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HOW DOES

THE EARTH
WORK?

FORCES ACTING ON THE


EARTH
External Forces:
Weather Phenomena like Rain, Snow,
Winds, Storms, Hurricanes, Tornadoes
Rock Weathering
Erosion of Rocks
Transportation of Products of
Weathering and Erosion
Deposition

FORCES ACTING ON THE


EARTH
Internal Forces
Earthquakes
Volcanic Eruptions
Mountain Building
Movement of Continenents
Plate Motions

SOURCES OF ENERGY
External Forces : Solar Energy
Earths daily receipt of Suns energy
1.49x1022 J
Internal Forces : Heat Energy from
Interior of Earth
Total geothermal energy reaching Earths
surface each year
1021 J

RING OF FIRE

TYPES OF VOCANOES
Vesuvius Type
Highly Viscous Lava
Comes from Shallow Depth
Hawaiin Type
Lava of Low Viscosity
Comes from Deep inside the Earth

Vesuvius Type Volcano

Hawaiin Type Volcanoes

EARTHQUAKES
Earthquakes are caused by plate
motions.
Plates form the lithosphere.
The lithosphere is cool enough to
behave as a more or less rigid shell.
The lithosphere has the strength and
the brittle behavior to fracture in an
earthquake.

HYPOCENTRE AND EPICENTRE


Recording
Epicentre

Hypocentre
or Focus

Station

EARTHQUAKES

SEISMICITY OF INDIA

EARTHQUAKES
Earthquakes occurrence is
accompanied by fault rupture.
When a fault ruptures, it causes two
types of deformation: static; and
dynamic.
Static deformation is the permanent
displacement of the ground due to the
event.

The Earthquake Cycle


The earthquake cycle progresses from
a fault that is not under stress, to a
stressed fault as the plate tectonic
motions driving the fault slowly
proceed, to rupture during an
earthquake and a newly-relaxed but
deformed state

The Earthquake Cycle

SEISMIC WAVES
The second type of deformation,
dynamic motions, are essentially
sound waves radiated from the
earthquake as it ruptures. While most
of the plate-tectonic energy driving
fault ruptures is taken up by static
deformation, up to 10% may dissipate
immediately in the form of seismic
waves

SEISMIC WAVES

SEISMIC WAVES
Compressional waves, also known as
primary or P waves, travel fastest, at
speeds between 1.5 and 8 kilometers
per second in the Earth's crust.
Shear waves, also known as secondary
or S waves, travel more slowly, usually
at 60% to 70% of the speed of P waves.

SEISMIC WAVES
The dynamic, transient seismic waves
from any substantial earthquake will
propagate all around and entirely
through the Earth.
Given a sensitive enough detector, it is
possible to record the seismic waves
from even minor events occurring
anywhere in the world at any other
location on the globe.

SEISMOGRAPH

LOCATING EARTHQUAKES
The pricipal use of seismograph
networks is to locate earthquakes.
It is most accurate to use three or more
stations to locate earthquakes..
Locating the source of any earthquake
is important, of course, in assessing
the damage that the event may have
caused, and in relating the earthquake
to its geologic setting.

MAGNITUDE OF AN
EARTHQUAKE
Seismologists use a Magnitude scale to
express the seismic energy released by
each earthquake.
Magnitude is a measure of the size of
an earthquake.

MAGNITUDE
Each earthquake has a unique amount of energy, but
magnitude values given by different seismological
observatories for an event may vary.
Depending on the size, nature, and location of an
earthquake, seismologists use several different
methods to estimate magnitude.
The uncertainty in an estimate of the magnitude is
about plus or minus 0.3 units, and seismologists
often revise magnitude estimates as they obtain and
analyze additional data.

MAGNITUDE DETERMINATION

SEISMIC MOMENT
Seismologists have developed a standard
magnitude scale that is completely
independent of the type of instrument. It is
called the moment magnitude, and it
comes from the seismic moment

SEISMIC MOMENT

MOMENT MAGNITUDE

SEISMIC ENERGY
logES = 11.8 + 1.5M

Energy = (Moment)/20,000

SOME COMPARISON
M
-1.5

TNT

Example

6 ounces

Breaking a rock on a lab table

1.0

30 pounds

Large Blast at a Construction Site

4.0

1,000 tons

Small Nuclear Weapon

6.0

1 million tons

Moderate size earthquake

7.5 160 million tons

A major earthquake

9.0

Chilean Quake, 1960

32 billion tons

12.0 160 trillion tons

Earth's daily receipt of solar energy)

MAGNITUDE AND INTENSITY


Although each earthquake has a
unique Magnitude, its effects will vary
greatly according to distance, ground
conditions, construction standards,
and other factors. Seismologists use a
different Intensity Scale to express the
variable effects of an earthquake.
Intensity is a measure of the damage
vaused by an earthquake.

EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY
Seismologists use a separate method to
estimate the effects of an earthquake,
called its intensity. Intensity should not
be confused with magnitude. Although
each earthquake has a single magnitude
value, its effects will vary from place to
place, and there will be many different
intensity estimates.

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS
Intrinsic to the earthquake - its magnitude, type,
location, or depth;
Geologic conditions where effects are felt distance from the event, path of the seismic
waves, types of soil, water saturation of soil; and
Societal conditions reacting to the earthquake quality of construction, preparedness of
populace, or time of day (e.g.: rush hour).

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS
There are two classes of earthquake
effects: direct, and secondary.
Direct effects are solely those related to
the deformation of the ground near the
earthquake fault itself. Thus direct effects
are limited to the area of the exposed fault
rupture. Many earthquake faults never
break the surface, ruling out direct effects.

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS
Most of the damage done by earthquakes is due to their
secondary effects, those not directly caused by fault
movement, but resulting instead from the propagation of
seismic waves away from the fault rupture.
Secondary effects result from the very temporary
passage of seismic waves, but can occur over very large
regions, causing wide-spread damage.
Such effects include: seismic shaking; landslides;
liquefaction; fissuring; settlement; and the triggering
of aftershocks and additional earthquakes.

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS

MM INTENSITY SCALE
I. People do not feel any Earth movement.
V. Almost everyone feels movement. Sleeping people are
awakened. Doors swing open or close. Dishes are broken.
Pictures on the wall move. Small objects move or are turned
over. Trees might shake. Liquids might spill out of open
containers.

VIII. Drivers have trouble steering. Houses that are not bolted
down might shift on their foundations. Tall structures such as
towers and chimneys might twist and fall. Well-built buildings
suffer slight damage. Poorly built structures suffer severe
damage. Tree branches break. Hillsides might crack if the
ground is wet. Water levels in wells might change.

MM INTENSITY SCALE
X. Most buildings and their foundations are destroyed.
Some bridges are destroyed. Dams are seriously
damaged. Large landslides occur. Water is thrown
on the banks of canals, rivers, lakes. The ground
cracks in large areas. Railroad tracks are bent
slightly.

XII. Almost everything is destroyed. Objects are


thrown into the air. The ground moves in waves or
ripples. Large amounts of rock may move.

ISOSEISMAL MAP

SEISMOGRAMS

BODY AND SURFACE WAVES

P AND S- WAVE VELOCITIES


P- wave velocity, = [k + (4/3))/]
Swave velocity, = [/]

BODY AND SURFACE WAVES

Love and Rayleigh Waves

FREE OSCILLATIONS