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Extrusion is
by which a
block/billet of
metal is
reduced in
cross section
by forcing it
to flow
through a die
orifice under

What is Extrusion?

In general, extrusion is used to produce

cylindrical bars or hollow tubes or for
the starting stock for drawn rod, cold
extrusion or forged products.
Most metals are hot extruded due to
large amount of forces required in
extrusion. Complex shape can be
extruded from the more readily
extrudable metals such as Aluminium.
The products obtained are also called

In drawing, the crosssection of a long rod or
wire typically is reduced
or changed by pulling it
through a die called a
draw die.
Thus, the difference
between drawing and
extrusion is that in
extrusion the material is
pushed through a die,
whereasin drawing it is
pulled through it.


A billet, usually round, is forced through a die to

create solid or hollow cross-sectional work pieces
with elongated grain structures.
Common analogy squeezing toothpaste
A semi-continuous or batch process
At room temperature or elevated
Typical products:
Door & window frames

Classification of extrusion

Forward / backward extrusion

Direct/Indirect Extrusion
Hot / cold extrusion

Metal is
forced to flow
in the same
direction as
the punch.
The punch
closely fits
the die cavity
to prevent
flow of the

Backward Extrusion:
Metal is forced to flow in
the direction opposite to
the punch movement.
Metal can also be
forced to flow into
recesses in the punch,
see Fig.

Direct Extrusion:
The metal billet is
placed in a
container and
driven through the
die by the ram.
The dummy block
or pressure plate, is
placed at the end of
the ram in contact
with the billet.
Friction is at the
die and container
wall requires higher
pressure than
indirect extrusion.

The hollow ram

the die
is kept stationary
and the container
with the billet is
caused to move.
Friction at the die
only (no relative
movement at the
container wall)
requires roughly
constant pressure.
Hollow ram limits
the applied load.

Hot Extrusion:

Hot extrusion is a hot

working process, which
means it is done above
the material's
temperature to keep the
material from work
hardening and to make
it easier to push the
maThe biggest
disadvantage of this
process is its cost for

Cold Extrusion:
Cold extrusion is done at room
temperature or near room
temperature. The advantages
of this over hot extrusion are
the lack of oxidation, higher
strength due to cold working,
closer tolerances, good
surface finishing.
Examples of products
produced by this process are:
collapsible tubes, fire
extinguisher cases, and shock
absorber cylinders.

In the hydrostatic
process the
is completely surrounded
by a pressurized liquid,
except where the billet
contacts the die. This
process can be done hot,
warm, or cold, however
the temperature is limited
by the stability of the fluid
used. The process must be
carried out in a sealed
cylinder to contain the
hydrostatic medium.

Extrusion Equipment

Horizontal Hydraulic Press

Can control stroke & speed

Can apply constant force over long stroke

Vertical Hydraulic Press

Used for cold extrusion

Lower capacity, smaller footprint

Extrusion Design
The whole manufacturing and production
process starts with the design. It is here that
the extrusion takes shape and features are
built in to reduce weight, simplify assembly,
add functionality and minimise finishing
costs. Here we take advantage of the
unique benefits of aluminium, in
combination with the extrusion process, to
make a cost-effective product with optimal
functionality and an attractive appearance.

Wall Thickness

When deciding how thick the walls of a

profile should be, strength and optimum
cost-efficiency are two of the main
Profiles with a uniform wall thickness are
the simplest to produce. However, where
necessary, wall thickness within a profile
can easily be varied. For example, a
profiles bending strength can be increased
by concentrating weight/thickness away
from the centre of gravity.

Cost-efficient production
To optimize cost-efficiency, a profiles
design should always be as productionfriendly as possible. To achieve this, the
profile should:
have a uniform wall thickness
have simple, soft lines and radiused
be symmetrical
have a small circumscribing circle
not have deep, narrow channels

Uniform Wall
It is often
acceptable to
have a large
range of wall
within a single
profile. However,
a profile with
uniform wall
thickness is
easier to extrude.

It is of course
acceptable for a
profile to have
walls of different
thicknesses. For
example, for
strength reasons, it
may be best to
away from the
centre of gravity.

Working Principle

The reaction of
the extrusion
billet with the
container and die
results in high
stresses which are
effective in
reducing cracking
of materials
during primary
breakdown from
the ingot.

This helps to increase the utilisation

of extrusion in the working of metals
that are difficult to form like
stainless steels, nickel-based alloys,
and other high-temperature
Similar to forging, lower ram force
and a fine grained recrystallised
structure are possible in hot
However, better surface finish and
higher strengths (strain hardened
metals) are provided by cold

Example of Extrusion

when a pre-heated
aluminium billet is
forced through
shaped orifices in
hardened steel
dies by means of
high longitudinal
pressure. Special
dies are heated
and loaded into
the press.

The appropriate size billet is preheated

to exact specifications and introduced
into the press. Initial heating is the first
of several quality control points in the
extrusion procedure.

The billet is forced through the die

opening, by means of a ram to obtain
the desired hollow or solid profile. The
pressure and frictional forces acting
on the billet cause it to reach
temperatures in excess of 500 deg. C.
As the extrusion exits the press, it is
cooled at a specific rate to ensure
quality finish.

Typical parts
produced by extrusion
are trim parts used in
automotive and
applications, window
frame members,
railings, aircraft
structural parts.
Brass Parts>>>>>>>

Aluminium extrusions are

used in commercial and
domestic buildings for
window and door frame
systems, prefabricated
structures, roofing and
exterior cladding, curtain
walling, shop fronts, etc.
Furthermore, extrusions
are also used in transport
for airframes, road and
rail vehicles and in
marine applications.


Low Tooling Costs

Design and Change Flexibility
Good Quality
Minimal wasted material


Limited complexity of parts.

Uniform cross sectional shape only.

Applications in Pakistan

Pakistan Cables is the only alluminium

extrusion company in Pakistan certified
for ISO (Environmental Management
System (Occupational Health & Safety
Management System) and the first
alluminium extrusion company in
Pakistan certified (Quality Management
System) since 1996.
Pakistan Cables Limited in Lahore,
Rawalpindi, Quetta, Multan, Abbotabad,
Peshawar and Muzaffarabad.

Alluminium Industries in

Pakistan Alco as one of the largest

manufacturer of Pakistan in the
Aluminium industry. Alco industries are in
Lahore and Karachi mainly.
Lucky Alluminium in Karachi.
Shaheen Alluminium Industries in Lahore

Comparison with other


Extrusion is a method by
which molten plastic or any
other material is pushed
through a two-dimensional
die opening.
The finished products have
a two-dimensional form
which are continuous in
length. The extrusion
method produces linear

The injection molding

process is basically
based on the molten
die-casting method.
Injection molding
forms threedimensional shapes.