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Microcomputer Systems 1

Introduction to DSPs

Introduction to DSPs
Definition:
DSP Digital Signal Processing/Processor
It refers to:
Theoretical signal processing by digital means
(subject of ECE3541),
Specialized hardware (processor) that can process
signals in real-time (subject of this course
ECE3551&3)

This classs focus is on:


Hardware Architecture of a real-world DSP platform:
ADSP BlackFin Processor,
Software Development on DSPs, and
Applied Signal Processing theory and practice.
September 18, 2016

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Introduction to DSPs
DSPs process signals
Signal a detectable physical
quantity or impulse (as a voltage,
current, or magnetic field strength)
by which messages or information
can be transmitted (Webster
Dictionary)

September 18, 2016

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Introduction to DSPs

Signal Characteristics:

are Physical Quantities:


are Measurable
are Analog
Contain Information.

Examples:

Signals
Signals
Signals
Signals

Temperature
Pressure
Mass
Speed
Acceleration
Torque
Voltage
Current
Power

[oC]
[Newtons/m2] or [Pa]
[kg]
[m/s]
[m/s2]
[Newton*m]
[Volts]
[Amps]
[Watts]

In this class, analog signals are electrical.

Sensors: are devices that convert other physical quantities (temperature,


pressure, etc.) to electrical signals.

September 18, 2016

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Introduction to DSPs
DSP process digital signals:
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)
Binary representation of the analog signal

Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC)


Digital representation of the signal is
converted to continuous analog signal.

Analog Continuous
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ADC
a) Continuous Signal

b) Amplitude Quantized Signal

fs

x(t)

Analog
Analog
Low-pass
Low-pass
Filter

Quantizer
Quantizer

Sample
Sample
and
and
Hold
Hold

xa(nT)

x[n]

DSP
DSP

c) Amplitude & Time Quantized Digital Signal

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Example of ADC

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DAC
a) Digital Output Signal

Digital to
Analog

DSP
y[n]

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b) Analog Signal

Converter

c) Continuous Low-pass filtered Signal

Analog
Low-pass
Filter

y(t)

ya(nT)

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Why Processing Signals?

Extraction of Information

Amplitude

Phase

Frequency

Spectral Content

Transform the Signal

FDMA (Frequency Division


Multiple Access)

TDMA (Time Division Multiple


Access)

CDMA (Code Division Multiple


Access)

Compress Data

ADPCM (Adaptive Differential


Pulse Code Modulation)

CELP (Code Excited Linear


Prediction)

MPEG (Moving Picture Experts


Group)

HDTV (High Definition TV)

September 18, 2016

Generate Feedback
Control Signal
Robotics (ASIMOV)
Vehicle Manufacturing
Process Control

Extraction of Signal in
Noise
Filtering
Autocorrelation
Convolution

Store Signals in Digital


Format for Analysis
FFT

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Digital Telephone Communication


System Example:

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Typical Architecture of a DSP System


Analog Signal Processing
Analog
AnalogSignal
Signal
Conditioning
Conditioning

Sensor
Sensor

Digital Signal Processing


ADC
ADC

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Digital
DigitalSignal
Signal
Conditioning
Conditioning

DSP
DSP

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DAC
DAC

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Why Using DSP?


Low-pass Filtering example:
Chebyshev Analog Filter of Type I and
Order 6, vs.
FIR 129-Tap Filter

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Chebyshev Analog Filter of Type I


Chebyshev Type I (Pass-Band Ripple)
6-Pole
1.0 dB Pass-Band Ripple
Non-liner Phase
MATLAB: fdatool

Order = 6
Fs = 10,000 Hz
Fpass = 1,000 Hz
Apass = 1 [dB]

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Example of a 3-rd order Active lowpass filter implementation

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Magnitude Response of Chebyshev


Filter Type I Order 6.

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Pass-Band Ripple 1.0 dB

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Digital Filter Design


FIR,
129-Tap,
Less then 0.002 dB Pass Band Ripple
Linear Phase

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FIR Filter Magnitude Response

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Less then 0.002 dB Pass-Band


Ripple

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Analog vs. Digital Implementations


Analog

Digital (DSP)
Cons:

Cons:

Approximate Filter
Coefficients

Only standard
components available

Environment
Temperature dependent
Less accurate
Can be used only for
designed purpose

Pros:

Pros:

Real-time operation is
dependent on the speed
of processor and the
complexity of problem
at hand.

Operate in real-time

Accurate Filter
implementation to
desired precision
Operation independent
on the environment.
Flexible
DSPs can be
reprogrammed.

September 18, 2016

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DSP Implementation of the FIR


Filter
129-tap digital filter requires 129
multiply-accumulates (MAC)
Operation must be completed within
sampling interval (1/Fs) to maintain
real-time.
Fs=10000Hz = 10kHz 100 s
ADSP-21xx family performs MAC process in
single instruction cycle
Instruction rate > 129/100 s = 1.3 MIPS
ADSP-218x 16-bit fixed point series: 75
MIPS.
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End