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Linear
Integrated
Circuits
14EC2008

LIC

What is integrated

circuit?
Integrated circuits are_______(large/tiny)

electronic circuits built to perform a particular


function made of active and passive
components such
as_________________________
Before the invention of transistors,
___________were used. The main drawback
was their size. Transistors reduced the size of
circuits substantially, but still the circuits were
bulky

The advantages of Integrated Circuits are:

Very

small size: Hundred times smaller than


the discrete circuits.
Lesser
weight: As large number of
components can be packed into a single chip,
weight is reduced
Reduced
cost: The mass production
technique has helped to reduce the price,
High reliability: Due to absence of soldered
connection, few interconnections and small
temperature rise failure rate is low.
Low power requirement: As the size is
small power consumption is less.
Easy replacement: In case of failure chip
can easily be replaced.

IC's are are of Linear ,digital and mixed types. Linear IC's
also known as analog Integrated circuits are used in :
Linear IC

Digital IC

Power amplifiers,
Multipliers,Radio receivers

Flip-flops,Logic
gates,Timers

Small-signal amplifiers

Counters

Operational amplifiers

Multiplexers

RF and IF amplifiers

Calculator chips,Memory
chips
Clock chips

Voltage comparators

Microprocessors

Microwave amplifiers

Microcontrollers

Voltage regulators

Temperature sensors

Op-amp symbol

Inverting input
Non-inverting
input

2
3

+5
v
7
4

6
-5v

0utput

IC Product

Operational Amplifier
09/15/16

DIP-741

Ideal characteristics of

OPAMP

1.

Open loop gain infinite A=inf

2.

Input impedance infinite Ri=inf

3.

Output impedance low R0=0

4.

Bandwidth infinite BW=inf

5.

Zero offset, ie, Vo=0 when V1=V2=0

Inverting Op-Amp

O U T

R
IN

R1

Non-Inverting Amplifier

O U T

IN

R1
1

R2

10

Voltage follower

11

DC characteristics

12

Input offset current


The difference between the bias currents at
the input terminals of the op- amp is called as
input offset current. The input terminals conduct
a small value of dc current to bias the input
transistors. Since the input transistors cannot be
made identical, there exists a difference in bias
currents

DC characteristics

Input offset voltage


A small voltage applied to the
input terminals to make the output
voltage as zero when the two input
terminals are grounded is called input
offset voltage

13

DC characteristics

14

Input bias current


Input bias current IB as the average
value of the base currents entering into terminal
of an op-amp

DC characteristics

15

THERMAL DRIFT
Bias current, offset current and offset
voltage change with temperature.
A circuit
carefully nulled at 25oc may not remain so when
the temperature rises to 35oc. This is called drift.

AC characteristics
Frequency Response

HIGH FREQUENCY MODEL OF OPAMP

16

Common-Mode Operation

Operational Amplifier

Same voltage source is applied

09/15/16

17

at both terminals

Ideally, two input are equally


amplified

Output voltage is ideally zero


due to differential voltage is
zero

Practically, a small output


signal can still be measured

Note for differential circuits:


Opposite inputs : highly amplified
Common inputs : slightly
amplified
Common-Mode Rejection

Common-Mode Rejection Ratio


(CMRR)

Common voltage input :

1
Vc (V V )
2

Output voltage :

Vo Gd Vd GcVc
Gd : Differential gain
Gc : Common mode gain

Operational Amplifier

Vd V V

Noninverting
+
Input

09/15/16

Differential voltage input :

18

Output
Inverting
Input

Common-mode rejection ratio:


CMRR

Gd
G
20 log10 d (dB)
Gc
Gc

Note:
When Gd >> Gc or CMRR
Vo = GdVd

CMRR Example

19

100V

60700V

80600V
20V

40V

Operational Amplifier

100V

09/15/16

What is the CMRR?

Solution :
Vd 1 100 20 80V

(1)

Vd 2 100 40 60V

100 20
100 40
60V
Vc 2
70V
2
2
From (1)
Vo 80Gd 60Gc 80600V

Vc1

From (2)
Gd 1000

(2)

Vo 60Gd 70Gc 60700V


and

Gc 10

CMRR 20 log(1000 / 10) 40dB

NB: This method is Not work! Why?

Ideal Vs Practical Op-Amp


Open Loop gain A

105

Bandwidth BW

10-100Hz

Input Impedance Zin

>1M

10-100

Output Impedance Zout


Output Voltage Vout

Depends only
on Vd =
(V+V)
Differential
mode signal

CMRR

Depends slightly
on average input
Vc = (V++V)/2
Common-Mode
signal

10-100dB

Vin

+ AVin

Ideal op-amp

Vin

Zin

Vout

Zout=0

Operational Amplifier

Practical

09/15/16

Ideal

20

Practical op-amp

Zout
~

AVin

Vout