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BRAND EQUITY

Kellers CBBE

CBBE Premise
Building

a strong brand involves four

steps
Establishing brand identity the breadth

and depth of brand awareness


Creating Brand Meaning through strong,
favourable and unique associations
Eliciting positive responses
Forging brand relationship with
customers

CBBE PYRAMID
Relationship
Resonance
Judgments

Response

Feelings
Meaning

Performance

Imagery

Salience

Identity

CBBE
Brand Salience (say-ly-ent):
This relates to aspects of awareness of the brand. Initial stage in
brand building process
Brand Salienceis the degree to which a brand is thought about or
noticed when a customer is in a buying situation.
Strong brands have high Brand Salience and weak brands have little
or none.
Not the same as Top of the mind recall, which is related to ranking
brands based on recollection from memory. May / may not play a role
in buying
Quality and quantity aspects become the major consideration sets
Introductory
promotions, offers, visibility, sophistication in
communication, reach etc are drivers of brand salience.
Helps to check if consumers are able to identify and locate the brand
among various competing brands
A Moment of Truth concept. Brand Elements help in locating the
brands.

BRAND ELEMENTS
Dimensions

of a brand created to differentiate it


from the rest.
Also called brand identity elements
Helps consumers to identify the brand
Visual Elements: Name, Logo, Symbols, Animal
Associations, Colours, Shapes etc
Product Elements: USP, Patents, Trademarks that
makes the product unique
Service Elements: Customer experience as a
differentiating factor
New Media Elements: Company URL, company
maintained blogs for the product.

CBBE
Brand

Performance:

This relates to ways in which product/

service meets customers needs


Customer expectations of product / service
quality is consistently met
Consumer understands the meaning of the
brand what they are meant for
Performance Dimensions: Product / service
basic dimensions, reliability, durability,
service, style, design, packaging, price etc.
Results in positive and enduring brand
association

CBBE
Brand

Imagery:

Its how customers visualize a brand abstractly,

with no relevance to what the brand actually


does
It is the condensation of all experiences a
consumer has ever had with a brand
Perceptions drawn from repeated exposure
Consumer draws a picture of Brand Personality
Real Dimensions: Functionality, Conformance to
standards, safety, durability, reliability.
Personality Dimensions: Sincerity, Excitement,
competence, sophistication and ruggedness
(by Jennifer Aaker)

BRAND PERSONALITY
SINCERITY: ICICI BANK, VASAN EYE
CARE, LIC OF INDIA
EXCITEMENT:
MIRINDA,
CADBURY,
NISSAN MICRA
COMPETENCE:
PHILLIPS LED BULBS,
SAMSUNG, PREETHI
SOPHISTICATION:
AIRTEL, RAYMOND,
AXE SIGNATURE, AUDI
RUGGEDNESS: MRF TYRES, WOODLAND
SHOES, LEVIS JEANS, MAHINDRA XUV

CBBE

Brand Judgments:
The customers personal opinions and evaluations

with regard to the brand


Rational judgement resulting out of continued
exposure to product and brand
A measure of customer loyalty
Cognitive judgement: Based on thinking, reasoning
and remembering. I think the brand delivers what
it promises, The brand has strong values, etc.
Behavioural judgement: Based on brand
performance over time. Based my usage, I find the
brand to be consistent etc
Affective judgement: Result oriented. The like this
brand cos it is reliable, The brand is durable,
The brand gave me a lot of savings, I love it.

Judgment Dimensions

Brand quality
Value
Satisfaction

Brand credibility
Expertise
Trustworthiness
Likability

Brand consideration
Relevance

Brand superiority
Differentiation

CBBE
Brand Feelings: The customers
emotional responses and
reactions with respect to the
brand
Brand Resonance:

The ultimate relationship & level of

identification that the customer has


with the brand

Feelings Dimensions
Warmth
Fun
Excitement
Security
Social approval
Self-respect

Resonance Dimensions

Behavioral loyalty
Frequency and amount of repeat purchases

Attitudinal attachment
Love brand
Proud of brand

Sense of community
Kinship
Affiliation

Active engagement
Seek information
Join club
Visit web site, chat rooms

-55
FF-

6
FF--6

F-7
F-7

I-10
I-10

Feelings
Feelings
0.58

F-4
F-4

R-7
R-7

0.66

8
RR--8

FF--3
3

FF--22

F-1
F-1

122
FF--1

P-7
P-7

J-7
J-7

8
JJ--8

RR--3
3

RR--22

R-1
R-1

122
RR--1

1
-111
RR-

0.49

-55
RR-

8
FF--8

1
-111
FF-

I-I-33

II--22

I-1
I-1

8
PP--8

Judgment
Judgment

6
RR--6

0.24
RR--9
9

FF--9
9

5
I-I-5

II--66

I-7
I-7

2
II--112

0.17
-55
JJ-

I-I-44

0.65
6
JJ--6

Imagery
Imagery
JJ--9
9

-55
PP-

6
PP--6

I-I-99

II--88

PP--44

FF--1
100

P-10
P-10

Performance
Performance
JJ--1
100

PP--9
9

111
I-I-1

JJ--3
3

JJ--22

J-1
J-1

122
JJ--1

1
-111
JJ-

PP--3
3

PP--22

P-1
P-1

122
PP--1

1
-111
PP-

Application:
Identify the key drivers of brand equity

J-4
J-4

R-10
R-10

Resonance
Resonance
R-4
R-4

Kapferers Brand Prism

Brand Identity Prism - Elements

Physique

Personality

Relationship

Culture

Rallying Cry

Reflection

Aspirational
Self-Image

Brand Identity Prism by Jean-Noel Kapferer, The New Strategic Brand Management, 2012, p.156

Jean Noel Kapferers prism

PHYSIQUE this forms the basis of the brand.


PERSONALITY personality here means personification of
the brand. The brand personality is perceived as a person
or an animal.
CULTURE the country of origin of the brand that is seen
as a product attribute forms the culture.
RELATIONSHIP it is the understanding between the
consumer and the organization.
REFLECTION this is the consumers perception of the
brand and its values.
SELF-IMAGE this is about what the consumer thinks
about himself or herself.

Prism Element: Physique


This element answers the question: What do we do?
Many brands have problems with their physical facet because
their functional added value is weak. Even an image-based
brand must deliver material benefits. We focus on capabilities,
which are about the brands value-added.
Example: KFC Chicken
Capabilities:
Chicken Highest Qulity
Cooking Making perfectly cooked chicken
Resource Helping you make successful
dinners

Prism Element: Relationship


This element answers the question: Who are we?
Strong brands are built on a strong culture and a clear set of shared
values.
Brands core beliefs and way of operating.
Unwavering, and uncompromising.
According to Kapferer: The cultural facet of brands identity
underlines that brands are engaged in an Physique
ideological competition.
Example: Nike
Nike champions solo willpower
with a dose of optimism, and
addresses a major sociological
insight:
Millions of people in the world today
know that they can count only on
themselves.

1.20 20

Prism Element: Reflection


This element answers the question: Why do we exist?
Strong brands are a vision of the world. The idea of Being of Service
underlies this facet of the Brand Identity prism. It is meant to be
motivating to employees, and important to customers and other
external stakeholders.
Examples:

Titan
ITC
Bajaj
Saffola
ICICI

1.21 21

Prism Element: Brand Personality


This element answers the question: How
do we deliver?
Some brands are incredibly earnest, others
are super smart. By communicating their
personality, brands build character.
Consumers identify with the brands
personality or project themselves into it.

Prism Element: Culture

This element answers the question: What do we


have in common?

Brand loyalty provides a sense of belonging. Whether its formal or


grassroots, that connection provides a powerful bond and source of
distinction.
Example: Harley Davidsons creation of a brand community was
central to its turnaround
Created a group of ardent consumers organized around the
lifestyle, activities, and ethos of the brand
Retooled every aspect of the organizationfrom its culture to its
operating procedures and governance structureto drive its
community strategy.
Made Harley into one motorcycle
manufacturer that understood bikers
on their own terms.

Prism Element: Aspirational Self-Image


This element answers the question: What do customers
want their use of the brand to say about them?
Repeated use and reliance on a brand demonstrates its value
to the user.
Brand loyalty provides an emotional or self-expressive benefit.
Use of the brand tells others something about the user, and it
tells the user something about her/himself.
Example: Lacoste
Users see themselves as members of a chic sports club an open
club with no race, sex or age discrimination, but which endows
its members with distinction.
This works because sport is universal.

Prism Element: Rallying Cry


This element answers the question: what does all this add up
to?
The Rallying Cry is 3-5 word shorthand encapsulation of your
brand identity.
Emotional
Modifier

Descriptive
Modifier

Brand
Category/Industry

Defines the category of business for the brand, sets boundaries


and clarifies what is unique.
Should be memorable, crisp and vivid.
Stakes out ground that is personally meaningful and relevant to
employees.
Not an advertising slogan, and, in most cases, not used publicly.
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BRAND LADDER

Brand Ladderrefers to the various


benefit levels which abrand provides to it
consumers. Over the lifecycle of abrand,
marketers project abrandso as to gain
customer loyalty. The term was coined by
Kevin Lane Keller, Professor who wrote the
book 'StrategicBrand Management'.
Moving up the Brand Ladder is the
ultimate goal for any branding strategy
Helps in creating Brand Mantra

BRAND LADDER
Otherwise

called Benefits Ladder


A brand initially showcases attributes as the benefit,
followed by functional benefits, finally leading up to
emotional benefits.
As soon as a product enters the emotional
requirement bracket in consumer mindspace, it has
a much better chance of retaining customer loyalty.
This kind of loyalty will be difficult for any competitor
to displace with functionality parameters.
The primary aim of laddering :to form stronger
bonds with the consumer, ensuring retention
and preventing switching of brands.

BRAND LADDER

BRAND LADDER : Ex 1

BRAND LADDER: Ex 2

BRAND LADDER: Ex 3

LADDERING TECHNIQUE

Is a qualitative method of research


A personal interview method is used for a set
of generally open ended questions
The aim is to understand the personal value
that the brand gives to the customer
Basic features related questions followed by
questions to check if the customers
understood the brand difference followed by
questions to understand how valuable the
brand is to them or what emotional connect
the customers have with the brand