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By Mantoetse Jobo

Lesotho College of Education

Contextual Framework
Government Initiatives to address
Environmental issues in Education
Teaching Education
Literature Review
Theoretical Framework Underpinning Study
Purpose of the study
Research Aim
Methodological Framework
Ethical Considerations
Data Analysis
Presentation of Results

Lesotho is a country endowed with

scenic landscape and natural

high population growth before the HIV/ AIDS

scourge that led to depletion of natural

resources and many social conflicts.
Lack of education on sustainability issues
and principles

An overview of the Basotho education

Developments in Lesotho Schools re

Environmental Education

National Strategy and Action Plan

Higher Education highlighted as a major instrument

in the unfolding United Nations Decade of Education

for Sustainable Development; (Ministry of Education
and Training 2008)

LEESP Project Collaboratively

sponsored by Danida and Lesotho
Government running from 2001- 2003;

Emphasis made in the Education

Strategic Plan for 2005-2015 to redress
low quality and increase efficiency in
the secondary education system
(MOET 2005)

Lesotho College of Education Lack of inter/intra-

disciplinary Collaboration leading to poor learning

connections by students (NTTC, 1988; Burke and Sugrue,
1994; Lefoka and Sebatane, 2003)
Efforts to enhance departmental collaboration made

through formulation of committees since 1988. Teaching

by subjects was presented as one of the greatest
weakness by the Integration Committee (NTTC, 1988).

In the autonomy era - Lecturers at the College

seldom meet with their counterparts in other
departments (Lefoka and Sebatane, 2003)

Lack of collaboration between subject areas

on the one hand and educational foundations
on the other adversely affect the teaching
of the curriculum. (Lefoka and Sebatane, 2003);

Disciplinary boundaries hinder students from

using knowledge gained outside of the
disciplines they are studying for, thus using
knowledge in a narrow sense. This poses a
huge threat to the quality of teacher

LCE has difficulties in the whole area of physical

resource provision (Burke and Sugrue 1994:22).

The nature of the facilities and the institutional

infra-structure also has important repercussions
for the human resources of the College (Lefoka
and Sebatane, 2003: 67)

Student teachers rely mostly on handouts from

the lecturers in the form of photocopied texts or
notes, as well as on the chalkboard.

What is Sustainable
Development that meets the
needs of the present without
compromising the ability of
future generations to meet
their own needs (Brundtland
Commission, 1987)

Sustainable Development is described as

a dynamic process that enables all people
to realize their potential and improve their
quality of life in ways which simultaneously
protect and enhance the earths life
support systems (Webster, 2004: 52).

Education for Sustainable

Development is a process of
achieving human
development in an inclusive,
equitable and secure manner(

First described in Chapter 36 of Agenda 21

4 major thrusts to begin work of UNDESD:
1. Improvement of basic education
2. Reorienting existing education to address
sustainable development
3. Development of public understanding and
4. Provision of training

Pigozzi (2007) contends that we do not need

a subject called sustainable development
in the curriculum, but to reflect the
interaction of numerous actions in many
different spheres, so the ideas, issues,
topics and problems related to Sustainable
Development should be integrated into all
aspects of leaning, hence, calling for a
whole institutions approach to education for
Sustainable Development.

In order for teacher education programs to

be effective, knowledge of environmental
problems and sustainable development,
theories of teaching and learning, and
practical knowledge of teaching skills or
experience should be integrated.
Higher education institutions should enable
teacher trainees to play a role in
redressing real socio-ecological and socioeconomic concerns and democratic values
of society (Ketlhoilwe, 2008: 19).

Also, that, student engagement and

understanding through multidisciplinary,
experiential, and intergenerational learning
that is not only relevant but potentially
contributes to the well-being of community
life is essential (Gruenewald 2003: 7).
Multidisciplinary approaches to teaching
and learning could, therefore, be employed
to interrogate and address identified issues
such as loss of soil fertility and water
holding capacity of agricultural lands,
flooding and general unsustainable use of
cropping lands

The LEESP focused on four levels of knowledge as

pedagogical pillars that promote life-long learning
Data knowledge the lowest form of knowledge,
it asks who, when, where;
Explanation knowledge this explains why things
happen the way they do, it asks why, how;
Judgment knowledge this is whereby estimation,
evaluation, assessment or judgment of matters is
done, it asks is it good or bad, is it
acceptable, do we want to?
Action knowledge the highest form of
knowledge, where one is able to act using ones
experience in different matters, it asks what can I
do, what could be done

The extent to which individuals within and

as a group exhibit traits or sets of skills
and abilities for action competence (AC)
which at some time or another will result in
concrete actions (A) which in turn brings
about a strife for change (CH) (Jensen and
Schnack, 1994: 74).
Following action knowledge, an individual
willingly takes an action on an issue that
could be:

Critical Pedagogy:
Critical pedagogy explicitly makes the limits and
simulations of classroom problematic
(Gruenewald, 2003: 9). It is these problematic
situations that provoke critical thinking and
creativity in learners as they begin to seek
solutions to problems at hand. Gruenewald argues
that teachers and students should indeed explore
and interrogate the places outside of school as
part of the school curriculum that are the local
context of shared cultural politics (Gruenewald,
2003: 9).

The purpose of this study is to:

Investigate the historical culture of structure and
agency at the Lesotho College of Education in
relation to environmental education and education
for sustainable development as educational

To find out how teacher trainers agency for change

could be enhanced through a participatory action
research approach to develop an integrated critical
curriculum model for mainstreaming education for
sustainable development;

What is the historical culture of structure

and agency at Lesotho College of Education
in relation to Education for Sustainable
Development as a change initiative?

What mechanisms enable/constrain teacher

trainers to interact within and across
disciplines in order to interact and bring
about change for sustainable development
How has Education for Sustainable
Development as a change initiative come
into play at Lesotho College of Education?

What is the role of teacher trainers at Lesotho

College of Education in institutionalizing
Education for Sustainable Development?

What institutional structures enable /hinder the

adoption of Environmental Education/ Education
for Sustainable Development at Lesotho College
of Education?

How do the teacher trainers perceive themselves

as change agents for sustainable development?

To what extent do teacher trainers at

Lesotho College of Education portray
action competence skills in and out
of their classrooms in order to
become agents of change?

What behavior is held by teacher

trainers at Lesotho College of
Education that indicate positive
attitude leading towards action

How do the teacher trainers perceive and value

environment and Education for Sustainable

What enabling environment is created for students to

acquire knowledge and skill in identifying, interrogating
and addressing environmental issues?

What pedagogical approach is employed by teacher

trainers when teaching for sustainable development?

What process is followed by teacher trainers in order to

identify, interrogate and address environmental issues
pertinent to their courses?

What criteria are used by teacher trainers to identify

themes that emanate from these environmental issues?

Margaret Achers theory of critical realism will be used.

The historical culture of structure and agency will be

studied through to find out what empowering or
inhibiting structures exist; the nature of agency and
teacher trainers attitudes towards education for
sustainable development.

An institutional audit that indicates the engagement of

the College with environmental education/education
for sustainable development will be carried out.

Focus group discussions will be used with participating

teacher trainers.

Multidisciplinary participatory action research will

be used to develop an integrated curriculum
model with teacher trainers at LCE.

Case-study for examining instances of action in

the classroom of participating teacher trainers will
be used.

Classroom observations by participating teachers

followed by reflexivity by individual and teams of
observing teachers

A meeting with the three Faculty

Deans and Heads of Departments to
explain the purpose of this study and
to solicit support will be held.

Two participants from each of the

three Faculties will be invited to join
the study.

The study will be validated through

the following means:
multi-method approach to data collection
Catalytic validity

I will observe protocol by involving all relevant

parties from the beginning of the study

I will always obtain authorization for using

quotations and I will take responsibility to
maintain confidentiality of the study.

I will retain the right to report my work at various

stages still ensuring that no account ill represents
any of the participants (Cohen and Manion, 1994).

Achers theory of critical realism will be used for


Deconstruction of data will be done to understand

events and to emancipate the agents in order to
enable them to make meanings of ideas and their
values, also reconstruction will be carried out in
order promote agency

Reporting at various stages of the study will be

done, first to participants then to their
departments also as a validation procedure.

Thank you