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Communication and

computer networks
Presented by Engr Rabail.

Outlines

A brief history

Introduction

Computer networks

Wide area network

Local/Metropolitan area network

Allocation of resources
Challenges and issues

A BRIEF HISTORY:

Beating of drum

smoke signals

INTRODUCTION

A typical communication system consist of following parts:

INFORMATION

Analog

Digital

Transmission of the information can be analog or digital .therefore we have four


possibilities:
1. Analog information transmitted as an analog signal.
2. Analog information transmitted as a digital signal.
3. Digital information transmitted as an analog signal.
4. Digital information transmitted as a digital signal

When a signal carrying information is transmitted, it looses its energy and strength
and gathers some interference (noise) as it propagates away from the
transmitter.

BOOSTED / AMPLIFIED

Boost energy and strength of a signal, it must be amplified (in case of analog
signals)

rebuilt (in case of digital signals)

MAJOR ISSUE

Why Digital Signal is preferred over Analog Signal in communication?

FILTERED OUT of noise in Digital Signal


processing of information for error detection and correction, applying
encryption and decryption techniques to sensitive information.

COMPUTER NETWORKS

Interconnection of computers.
The interconnection forms a facility that provides reliable and efficient
means of communication among users and other devices.

Computer networks are also referred to as computer communication


networks.

Interconnection among computers may be via wired or wireless


transmission medium

Two broad categories


1. Wide area networks
2. Local/metropolitan area networks

(a) A typical WAN. (b) A typical local/metropolitan area network. (c) A typical
local/metropolitan area communication ring network

Users will be sharing the transmission link to exchanging their information.

Users will also share


the processing power of the computers.
buffering capacity to store the information.
and any other resources that are connected to the computer network.

The information from one user to another may need to pass through several
switching nodes and transmission links before reaching its destination.

If one path is not available, not feasible, or not functional, some other path may
be used
Exchange of Large Quantity of Information via a Packets of information.

TRANSPORTION OF NFORMATION :
Major aspects are

Addressing mechanism to identify users.


Addressing mechanism for information packets to identify their source and destination
Establishing a connection between sender and receiver and maintaining it
Choosing a path or a route to carry the information from a sender to a receiver
Implementing a selected route or path.
Checking information packets.
Encryption and decryption of information
Controlling the flow of information.
Informing the sender.
Billing for the use of resources
Ensuring that different computers running different applications and operating systems can
exchange information
Preparing information appropriately for transmission .

OSI (open system interconnection)


Model
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established the
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model
Each layer deals with a particular aspect of network communication.

WIDE AREA COMPUTER NETWORKS:

A WAN consist of switching nodes and transmission links.

Layout of the switching nodes and transmission links is based on the traffic pattern and
expected volume of traffic flow from one site to another site.

When a user is ready to transmit information


1. Connection oriented service
2.

connectionless service

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN WAN


REACTIVE
TECHNIQUES (in late
1960 and early 1970)
WINDOW SCHEME

OPTICAL FIBER

BISDNs (Broadband Integrated Services Digital


Networks)

Transmit voice, video and data at the same time over fiber optic
telephone lines. Broadband ISDN can support data rates of 1.5 million
bits per second (bps)

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is expected to be used as a transfer


mechanism in BISDNs where information is transmitted into the form of
the cell

LOCAL & METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK

LOCAL AREA NETWORK

Limited geographical scope(few kilometers)

Limited to building or an organization

METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK


Large transmission area (150 km)
High data rates

TRANSMISSION IN LOCAL & METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

CATAGORIES OF MAC(medium access control)PROTOCOL


Controlled Access Protocols.
Contention based protocols.
CONTROLLED ACCESS PROTOCOLS.
Users take TURNS.
Only one user is allowed to transmit info. at a time.
CONTENTION BASED ACCESS PROTOCOLS
Don't take turns.
User makes own decision to transmit information.
Example: carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD)

WIRELESS AND MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS


The devices used for wireless communication require certain features

Low power consumption

Light weight

worldwide communication ability.

Access to a communication network is wireless so that the end users remain free to move.

LIMITATIONS

Range of wireless communication is always limited.

Range of user mobility is also limited.

To overcome this limitations:

A geographical region is divided into smaller regions called CELLS.

Each cell has a fixed communication device that serves all mobile devices within that
cell.

As a mobile Device moves out of one cell and into another cell, service of that
connection is transferred from one cell to another. This is called the handoff process.

Low power consumptions.

RESOURCE ALLOCATION TECHNIQUES


Two approaches for allocation of resources among the users.

Static Allocation of resources

Dynamic allocation of resources

STATIC ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES


Quantity of resources is allocated to each user.
If user doesn't use his allocated resources , no one else can

DYNAMIC ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES

Desired quantity of resources is allocated to users on the basis of their demands and for
the duration of their need.

Once the need is satisfied, the allocation is retrieved.

Someone else can use these resources if needed.

CHALLENGES AND ISSUES

Propagation Delay (the time for a signal to propagate from one end to another)

Integrations of different services in the same networks & Each type of service has its own
requirements to achieving a desired level of quality of service

Maintaining security and integrity of information.

THANK YOU