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STRESS

&
ADAPTATION

Stress: is a condition in which the human system

responds to changes in its normal balanced state.

Stressor:

is any thing that is perceived as


challenging, threatening or demanding.

Adaptation:

is the change that takes place as a result


of the response to a stressor.

Homeostasis:

various physiologic mechanisms


within the body respond to internal changes to
maintain a relative constancy in the internal
environment.

Sources of stressors
Internal

e.g. illness, abnormal


change, or fear

External

e.g. noise, cold


environment, death, move

Physiologic Homeostasis

Local Adaptation System (LAS) involves only one specific


body part
Reflex pain response
Inflammatory response

General Adaptation Syndrome biochemical model of stress


(Hans Selye)
Alarm reaction
Resistance
Exhaustion

Alarm Reaction
Person

perceives stressor, defense

mechanisms activated
Fight-or-flight
Hormone
Shock

hrs)

response

levels rise, body prepares to react

and counter-shock phases (1 min - 24

Resistance
Body

attempts to adapt to stressor.

Vital

signs, hormone levels, and energy

production return to normal.


Body

regains homeostasis or adaptive

mechanisms fail.

Exhaustion
Results

when adaptive mechanisms are

exhausted
Body

either rests and mobilizes its

defenses to return to normal or dies

Physiological responses to stress


Increases

heart rate

Increases

respiration

Increased

blood pressure

Dilated

pupils

Muscle

tension

Headache

Emotional Responses to Stress


Depression
Anger
Anxiety

(most common)

Mild
Moderate
Severe
Panic

Coping Mechanisms
Crying,

laughing, sleeping, cursing

Physical

activity, exercise

Smoking,
Lack

drinking

of eye contact, withdrawal

Limiting

relationships to those with

similar values and interests

Factors Affecting Stress and


Adaptation
Sources
Types

of stress

of stressors experienced

Personal

factors

Categories of Stress
Developmental

stress

Occurs when person progresses through


stages of growth and development

Situational

stress

Does not occur in predictable patterns

Types of Stressors
Physiological

Chemical agents, physical agents, infectious


agents, nutritional imbalances, hypoxia,
genetic or immune disorders
Psychosocial

Includes real and perceived threats

Stress Management Techniques


Relaxation
Meditation
Anticipatory
Guided

guidance

imagery

Biofeedback
Crisis

intervention

Crisis Intervention
Crisis:

is a disturbance caused by a precipitating event

such as a perceived loss, a threat of loss, or a challenge,


that is perceived as a threat to self.
Crisis

Intervention

Identify the problem


List alternatives
Choose from alternatives
Implement the plan
Evaluate the outcome