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WELD & HEAT AFFECTED ZONES

PHASE CHANGE IN HEAT AFFECTED


ZONE CARBON STEEL

VARIATIONS IN GRAIN SIZE IN HAZ


NOTE COARSE GRAIN ADJACENT TO WELD
--EXAMPLE WELDED TITANIUM

TIG WELDING

ELECTRON BEAM WELDING

WELD DEFECTS

WELD CRACKING
ROOT CRACK; HOT CRACK; UNDER PENETRATION

WELDING STRESS
BOTTOM--FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

STRESS CAN BE CALCULATED USING


DIFFERENCE IN THERMAL EXPANSION

WELDING OF STAINLESS STEELS


&
DMW

Hot cracking of Austenitic S. S.

To Maintain Weld Toughness, Excessive


Grain Growth Of Delta Ferrite To Be
Avoided By Low Heat Input. Suggested
Conditions Are
Alloy

Heat Input (kJ/mm)

Duplex
Super Duplex

Up to 2.5
Up to 1.5

Max. Interpass Temp. ( 0C)


250
150

For Good Corrosion Resistance, Root


Pass Oxygen Content Of Back Up Gas
Should Be Less Than 500 ppm

Argon With Between 0.8 2.0%.


Nitrogen
Can
Be
Used
To
Compensate For Nitrogen Loss. Gas
Containing 3% Nitrogen Has Also
Been Used.
Repair Weld Of DSS Should Be
Avoided Because Of Risk Of
Precipitation Of Detrimental Phases
Due To Additional Heat Input. Good
Practice Is To Repair DSS By Full
Weld Cutout.

WELDING OF DUPLEX STAINLESS


STEEL

Welding Should Be Done Using


Consumable. Autogenous Welds
May Form Excessively High
Ferrite
Consumable Used Should Contain
Typically 7 to 9% More Nickel
For Satisfactory Phase Balance

SS/CrMo DMW (WITH309 WELD)


CRACKING

SS/CrMo DMW USING INCONEL &


CREEP CRACK AT INTERFACE

PROBLEMS WITH TITANIUM


WELDS
MAJOR
PROBLEM
CONTAMINATION
OF
GASES

DUE
TO
SHIELDING

APPEARANCE
COLOUR OF WELD IS AN INDICATION
OF SHIELDING EFFECTIVENSS. GOOD
WELD WILL HAVE BRIGHT SILVERY
METALLIC LUSTURE.

WELD COLOUR

PROBABLE CAUSES & TREATMENT

LIGHT STRAW
DARK STRAW
LIGHT BLUE

SURFACE OXIDE. REMOVE BY


WIRE BUSHING WITH NEW S.S.
BRUSH

DARK BLUE
GRAY BLUE
GRAY

METAL IMPURITY. REMOVE WELD


& RE DO AFTER CORRECTIONS IN
SHIELDING ARE MADE

WHITE
LOOSE
DEPOSIT

METAL CONTAMINATION. RE DO AS
ABOVE

EX. WELDING PROCESS


EX. WELDING. PROCESS & METAL/METAL
BOND

EXPLOSION
INTENSITY
STAGES IN EX.
WELDING

BOND CONTURE BETWEEN Al/Ta/SS;


Cu/Ta & Al/SS BONDED RING

BEND TEST OF Zr CLAD CS BY EX.


WELDING

Zirconium cladding
12mSteel 30mm

STRENGTH & CORR RES. OF EX. CLAD MATL.

AUTOMATIC U/S TEST FOR DISBONDING OF


CLAD PLATE

METAL COMBIATIONS SUCCESSFULLY


EXPLOSION BONDED

PROCESSING SEQUENCE OF EX.


BONDING OF TUBE/TUBESHEET

EX. WELDING OF TUBE TO TUBE SHEET


JOINT

VIEW OF T/TS EXPANSION BY


EXPLOSION.BONDING

UNDER WATER WELDING; GMA WELDING


CURRENT TABLE; WET WELDING; HABITAT

SPECIAL ELECTRODE FOR UNDER WATER


WELDING--- DEVELOPED AT OHIO STATE
UNIVERSITY

TEMPER BEAD WELDING

FRICTION STITCH WELDING


TOP HYDRO PILLER; BOTTOM--TAPER

DEEP UNDER WATER ROBOTIC STITCH


WELDING SET UP