x - 25.0) (0.590 cal/g C) +
(4.20 cal/C) (x - 25.0)3) Algebra ensues:
4108.5 - 74.7x = 29.5x - 737.5 + 4.2x - 105x = 45.7 C

Problem #3:A pure gold ring and pure silver ring have a total mass of 17.0
g. The two rings are heated to 65.4 C and dropped into 12.4 mL of water at
22.3 C. When equilibrium is reached, the temperature of the water is 24.7
C. What is the mass of the gold ring?
Solution:
1) Set up the following equation:
(mass gold) (t gold) (Cpgold) + (mass silver) (t silver) (Cpsilver) = (mass
water) (t water) (Cpwater)2) Insert appropriate values:
(x) (40.7 C) (0.129 J g-1C-1) + (17.0 g - x) (40.7 C) (0.237 J g-1C-1) =
(12.4 g) (2.4 C) (4.184 J g-1C-1)3) Algebra:
x = 8.98 g4) Comments:
a) I looked up the values for the specific heats of gold and silver online. By
the way, you should have memorized the sprecific heat value for liquid
water by now.
b) The terms for the masses of the gold and silver rings comes from the fact
that their sum is 17.0 g. We assign 'x' to be the mass of the gold ring,
therefore the mass of the silver ring is 17.0 minus x.

Problem #4:A 5.00 g sample of aluminum (specific heat


capacity = 0.89 J C-1g-1) and a 10.00 g sample of iron (specific
heat capacity = 0.45 J C -1g-1) are heated to 100.0 C. The mixture
of hot iron and aluminum is then dropped into 91.9 g of water at
23.7 C. Calculate the final temperature of the metal and water
mixture, assuming no heat loss to the surroundings.
Solution:
1) Set this up:
qAl+ qFe= qwater(5.00 g) (100 C - x) (0.89 J C -1g-1) + (10.00 g)
(100 C - x) (0.45 J C-1g-1) = (91.9 g) (x - 23.7 C) (4.184 J C -1g-1)
2) Let's do some algebra (and drop all the units):
(445 - 4.45x) + (450 - 4.5x) = 384.5096x - 9112.87752393.4596x
= 10007.87752
x = 25.4 C

Problem #5:A 50.6 g sample of iron metal is heated and put into
104.0 g of water at 19.7 C in a calorimeter. If the final temperature of
the iron sample and the water is 24.3 C, what was the temperature of
the iron sample when it was placed in the water?
Solution:
1) heat lost by iron = heat gained by water:
(mass iron) (t iron) (Cpiron) = (mass water) (t water) (Cpwater)(50.6
g) (x - 24.3 C) (0.450 J/g C) = (104.0 g) (4.6 C) (4.184 J/g C)
The 4.6 came from 24.3 minus 19.7.
The x - 24.3 C is the t of the iron. It went from a hot temperature 'x'
to a cooler temperature of 24.3 C.
2) Solve for x:
(50.6x - 1229.58) (0.450) = 2001.625622.77x - 553.311 = 2001.6256
22.77x = 2554.9366
x = 112.2 C

Problem #6:A 505.0 g piece of copper tubing is


heated to 99.9 C and placed in an insulated vessel
containing 59.8 g of water at 24.8 C. Assuming no loss
of water and a heat capacity for the vessel of 10.0 J/K,
what is the final temperature of the system? (C pof
copper = 0.387 J/g K)
Solution:
No solution is provided.
Please note that K and C will cancel in the problem.
This is because (a) the temperatures in the actual
calclation are differences between two temperature
values and (b) the "size" of 1 K equals the "size" of 1 C.

Problem #7:What volume of 18.5 C water must be


added, together with a 1.23-kg piece of iron (C p=
0.449 J/g degrees C) at 68.5 C in an insultated
container, so that the final temperature of the
water/metal mix remains constant at 25.6 C?
Solution:
heat lost by the metal = heat gained by the
water(1230 g) (42.9 C) (0.449 J/g C) = (mass)
(4.184 J/g C) (7.1 C)
mass = 797.562 grams
rounding to 3 sig figs seems reasonable
798 mL

Problem #10:50.0 g of copper at 200.0 C is


placed in ice at 0.0 C. How many grams of ice
will melt?
Solution:
1) The copper will go down in temperature to
zero Celsius, liberating a certain amount of heat:
(50.0 g) (200.0 C) (0.385 J / g C) = 3850 J2) All
of the heat from the copper melts ice:
(334.16 J/g) (x) = 3850 Jx = 11.5 g (to three sig
figs)

Problem #11:Suppose that 0.82 g of water condenses


on a 75.0 g block of iron that is initially at 24.0 C.? If the
heat released during condensation goes only to warming
the iron block, what is the final temperature (in C) of the
iron block?
Solution:
(0.82 g / 18.01532 g/mol) (40.7 kJ/mol) = 1.8525673 kJ =
1852.5673 J lost by the waterIn order to continue the
calculation, you need to know the specific heat of iron.
This sourcesays 0.444 J/g C.
1852.5673 J = (75.0 g) (x) (0.444 J/g C)
x = 55.6 C change
24.0 C + 55.6 C = 79.6 C

Problem #12:400.0 g of iron is heated in a flame and


then dropped into a beaker containing 1.00 kg of water.
The original temperature of the water was 20.0 C, and the
final temperature of the water and the iron was 32.8 C
after thermal equilibrium has been attained. What was the
original temperature of the hot iron bar? (Assume no heat
was lost to the beaker or surrounding air.)
Solution:
qiron= qwater(400.0 g) (x - 32.8 C) (0.444 J/g C) = (1000 g)
(12.8 C) (4.184 J/g C)
177.6x - 5825.28 = 53555.2
x = 334.35 C
To three sig figs, 334 C

Problem #13:A metal sample weighing 30.66 g is at a temperature of 81.0 C when it is


placed in a styrofoam cup containing 40.0 g of water at 23.0 C. The temperature of water
rose to 25.0 C. Heat compacity of the cup is 42 J/ C
a) How many joules did the metal lose to the water?
b) What is the specific heat of the metal?
c) What is the atomic mass of the metal?
d) What metal is it?Solution:
q = [(40.0 g) (2.0 C) (4.184 J/g C)] + [(42 J/C) (2.0 C)] = 418.72 J (answer to a)418.72 J
= (30.66 g) (56.0 C) (x)
x = 0.244 J/g C) (answer to b)
Use Dulong-Petit Law for atomic mass:
(specific heat) times (atomic mass) = 3R
(0.244 J/g C) (x) = (3) (8.31447 J/K mol)
x = 102.2 g/mol (answer to c)
Note: the C and the K cancel because the "size" of each temperature unit is the same, 1
C = 1 K.
Rhodium is the closest at 102.9 g/mol (answer to d)
Looking up the specific heat for Rh, I found 0.242 J/g C.
Hereis a Yahoo Answers question about the D-P law (note that it is an approximate law).

Problem #15:A 25.75 g piece of iron and a 28.45 g piece of gold, each at 100.0 C
were dropped into 570.0 mL of water at 17.70 C . The molar heat capacity of iron and
gold are 25.19 J mol-1C-1and 25.41 J /mol-1C-1respectively. What is the final
temperature of the water and pieces of metal?
Solution:
1) The set up for the problem:
total Joules liberated by the iron + total Joules liberated by the gold = total Joules
absorbed by the water(25.75 g / 55.845 g/mol) (100.0 - x) (25.19 J/mol C) + (28.45 g /
196.97 g/mol) (100.0 - x) (25.41 J/mol C) = (570.00 g) (x - 17.70) (4.184 J/g C)
Solve for x, which is the final temperature.
2) Here are what the several of the terms mean:
(25.75 g / 55.845 g/mol) ---> moles of Fe(28.45g / 196.97 g/mol) ---> moles of Au
(100.0 - x) ---> temp change of Fe and Au (they each start at 100 C and go down to
the final temperature, symbolized by 'x')
(x - 17.70) ---> temp change of water
Note that the specific heat for water is gram-based while the Fe and Au are molebased. This is OK since I use moles of Fe and Au (to cancel with the mol in the Fe and
in the Au specific heats) and I use grams of water (to cancel with the grams in the
specific heat value for water). Every unit will cancel properly.

Problem #16:Calculate the number of grams of ice that will melt, if 1000.0 g of
iron at 500.0 C is dropped into an ice-water mixture. The heat of fusion of water is
334.166 J/g. Specific heat for iron = 0.448 J/g C. Assume that there is enough ice
such that some is left after thermal equilibrium is achieved.
Solution:
The last sentence is critical because it ensures that there is no temperature
change, only ice will melt and the entire system stays at zero Celsius.
1) Determine energy liberated by the iron:
q = (mass ) (temperature change) specific heat)q = (1000.0 g) (500.0 C) (0.448
J/g C)
q = 224000 J
The fact that some ice remains allows us to know definitively that the iron will drop
from 500.0 C to 0 C.
2) Determine the ice that will melt:
224000 J divided by 334.166 J/g = 670.3 g3) This problem could have been solve
thusly:
(1000.0 g) (500.0 C) (0.448 J/g C) = x / 334.166 J/gThe assumption here is that
100% of the energy lost by the iron goes to melt ice.

Problem #17:18.0 mL of water at 28.0 C are added to a hot


skillet. All of the water is converted to steam at 100.0 C. The
mass of the pan is 1.25 kg and the molar heat capacity of iron is
25.19 J/mol C. What is the temperature change of the skillet?
Solution:
1) Determine the energy need to heat and boil the water:
heat: q = (18.0 g) (72.0 C) (4.184 J/g C) = 5422.464 J =
5.422464 kJboil: q = (40.7 kJ/mol) (18.0 g / 18.0 g/mol) = 40.7 kJ
total: 40.7 kJ + 5.422464 kJ = 46.122464 kJ
I won't bother to round off until the final answer.
2) Determine temperature change of skillet:
46122.464 J = (22.38338 mol) (t) (25.19 J/mol C)t = 81.8 C
Note that moles of iron are used rather than grams. This is
because of the units on the specific heat provided in the problem.