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Section 8.

1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins


Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins
Objectives
Name the three classes of nutrients that supply
your body with energy.
Explain how the body obtains energy from
foods.
Describe the roles that carbohydrates, fats,
and proteins play in your body.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins


Quick Quiz Which of these statements are always true?
Which are sometimes true? Which are always false?
Foods that are high in calories are unhealthy.
You should avoid foods with sugars in them.
You should avoid fats in your diet.
Vegetarian diets are low in protein.
Snacking is bad for you.

Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Nutrition
The sum of the processes by which humans, animals,
and plants consume and use food is nutrition.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Foods Supply Nutrients


Food supplies your body with nutrients, substances
in food that helps with body processes (regulate
bodily functions, promote growth, repair body
tissues, and obtain energy).
There are six classes of nutrients: carbohydrates,
fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used by
the body as sources of energy.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Foods Supply Energy


The foods you eat are your bodys energy source.
You need energy to maintain your body temperature,
keep your heart beating, and enable you to
understand what you read.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Fuel for Your Body


When your body uses the nutrients in foods, a series
of chemical reactions occurs inside your cells. As a
result, energy is released.
Metabolism is the chemical process by which your
body breaks down food to release as energy.
Metabolism also involves the use of this energy for
growth and repair of body tissue.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

What are Calories?


The amount of energy released when nutrients are
broken down is measured in units called calories.
The more calories a food has, the more energy it
contains.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are nutrients made of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen.
Carbohydrates supply energy for your bodys
functions.
A nutrient that is the main source of energy for the
body is a carbohydrate.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Simple Carbohydrates
Simple carbohydrates are sugars that enter the
bloodstream rapidly and provide quick energy.
Simple carbs provide calories but few vitamins
and minerals.

Complex Carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrates are made up of sugars that
are linked together chemically to form long chains.
Starch a food substance that is made and stored in
most plants
Provide long-lasting energy
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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Carbohydrates can be
Simple Carbs

Complex Carbs

- Fruits
- Honey
- Milk
- Sugars added to cookies,
candies, soft drinks

-Grains (bread & pasta)


-Vegetables (potatoes &
beans)
-Rice
-Cereals
-Wheat
-Tortillas
-Whole-wheat rolls

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Fiber
Fiber is a type of complex carbohydrate that is found
in plants.
A high-fiber diet
helps prevent constipation
may reduce the risk of colon cancer
may help prevent heart disease
The part of grains and plant foods that cannot be
digested is called fiber.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Insoluble vs Soluble Fiber


Insoluble

Soluble

Binds with water to help


produce bowel
movements (prevent
constipation).
Associated with reduced
risk of colon cancer.
Good sources: wheat
products, leafy
vegetables, and fruits.

Eating foods with soluble


fiber reduces your blood
cholesterol level and your
risk of developing heart
disease.
Good sources: wheat,
bran, barley, rye, oats,
whole grain pasta,breads,
cereals

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Fiber

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Your Bodys Energy Reserves


At a meal, you usually eat more carbohydrates than
your body can immediately use.
The extra glucose is converted into a type of starch
called glycogen.
Glycogen is stored in the muscles and when you
need energy, it is converted to glucose.
If you eat so many carbohydrates that the bodys
glycogen stores are full, then the excess
carbohydrates are stored as fat instead.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Daily Carbohydrate Intake


Nutritionists recommend that 45-65% of a persons
daily calorie intake come from carbohydrates.
It is better to eat foods rich in complex carbohydrates
rather than simple carbohydrates.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Fats
Fats are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Fats supply your body with energy, form your cells,
maintain body temperature, and protect your nerves.
A nutrient that provides energy and helps the body
store and use vitamins is a fat.
Used as a source of backup energy in cases when
carbohydrates are not available
Maintain Proper Body Temperature

Thin fat layer located right underneath the skin. This


layer of fat is designed to insulate the body, keeping
heat inside and therefore helping us maintain the
proper body temperature
layer of fat that is surrounding major organs that act
like a protective cushion

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Unsaturated Fats
Unsaturated Fats have at least one unsaturated
bond in a place where hydrogen can be added to the
molecule.
Unsaturated fats are usually liquid at room
temperature.
Unsaturated fats are classified as either
monounsaturated fats or polyunsaturated fats.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Saturated Fats
Fats that have all the hydrogen the carbon atoms
can hold are called saturated fats.
Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature.
Too much saturated fat in your diet can lead to heart
disease.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Daily Fat Intake


Nutritionists recommend that 20-35% of your calories
come from fat, primarily unsaturated fat.
Recommended Sources of Healthy Fat
Avocado
Eggs
Nuts
Olive Oil
Fatty Fish

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a waxy, fatlike substance that is found
only in animal products.
Your body needs a certain amount of cholesterol to
make cell membranes and nerve tissue, certain
hormones, and substances that aid in the digestion
of fat.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Proteins
Nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen are called proteins.
Proteins can serve as a source of energy.
A nutrient that is needed for growth, and to build and
repair body tissues is a protein.
Transport minerals, vitamins, fats and oxygen
through body
Also needed for healing after surgery or infections

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Amino Acids
Proteins are long chains of smaller links that are
bound together chemically.
These smaller substances are known as amino
acids.
The building blocks that make up proteins are amino
acids.
Amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Essential Amino Acids


The nine amino acids that the body cannot
manufacture are called essential amino acids
Essential Amino Acids

Non-Essential Amino Acids

histidine

alanine

isoleucine

arginine*

leucine

aspartic acid

lysine

cysteine*

methionine

glutamic acid

phenylalanine

glutamine*

threonine

glycine*

tryptophan

proline*

valine

serine*
tyrosine*
asparagine*
selenocysteine

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Sources of Protein
Complete Proteins
Meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products
Incomplete
Beans
Rice
Grains

Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Complete and Incomplete Proteins


Protein from animal sources is complete protein.
It contains all nine essential amino acids.
Most protein from plant sources is incomplete
protein.
It lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Daily Protein Intake


Nutritionists recommend that 10-35% percent of your
calories come from proteins.
Between 0.85 and 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of
body weight
Varies based on age, and based on whether a person
is pregnant or lactating

Proteins for Vegetarians


People who dont eat meat can combine two or more
plant protein sources that, taken together, provide all
the essential amino acids.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Vocabulary
nutrient

A substance in foods that the body needs to


regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair
body tissues, and obtain energy.

metabolism

The chemical process by which the body breaks


down food to release energy.

calorie

Unit for the amount of energy released when


nutrients are broken down.

carbohydrate

A nutrient made of carbon, hydrogen, and


oxygen and that supplies energy.

fiber

A way of dealing with an uncomfortable or


unbearable feeling or situation.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Vocabulary
fat

unsaturated fat

saturated fat

cholesterol

A nutrient made of carbon, hydrogen, and


oxygen; supplies energy, forms cells, maintains
body temperature, and protects nerves.
A fat with at least one unsaturated bond in a
place where hydrogen can be added to the
molecule.
A fat that has all the hydrogen the carbon atoms
can hold. A fat that has all the hydrogen the
carbon atoms can hold.
A waxy, fatlike substance that is found only in
animal products.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Vocabulary
trans fat

The type of fat produced when manufacturers


add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetable
oils.

protein

A nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as


carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; needed for the
growth and repair of body tissues.

amino acid

Small units that are bound together


chemically to form proteins.

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Section 8.1 Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Questions
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Which 3 classes of nutrients supply the body with energy?


Define the term metabolism. How is metabolism related to the nutrients in
food?
What roles do the following nutrients play in the body? A. carbohydrates B.
fats C. proteins
What is cholesterol? How does diet affect cholesterol levels in the blood?
Name a circumstance during which you might use your bodys stores of
glycogen.
How do saturated fats differ from unsaturated fats? Name 2 sources of each
type of fat.
Suppose that you ate 2,500 calories/day. Of those calories, 1,200 calories
were from carbs, 875 from fats, and the rest from protein. What % of your
total days calories came from carbs, from fats, and from protein?

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