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SI Engines

Presented by,
Muhammad Fawad
A.E (Machinery)

Engine

A physical or theoretical device that convert heat


energy into mechanical energy
CLASSIFICATION

RECIPROCATING ENGINE
HISTORY

Huygens Atmospheric Engine

Dutch Polymath Chritiaan Huygen.


In 1673, when half decent fuel was gun powder.

Newcomens Atmospheric Engine

Invented in 1705 by British Blacksmith THOMAS


NEWCOMENS.
Used for extracting water out of mines.

Watts Steam Atmospheric Engine

James Watts Scottish inventor and


mechanical engineer in 1765 modify
Newcomens engine and doubled it
efficiency by adding Second cylinder and
JET CONDENSOR .

Lenoir's Gas Atmospheric Engine

In1860 Joseph Jean Lenoir successfully


makes an IC engine that run stably and
reliably.
Instead of one gun shot idea, gas is
introduced into cylinder & ignited by
external flame.
Could attain only 3 % efficiency.
Until 1865 300 of these are manufactured.

Otto & Langen Atmospheric Engine


In 1864 Nicolas August Auto and Eugene
Langen founded a gas atmospheric engine
company Duetz.
With 30% more efficiency than Lenoir, 5000
units were sold until 1877.
The continues up & down motion for very
first time converted into rotary motion by use
of rack and pinion.

Otto Cycle
In1876 rather than relying on atmospheric
pressure imbalance Otto used explosion for
power stroke and flywheel to maintain
momentum.
Rack and pinion were replaced connecting rod
and crankshaft.
1 power stroke in cycle with 4 strokes.

I. Suction
II. Compression
III. Expansion
(Ignition by
introducing a
live flame)
IV. Exhaust

1878 British Inventor Dugald Clerk invented first Two stroke


engine.

1882 James Atkinson invented 6 stroke engine two extra


strokes for scavenging.

1884 British Inventor Edward Butler constructed first petrol


(Gasoline Engine), Butler invented the SPARK PLUG, SPRAY
JET CARBURETOR, IGNITION MAGNETO, COIL IGNITION and
first ever to used word PETROL.

And in 1983 German Inventor Rudolf Diesel invented first


Compression Ignition.

Sources: www.carbibles.com/enginehistory.html#ixzz2j34QoHCF &


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_internal_combustion_engine

Classification of ICE

Engine
Gas Exchange : 4 stroke / 2 Stroke.
Ignition Type : Diesel /Gasoline/Gas.
Fuel Delivery : Carburetor / Direct Injection.
Type Of Cooling : Air Cooled / Water Cooled.
Breathing : Natural Aspiration/Forced Aspiration.
Load Control : Variation of air / Variation of fuel.
Arrangement of Piston : In-line / Vee type.
Oil Sump : Wet / Dry.
Cam Shaft : Overhead / below.
ETC .

RECIPROCATING ENGINE
TERMNOLIGIES

Top Dead Center (TDC): the position of a piston in which it is farthest


from the crankshaft, or nearest to the cylinder head.

Bottom Dead Center (BDC): the position of a piston in which it is


nearest to the crankshaft, or farthest from the cylinder head.

Cylinder Bore (B): the diameter measurement of the cylinders in a


piston engine. Assuming the clearance almost zero, it is may be
considered also the outer diameter of the piston.

Stroke (L): the length of the piston motion between TDC and BDC,
covered from Piston in both direction.

Piston crown surface area (Ap) : equals the piston surface area in
case of flat-topped pistons.

Displaced cylinder volume (Vd): volume displaced form the piston


during one stroke.

Engine displacement (V): single cylinder displacement multiplied by


the cylinders number (z).
Compression ratio ( ): the ratio between the volume of the cylinder,
when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke (BDC), and the volume
when the piston is at the top of its stroke (TDC). This volume is called
clearance volume (Vc).
Typical values of the compression ratio are:
6-10 for spark ignition engines.
16 20 for compression ignition engines.

SI (SPARK IGNITION) Engines

Ideal OTTO Cycle

Ideal Otto cycle process:

1-2 Isentropic Compression


2-3
Heat
Addiction
at
constant volume
3-4 Isentropic Expansion
4-1
Heat
Rejection
at
Constant Volume

Intake Stroke
The intake valve opens.
The piston moves down the cylinder
creating a partial vacuum.
A mixture of air and fuel is sucked
into the cylinder through the intake
valve.

Compression stroke
When the piston reaches BDC, both
valves are closed.
This seals the cylinder and prevents
the air-fuel mixture from escaping.
The piston begins to move up the
cylinder and compresses the mixture.

Power stroke
The piston rises until it reaches TDC.
At that moment a high voltage spark is
created by the spark plug.
This spark causes the compressed air-fuel
mixture to ignite and burn rapidly.
The force of this contained explosion forces
the piston down in the cylinder producing
power.

Exhaust stroke
As the piston nears BDC the exhaust valve
opens.
As the piston rises back up, it pushes the
burned gases out of the exhaust valve.
Once the exhaust stroke is completed, the
four strokes of operation begin all over again.

Real OTTO Cycle

Knocking : in spark-ignition ICE occurs when combustion of the air/fuel


mixture in the cylinder starts off correctly in response to ignition by the
spark plug.
Octane Number: it is ability of fuel to resist knocking. The higher the
octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before
detonating.

Engine Part Identification

VHP P9390 GSI

VHP Very High Power.


9390 9388 cubic. in(154Ltrs) Displaced volume.
GSI Stoichiometric Ratio, Forced aspiration.
SPECIFICATION
V-16.
Bore to stroke 9.375 x 8.5(236mm*216mm)
Over Square Cylinder.
Compression Ratio 8:01.
Lube Oil Capacity 165 gal.(625lts).
Jacket Water Capacity 148 gal (560 lts).
Starting air system 125~150psi.
Dry Weight 28,750lbs (13,041Kg).

NAME PLATE DATA

STANDARD EQUIPMENT

Air Cleaner : Engine mounted, including pad type pre-cleaner and service
indicator.
Bearing : Heavy duty, replaceable.
Breather : Ejector type, extractor
Crankshaft : Counter weighted, forged steel, dynamic balanced and 10 main
bearing.
Connecting Rods : Drop forged, rifle drilled.
Crankcase : Integral crankcase & cylinder frame, main bearing cap drilled
and tapped for temperature sensor.
Crank Shaft Pulley : 10 pitch diameter pulley.
Cylinders : Removable Cast iron cylinders, chrome plated on outer diameter.
Cylinder Head : 16 interchangeable head, two hard face intake and exhaust
valve per cylinder. Hard faced intake and exhaust valve seat insert, hydraulic
push rod.
Exhaust System : Single vertical at center 14
Engine Rotation : Counter clockwise facing flywheel.
Fly Wheel : Approx WR2= 155000lb-in2
with ring gear of 208 teeth to accept two drive adapter.

Fuel System : Dual, natural gas,(02) 4 duplex downdraft


carburetor and (02) fisher 99 gas regulator.
Governor : Woodward UG-8L with friction type speed control
mounted on right side.
Ignition : Waukesha Custom Engine Control Ignition Module.
(Electronic Digital Ignition Control)
Intercooler : Air to water.
Oil Cooler : With thermostatic temperature control and pressure
regulating valve.
Oil Pan : Base type 165 gallons (625 Ltrs) including filter and cooler.
Piston : Aluminium with floating pin and oil cooled.
Turbochargers : Two with water cooled bearing housing and waste
gate safety.
Vibration Damper : Viscous Type
Auxiliary Water Circuit : Belt driven, high capacity pump for
intercooler and L.O cooler.
Jacket Water Circuit : Belt driven, for individual cylinders

P9390GSI IDENTIFICATION

FRONT VIEW

RIGHT VIEW

LEFT VIEW

REAR GEAR TRAIN

ENGINE SYSTEMS
DESCRIPTION

SPEED GOVERNING SYSTEM

Governor : UG-8L, capable of isochronous operation


(maintaining engine speed regardless of load). Located
on rear right side.

Magnetic Pick Up Sensor: is threaded into flywheel


housing above flywheel, sense
through 208 gears on
f
flywheel.

Hall Effect Pick up : Locate timing of crankshaft for


CEC IM.

FUEL GAS SYSTEM


FG Pressure Regulator Carburetor
B u t t e r fl y v a l v e I n l e t M a n i f o l d
Main fuel gas Pressure regulator : to ensure steady fuel

supply to each carburetor, engine have fuel regulator on both


sides. It regulates the fuel gas flow into the carburetor where
it is mixed with air to provide a mixture for cylinder
Carburetor: each side is equipped with two down flow
carburetors. Provide combustible mixture by automatically
mixing air / fuel in proper proportion. Consist of

Air inlet housing.


A gas inlet valve.
Air flow measuring valve.
Two diaphragm operated gas metering valve.
Butterfly valve

IGNITION SYSTEM

CEC IMTM : Custom Engine Control Ignition module,

capable of adjusting spark timing.


Three Light indication
Power
Incoming Power
Pick Up
Hall Effect Pick Up Signal
Application Proper Application Setting

Signal sent from Hall Effect Pick Up to Ignition


Module, allow IM to determine exact position of crank
shaft and to tell correctly exact cylinder to fire.

AIR INTAKE SYSTEM


A i r C l e a n e r Tu r b o c h a r g e r I n t e r c o o l e r
Carburetor & air inlet manifold
Air Cleaner : Two filter on each side. Consist of

Air filtration frame.


Main air filter.
Pre-filter Pad.
Air intake Restriction- (Gauge mounted on each filter register condition of filter,
indicator must show green for pre-filter and main filter)
Rain Shed

Turbocharger: two turbocharger on each bank


Intercooler: Two intercooler for compressed air from turbochargers

centrifugal compressors. Heated enter the intercooler flows over


tubes which auxiliary water runs.
Carburetor & Air Inlet Manifold: cool dense air then enters the
carburetor resulting in air fuel mixture that is diverted to air intake
manifold and distributed to all cylinders.

TURBOCHARGER SYSTEM

Two turbochargers are installed on engine, one on each


bank.
Exhaust from engine rotate turbine side of
turbocharger, resulting in rotation of compressor
mounted on same shaft,

COOLING SYSTEM
JACKET WATER CIRCUIT
Jacket Water Header In Crankcase Cylinder Sleeve Inside
Cylinder Block Cylinder Head Valve Seats & Valve Guide
Water Cooler Exhaust Manifold Piping Water
Manifold Pump Cluster Thermostat Water Header or
Cooler

Jacket Water Header : Located in both crankcase and


cylinder head.
Jacket water passage is integrally cast inside crankcase.
Jacket water circulate around cylinder sleeve inside
cylinder block
flow up though the water opening in deck of each cylinder
head, where its flows around valve seats and valve guide.
up to the water cooler exhaust manifold.

JACKET WATER CIRCUIT


Exhaust Manifold: from each cylinder head water
passes up through the water outlet elbow connection,
to one segment of water-jacketed exhaust manifold
and exit though water piping.
Water Manifold : Receive water from each segment of
exhaust manifold and route it to cluster thermostat
above pump.
Cluster Thermostat : Located between exhaust
manifold and water manifold. Maintain jacket water
temperature.
Jacket Water Pump: belt driven, located above
crankshaft puller at front end. Water exiting pump is
piped into jacket water header
Surge Tank : Coolant reservoir for engine jacket water.

COOLING SYSTEM
AUXILIARY WATER SYSTEM
Auxiliary water pump intercooler oil cooler
auxiliary water cooler Pump Again
Auxiliary Water Pump: Belt driven, located lower right

side of engine.
Intercooler: finned tube heat exchanger, used for
cooling o compressed air from turbochargers.
Oil Cooler: Oil cooler is shell and tube type heat
exchanger. Where water in tube and oil in shell. Water
than carried heat from L.O cooler to heat dissipating
device ( Auxiliary water cooling bundle) from there the
water passes back to pump.

LUBRICATION SYSTEM
INTERNAL LUBRICATION
Main oil header is integral part of crank case.
I.
Internal Passage from Crankcase Main Bearings Main
Bearing Passage Big End Bearing Through Drill in
Connection Rod Pin (Gudgeon pin) Cylinder Wall Spray
and Piston Crown Cooling.
II.
Internal Passage for tapping gear train.
III. Internal Passage Cam Shaft Bearings Valve Lifter
Housing (thus lubricating roller follower and cam lobes)
Drain to Sump.
IV. External Oil Supply Line from Main Header Separate
External rocker Arm header Supply Tubes (supply tubes to
turbocharger bearing also) Rocker Arm Assemblies and
Valve Assemblies Drain to Sump.

P9390 Gsi Internal Oil system

P9390 Gsi External Oil system

Oil Pan & Pick Up Screen : bottom of crank case is


enclosed by oil pan, oil pump draws the oil from lowest
point in oil pan. The oil screen prevent any foreign material
from oil pan to enter in the circuit.

Oil Pump : The lube oil pump is driven by gear train, is


externally mounted. Located on the right rear of the engine.
Oil Cooler : Shell and tube type cooler. Thermostatic valve
are enclosed in a housing mounted at the oil cooler outlet.
Oil Strainer : contain one by pass PRV. A pressure
difference of 15 psi open the valve element, by passing the
strainer enroute to the main oil header.
Prelube Pump : The function of prelube is to purge the
lubrication system of air and to ensure all moving parts,
especially turbochargers, are properly lubricated before
engine start up.

PreLube Valve : Open to admit amount of air from the branch of


air/gas supply line, which turn the prelube pump motor to activate
the prelube pump.
In-line Lubricator: injects oil into the stream of compressed
air/gas to automatically provide the proper internal lubrication for
air/gas motor vanes.
Lube Oil Level Regulator: Level switch, which maintain engine
lube oil level to correct level.
MicroSpin Cleanable Lube Oil Filtering System :
Consist of two component, cleanable filter element and centrifuge
using a removable paper insert.
Centrifuge is installed as a by pass system, working in conjunction
with cleanable filter element. And driven by engine oil pressure.
Cleanable filter element will remove particle as small as 25
Microns and centrifuge will clean oil particle as small as 0.5
Microns.

CRANKCASE BREATHING SYSTEM


The purpose of crankcase breathing system is to
maintain a slight negative pressure in crankcase.
The negative pressure rids the crankcase of harmful
water vapors and combustible gases, and help to
prevent sludge build up and oil contamination.
And is also designed to separate the oil from vapor
before the discharge is releases into the
atmosphere.
The component of breathing systems are as follows

Oil Separator.
Vacuum valve.
Breather Regulator.
Venturi Extractor

Oil Separator : Located on the rear of the engine,


above flywheel. As the vapor and oil mist pass
through the oil adhere to mess element contained in
it. Oil condenses and drop back into the base of the
separator than and return to oil pan.

Choke Valve/Vacuum Valve : Allows the crank


case pressure to be adjusted externally.

Breather Regulator : Automatically perform fine


adjustment to maintain negative crankcase pressure
as the engine changes speed and load.

Venturi Extractor : creates a vacuum at the


exhaust pipe connecting to draw the crankcase
vapor from oil separator into the exhaust stack.

STARTING SYSTEM

Start Push Button Valve: activate series of


valves that allow air/gas pressure to activate
air/gas motor.

Starter Motor : air gas pressure causes the


pinion to engage with flywheel ring gear &
activate the starter motor to crank engine

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