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POLICE INVESTIGATIVE

REPORT WRITING

PSUPT HADO NAING EDDING


Instructor

Introduction
A report is a story of actions performed by men. In
police report, it is a chronological or step-by-step
account of incident that took place at the given time.
In this manner, it has, therefore, a beginning (On or
about 010900 August 1991, this station received a
call regarding a vehicular accident...), then moving
forward, with more details in this middle portion was
arranged at ...), informing the reader(s) of relevant
details, such as the version of drivers involved and
the corresponding notation of the traffic authorities,
and ending with present temporary agreement
between same authorities and subject drivers.

Another example is a traffic report wherein the reader


is informed from the start to finish how the speeder
is overtaken by the traffic police officers who would
stop the former, arrest him, take his story, then
make a temporary compromise with him.
In other words, the paragraphing process could be
aptly done like this; first paragraph reveals what
sort of crime is being described; the middle
paragraph(s) would involve an arrivals and
departures, or the recounting of various steps or
actions done; and the end paragraph concludes the
report.

Conclusion includes the status of the case,


the disposition of the individuals involved
(hospitalized? Jailed? Take home?) and
disposition of the evidence obtained. Who
or what is being sought for can be a basis
for ending.

REPORT WRITING is basically


story of actions performed by a man.

POLICE REPORT is a chronological


or step-by-step account of an incident
that transpired in a given time, at a
given place.
Police Reports result from the fact
that someone has asked for them and
needs them for immediate and future
use.
Police Report writing is the backbone
of
criminal
investigation
and
prosecution.

IMPORTANT USES OF REPORT WRITING

They
serve
as
records
for
police
administrators in planning, directing, and
organizing the units duties.
Reports can be used as legal documents in the
prosecution of criminals.
Reports can be used by other agencies.
Reports can be useful to local media which
need access to public documents.
The author of a report should also consider
that his (written) work is reflective of his
personality and can be basis for performance
evaluation.
Reports can be a basis for research and
evaluation.

Who will read your report


Officer in Patrol
Report Writer
Immediate Supervisor
Station Chief
Department Level
Congress
National Prosecution Service
Court of Justice
Prosecution and Defense Counsel
Media
Public and Private Agencies

CRITERIA FOR GOOD REPORTS


In the preparation of narrative reports
for significant events or incidents, the
following criteria must be observed:
1.Accuracy Use the word that serves your
purpose.
What exactly do you mean?
Have
you made your readers see and feel what you
want to see and feel?. It refers to the
correctness
or
precision
in
both
information and word choice.
2.Clarity The police report writer must
consider that the reader has no time to
look for the meanings of difficult words
used by the inconsiderate writer.

3.Conciseness to be concise is to express


much in a few words as possibleto be brief
but substantial. In narrative report, the
role of a writer is not to re-enact events
but to summarize them using only pertinent
or important details. Any extraneous event
details irrelevant to the event should be
excluded, lest they render the report
superfluous or bring the reader off his
focus from the more important details. It
is necessary for the writer to determine
which details should be included and which
is not.

4. Objectivity the key to objectivity or


being fair and impartial in writing reports
is to use language that has a nuetral tone.
This means that your report covers all
sides of the story and does not slant
toward or favor one side only. To do this,
you need to avoid opinions, personal
judgment and emotional overtone in your
sentences which will render your report
subjective
and
partial.
Although
the
statement of witness, victims and suspects
may not be objective, it is important that
you
as
a
writer,
properly
quote
or
attribute the statement to your source(s)
without adding your personal judgment or
conclusion. Write only the facts and
include brief details.

5.Completeness In any incident report, the


essential elements of information must be
complete. The 5Ws and 1H (WHO, WHAT, WHEN,
WHERE, WHY, AND HOW) should be the basic
guide in writing a report.
THE 5Ws AND 1H OF POLICE REPORTS
The police officer need not be a literary
genius to write a good police report.
If
the officer knows his 5Ws and 1H, his report
will be complete even though it might not be
a literary masterpiece. The 5Ws and 1H can
be a useful guide to report writers,
especially the beginners.
The following is
a list of the variations that can be derived
from these:

WHO?
This question considers some
like:
-Who was the victim?
-Who was the complainant?
-Who discovered the crime?

factors,

WHAT?
This question considers some factors,
like:
-What type of property was attacked
(building, residence, car, etc.)?
-What type of property was stolen,lost or
found?
-What offense was committed?

WHERE?
This question
like:
-Where was the
-Where was the
-Where was the

considers

some

factors,

crime committed?
crime discovered?
victim found?

WHEN?
This
like:
-When
-When
-When

question

considers

some

was the crime committed?


was it discovered?
was the victim last seen?

factors,

WHY?
This question considers some factors,
like:
-Why was the crime committed?
-Why were the witnesses reluctant to
give information?
-Why were certain tools used?

HOW?
This question considers some factors,
like:
-How was the crime committed?
-How did the criminal get to the
scene?
-How was the crime discovered?

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE 5Ws AND 1H


Generally,
the
who,
when,
and
where will appear at the beginning of the
report.
The reader needs to know the
persons involved, the date and time the
incident happened, and the location in
which it took place.
What happened is
usually unfolded throughout the report.
The how
is closely related to the
what, the why belongs before or after
the what, depending on the situation.

DOCUMENT SECURITY All significant incident


reports are considered classified, hence,
transmission, handling, and access to these
reports should be limited only to police
personnel who are granted the same or higher
security clearance as the report.
Accordingly, it is also imperative to place
the necessary markings to emphasize the
document classification of the report (TOP
SECRET,
SECRET,
CONFIDENTIAL,
AND
RESTRICTED), likewise, it is prohibited to
divulge its contents to anybody, except when
regulations permit it, and the approval of
appropriate authorities is sought beforehand.

1.Top Secrets Documents - the unauthorized


disclosure
of
which
would
cause
exceptionally grave damage to the nation
politically, economically or from the point
of National Security. This kind of records
deserves the most guarded secrets by the
person involved.
2.Secret
Records
or
Documents
the
unauthorized
disclosure
of
which
would
endanger National Security, cause serious
injury to the interest and prestige of the
nation or any governmental activity or would
be of great advantage to other nation.

3.Confidential Records or Documents - the


unauthorized disclosure of which would be
prejudicial to the interest or prestige of the
nation, or any government activity or would
cause
administrative
embarrassment
or
unwarranted injury to the honor and dignity of
an individual, or would be of advantage to a
foreign nation.
4. Restricted Records or Documents - Records
contain
information
and
material
which
requires special protection other than that
determined to be TOP SECRET, SECRET, OR
CONFIDENTIAL.

Classification of Police Reports


1.Informal Reports
2.Formal Reports
Classification of Police Reports According to
Purpose:
1. Performance Report
2. Fact-Finding Report
3. Technical Report
4. Problem-Determining Report
5. Problem-Solution Report

Categories of Police Reports


1.Operational Report
2.Internal Report
3.Technical Report
4.Summary Of Information (SOI)

Types of Police Reports


5.Spot Report
6.Special Report

6. Situation Report
7. Formal Report

7.Progress Report
8.Final Investigation Report
9.Beat Inspection Report

RADIO MESSAGE
The radio message form is used when
preparing radiographic messages intended
for transmission throughout the Philippine
National Police (PNP).
This is patterned
after the form used in the Armed Forces of
the Philippines (AFP), and subscribes to
the procedures based on AFPRG 421-141,
dated November 26, 1968.
ROUTING SLIP
The routing slip is primarily aimed at
transmitting papers from office to office
within a police unit or station, or from
branch to branch, within an office.

MEMORANDUM AND ENDORSEMENT LETTER


-commonly used in the police service which
are inter-office communications dealing with
official matters.
-reduced to fewest possible words.

TONES OF MEMORANDUMS
There is no strict rule governing the
tone of a memorandum.
However, the tone
usually differs in accordance with the
person or persons reading it.

From
a
Chief
of
Office
to
his
subordinates, the tone is impersonal,
i.e.,
For
guidance
and
strict
compliance.
From a writer sending a memorandum to
somebody of equal rank, the tone is
casually personal, i.e., The undersigned
noticed changes in
A subordinate police officer writing a
memorandum to a higher police officer
uses a more formal tone, i.e., For
information and request acknowledgement.

In other government agencies similar to


police offices, using FOR and TO is
commonly practiced. The MEMORANDUM FOR:
is used if sent to a superior officer; the
MEMORANDUM TO: is used if sent to
subordinate officers.

THE AUTHORITY LINE


An authority line should be drawn when
the correspondence is signed for the chief
or head of an agency or office by an
individual authorized to do so.
This
reflects the fact that the communication
is an expression of the will of the chief
himself.

EXAMPLES
1. If signing for a chief or head of office and
addressed to members under him,
BY AUTHORITY OF POLICE SUPERINTENDENT MORADA:
ROMAN B DELA CRUZ, JR
Police Chief Inspector
Chief, UTPS
2. If not addressed to a member under him,
FOR THE CHIEF OF POLICE:
WILHEMSON A TAN
Police Senior Inspector
Deputy Chief of Police

THE SIGNATURE
-contains
the
name
of
the
officer,
usually his first name, middle initial, and
last name;
-signed in black or blue-black ink, never
blue or any other color;
-the
name
being
typed,
stamped
or
printed, all in capital letters, identical
with the written name, the officers rank or
service and title designation.

EXAMPLE
ROMAN B DELA CRUZ, JR
Police Chief Inspector
Double signatures should be avoided.
Instead, a designated individual may sign
his own name and add the word FOR or BY
on the typewritten name in the signature.
If an individual in the police service signs
FOR or BY, the rank and designation of
the signing individual may be shown.

EXAMPLE
DANILO R MORADA
Police Superintendent
FOR:
ROMAN B DELA CRUZ, JR
Police Chief Inspector
Chief, UTPS

ENCLOSURES
Enclosures are supplementary documents
which are sent with the communication to
provide additional information.
When
the
letter
has
one
or
more
enclosures, this fact is entered on the
left side of the page in the following
manner.
EXAMPLE
Enclosures:
1 -

Crime scene sketch

2 -

Pictures of crime scene sketch

COPY FURNISHED OTHER OFFICES


A notation concerning copy furnished
should be typed immediately under, and
separated by at least one line from the
listing of enclosures, if any.
EXAMPLE
Copy Furnished:
RD, PROs
D, NSUs

SAMPLE FORMAT OF A MEMORANDUM


Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Interior and Local Govrnment
National Police Commission
Philippine National Police
Valenzuela City Police Station
Maysan Road, Valenzuela City
MEMORANDUM
FOR

: Chief of Police, VCPS


(ATTN: Chief, Intelligence and Investigation Branch)

FROM

: Investigator-on-Case

SUBJECT

: Shooting Incident

DATE : January 14, 2005


==============================================================
1. Reference/s: (may be by another memorandum, hand-written instruction, verbal instruction, or your inherent duty)
2.
3.

Sammy O Lagmay
Senior Police Officer IV

Cc:

ENDORSEMENT
-An endorsement letter is a reply or a forwarding
statement usually added to a letter;
-An endorsement is meant
comment, or recommendation;

to

furnish

information,

-The use of the third person, such as: the writer,


the undersigned, this unit, or this office is
prescribed to achieve objectivity;
-This is not a personal matter; it is an official one
wherein the sender acts on a particular problem in
behalf of their agency he belongs to.
-Endorsements are numbered consecutively, starting
with 1st.
A civilian endorsement is typed below the
senders address, or heading, or letterhead, and above
the dateline, which is also above the text.

Hence, a communication being endorsed to a


superior office shall use Respectfully forwarded,
or
Respectfully
submitted,
and
never
.referred, or .transmitted.
If sent to an office of equal rank,
Respectfully transmitted; to subordinate
Respectfully referred.

it is
units,

Correspondence returned to an office where it


originated or where it has been recorded use
Respectfully returned regardless of the rank of
the office concerned.
Starting with the word Respectfully, whether
submitted, forwarded, transmitted, referred, or
returned, the text which is usually composed of one
paragraph should be brief, accurate, clear, and
definitely following grammar rules.

CIVILIAN LETTER
The police uses a purely civilian letter when
communicating with the President of the Philippines,
Department Secretaries, Provincial Governors, City
or Municipal Mayors, owners and managers of private
companies, and the like.

PARTS OF A CIVILIAN LETTER


1. Heading

8. Body

2. File reference (optional)


3. Dateline

9. Complimentary Close

10. Company Signature

4. Inside Address

11. Reference Initials

5. Attention Line

12. Enclosure Notation

6. Salutation
7. Subject Line

13. Postscript (P.S.)


14. Copy Furnished

TYPES OF CIVILIAN LETTERS


1. Information Letter

9.Order Letter

2. Invitation Letter 10.Letter of Inquiry


3. Invitation Refusal
4. Claim Letter

11. Recommendation Letter


12. Reference Letter

5. Adjustment Letter 13. Application Letter


6. Request Letter
7. Transmittal Letter

14. Condolence Letter


15. Appointment Letter

8. Credit Application Letter

WHEN DO WE USE THE APPROPRIATE SALUTATION?


The salutation greets the reader and the greeting may be formal
or informal, cordial or personal. The following examples show
the different kinds of salutations and the tones they reflect.
EXAMPLES
Singular
Plural
Extremely Formal
Sir
Sirs
Still Very Formal Dear Sir
Dear Sirs
Formal and Cordial Dear Mr.Tan Dear Messrs. Tan
and Cruz
Informal
Gentlemen
(When addressed to a company or to
a group consisting entirely of
men, or even of men and women)
Personal
Dear Banjo
Dear Lyn
Used in courtesy letters

REMEMBER:
Except for peers and royalty, the virtually
universal form is Dear Sir or Dear Sirs and
Dear Madam or Dear Mesdames.
The singular
form is used for a person or a particular
member, e.g., president of a company.
Sir without Dear is usually reserved for
honorific distinctions in addressing a person of
rank, like a judge, military or police officer.
Doctor
is
occasionally
written
in
full,
although the abbreviation Dr. is perfectly
acceptable. The following titles are frequently
abbreviated, but it is more dignified to write
them in full, i.e., Hon. for Honorable,
Prof. for Professor, Atty. for Attorney,
and Rev. for Reverend.

WHEN DO WE USE THE APPROPRIATE COMPLIMENTARY


CLOSE?
EXAMPLES
Formal to a Superior :Yours respectfully
:Respectfully yours
:Very respectfully yours
:Yours very respectfully
Formal-Businesslike

:Yours truly

:Yours very truly


Less Formal

:Very sincerely yours


:Yours very sincerely
:Yours sincerely

Less Formal-Cordial

:Very cordially yours

:Yours very cordially


:Yours cordially

The segment ranges from formal to cordial.


For official correspondence, Very truly
yours is perfectly acceptable.
The tone in the complimentary close must
match with that of the salutation.
Dear
Sir and Lovingly yours, or Dear Juan
and Respectfully yours do not complement
each other.
Among government officials, it is only the
president whose name may be omitted in the
inside address.

EXAMPLES
Addressee

The President

Malacanang Palace
Manila
Salutation

Madam:

Dear Mrs. President:


Mrs. President:
Complimentary
Close

Very respectfully yours,

Yours very respectfully,


Respectfully yours,
Yours respectfully,

COMPANY SIGNATURE
In a civilian letter, a company signature may be shown
immediately above the writers signature, based on the theory
that the company, not the writer, is the legal entity.
In
other
words,
the
company
assumes
a
greater
responsibility than the individual; otherwise, the company
signature is omitted, especially if including it is not a
standard policy of the firm.
EXAMPLES
With a company signature

:Very truly yours,

DEL MUNDO MERCHANDISING


GEORGE
MUNDO
Manager, Sales Department
Without a company
signature
:Very truly yours,
GEORGE L. DEL MUNDO
Manager, Sales Department

L.

DEL

Among those in uniform, the authority


line takes place of a company signature.
The line is typed all in capital letters,
followed by a colon, and is positioned two
spaces below the complimentary close.
EXAMPLE
Respectfully yours,
FOR THE CHIEF OF POLICE:
ADRIATICO B DEL CAMAT, JR
Police Superintendent
Chief, Operations Branch

EXERCISE: MAKING A BRIEF, CONCISE, AND INFORMATIVE REPORT

Using the 5Ws and 1H technique, make a brief, concise, and


informative report by eliminating the inessentials from the
information given below:

Ilaban, a former Philippine Army (P.A.) Officer, was walking


towards a staff house to have dinner when the suspect
approached him and fired the fatal shot, Ridsdel said in a mobile
phone interview.

When Ilaban retired from the military service, he immediately


joined TVIs mining project in Cabanatuan as a security officer,
leading the Special CAFGU Active Auxiliary, a unit trained and
supervised by the military.

John Ridsdel, a corporate advisor for Toronto Ventures, Inc., (TVI),


yesterday said that retired Colonel Ruben Ilaban, security
manager of the Cabanatuan Copper-Gold Project, was gunned
down at 7:15 P.M. of March 01, 2005 at the mine site. The killing
may have been triggered by Ilabans active campaign against MILF
extremists in the past.

CAFGUs are usually deployed by the military in areas with highprofile security problems to augment regular army troops in the
area.

END OF THE LECTURE!


MOBE KITA!