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Group V
Building Construction 2

Air conditioning is the process of altering the

properties of air
(primarily temperature and humidity) to more
favorable conditions.
The control of these conditions may be
desirable to maintain the health and comfort of
the occupants, or to meet the requirements of
industrial processes irrespective of the external
climatic conditions

What is there to learn about AC system?

Functions of Air-conditions
Basic operating cycle
Basic Components of AC
Various AC system
Factors involved in choosing a system





DEFINITION a cycle that shows how the refrigerant vapor is inhaled

and discharged by the compressor to the condenser.

-Inhaling the refrigerant
from the suction channel
- Compressing to the
discharge channel.

Cold refrigerant vapor and

low pressure

-Liquid turns to vapor
-Cold air flows out room

Hot refrigerant vapor and

high pressure
Cold refrigerant vapor and
low pressure

-Remove heat from condenser
-Refrigerant vapor turn to liquid.

Hot refrigerant vapor and

high pressure

Expansion Valve
-Low the temperature and
pressure of liquid
-Control the flow rate in
-to the evaporator.

The goal is to keep it more comfortable inside the house than

it is outside.

1. Windows Air-conditioning System

Window air conditioners are one of the most commonly

used and cheapest type of air conditioners.

To install one of these units, you need the space to make
a slot in the wall, and there should also be some open
space behind the wall.
Window air-conditioner units are reliable and simple-toinstall solution to keep a room cool while avoiding the
costly construction of a central air system.
Better yet, when the summer heat dies down, these units
can be easily removed for storage, and you can use the
window sill for other purpose

2.Split Air-Conditioning System

The split air conditioner comprises of two parts: the

outdoor unit and the indoor unit.

The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses
components like the compressor, condenser and
expansion valve.
The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling
coil and the cooling fan. For this unit you dont have to
make any slot in the wall of the room.
Further, the present day split units have aesthetic looks
and add to the beauty of the room. The split air
conditioner can be used to cool one or two rooms

3.Centralised Air-Conditioning System

The central air conditioning plants or the systems are used

when large buildings, hotels, theaters, airports, shopping

malls etc. are to be air conditioned completely.
The window and split air conditioners are used for single
rooms or small office spaces.
If the whole building is to be cooled it is not economically
viable to put window or split air conditioner in each and
every room.
Further, these small units cannot satisfactorily cool the
large halls, auditoriums, receptions areas etc.

4. Packaged Air-Conditioning System

The window and split air conditioners are usually used

for the small air conditioning capacities up to 5 tons.

The central air conditioning systems are used for where
the cooling loads extend beyond 20 tons.
The packaged air conditioners are used for the cooling
capacities in between these two extremes.
The packaged air conditioners are available in the fixed
rated capacities of 3,5, 7, 10 and 15 tons.
These units are used commonly in places like
restaurants, telephone exchanges, homes, small halls, etc.

Heat is removed from the cooling by coolant.
Functions as a heat absorber from the evaporator
Good coolant must have features ;

Non toxic
Not explosive
Non-corrosive components
Soluble in oil to lubricate effectively
Harmless when responding to oil even in the presence of
6. Have a high resistance to electricity.

Examples of coolant



Important factors for calculation of

cooling load requirement.
1) Use of space
2) Physical dimension of space
3) Ceiling height
4) Construction materials
5) Inside room design conditions
6) Ambient conditions
7) Glass area exposed to sun
8) Occupancy
9) Lighting load
10)Equipment load
11) Fresh air requirement
12)Infiltration of outside air

Air Conditioning Calculations

How do you do air conditioning calculations on the capacity of air
conditioner for your room? This calculation is important because if
done wrongly, you will end up installing an oversize or undersize
equipment. An oversized air conditioner is not good as the
compressor will run and stop regularly and not able to cool the
room uniformly.
It will also cause discomfort to the occupants as the
dehumidification of the room is not properly done. On top of that,
the electricity bill will be high as the compressor turns on and off
too often.

Air Conditioning Calculations

Every time the on/off type of compressor starts to run,
its power consumption is 6 times higher than when it is
running steadily.
The cycling on and off of the compressor will lead to
shorter life span of the compressor besides having to
spend more on the unit price and installation cost.
An undersized unit will not be able to cool the room
properly and more so if the weather is hot.

Cooling Capacity
Cooling capacity for a room is defined as the heat load in a room that

have to be removed in order to achieve a certain room temperature and

humidity. The typical design is set to 24C temperature and 55%
Relative Humidity.
Study shows that this combination of temperature and RH is the most
conducive for the human body. The unit used to measure heat load is
BTU/hr. 1 BTU/hr is the heat energy needed to increase 1 pound of
water by 1F.
When choosing an air conditioner, usually a 1 HP (horse power)
equipment is able to remove 9,000 BTU/hr of heat. With better
technology, some machines are able to remove 10,000 BTU/hr of heat
with the same capacity. The higher the listed BTU/hr, the greater the
cooling capacity

Air Conditioning Calculations - Rule

Of Thumb
Calculating the cooling capacity needed for your room

is a complicated process as there are many factors to

consider. However, there is a simple rule of thumb that
you can use to estimate the required cooling capacity
for your room. Use this result to compare with the
calculation done by the air conditioning contractors for
your own checking purposes.

Air Conditioning Calculations - Rule

Of Thumb
Step 1
Find the volume of your room in cubic feet. This is done by measuring the length,

width and height of the room in feet and multiply all the three dimensions together.
Volume = Width X Length X Height (cubic feet)
Step 2Multiply this volume by 6.
C1 = Volume X 6
Step 3Estimate the number of people (N) that will usually occupy this room. Each
person produces about 500 BTU/hr of heat for normal office-related activity.
Multiply this two figures together.
C2 = N x 500 BTU/hr
Step 4Add C1 and C2 together and you will get a very simplified cooling capacity
needed for the room.
Estimated Cooling Capacity needed = C1 + C2 (BTU/hr)

Air Conditioning Calculations - Other

Other factors that you will consider to determine the sizing of

the cooling capacity include the direction of your room. If the

room is facing east or west, additional capacity is needed as it
will be exposed to the morning and evening sun compared to a
room that faces north or south.
If the lighting of the room emits a lot of heat, additional
capacity is needed. If electrical appliances that generate heat is
used, additional capacity has to be factored in.
The type of material of the room and windows are also
important consideration

Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio

The SEER is the total cooling outputs accomplished divided by the total electrical energy

input used during this time.

SEER = [Total of Btu/h cooling outputs at all test conditions]/[Total of all Watt inputs at all
test conditions]
The unit of SEER is Btu/W.h.
You can find the Watts Input, Cooling Capacity as well as the SEER information on the label
which is usually a metal plate that is attached to the heat pump unit. If SEER is not provided, a
simple calculation can be done.
For example, if the label displayed Cooling Capacity = 5000 Btu/hr and Watts Input = 600 W,
SEER = [5000 Btu/hr]/[600W] = 8.3
If another 2.5-ton air conditioner requires 2 kW of electrical power,

what is the SEER?

1 ton of refrigeration is 12,000 Btu/hr.
SEER = [2.5 X 12,000 Btu/hr]/[2,0000 W] = 15

New Invented Technology

for Air-Conditioning System



District Cooling System

District Cooling Systems (DCS) is a system

which distribute chilled water or other media,

usually provided from a dedicated cooling
plant, to multiple buildings for air conditioning
or other uses.

District Cooling System

The Objectives :
To centralized production of
chilled water by using
district cooling plant. The
generated chilled water will
then be channeled to various
building blocks thru preinsulated seamless
underground pipes.

District Cooling System

The Advantages
1. Improve energy efficiency
2. Protect environment
3. Save spaces
4. Improve urban view
5. Reduce manpower for
operation and maintenance

District Cooling System

How The System Work ?
DC means the centralized production and distribution of
cooling energy. Chilled water is delivered via an underground
insulated pipeline to office, industrial and residential
buildings to cool the indoor air of the buildings within a
district. Specially designed units in each building then use
this water to lower the temperature of air passing through the
buildings ACS.
The output of one cooling plant is enough to meet the
cooling-energy demand of dozens of buildings. DC can be run
on electricity or natural gas, and can use either regular water
or seawater. Along with electricity and water, DC constitute a
new form of energy service.

District Cooling System

Why It Is Environmental Friendly ?
District cooling helps the environment
by increasing energy efficiency and
reducing environmental emissions
including air pollution, the greenhouse
gas (GHG) carbon dioxide(CO2) and
ozone-destroying refrigerants. District
cooling can reduce annual
CO2emissions by about 1 ton for
every ton of district cooling
refrigeration demand served

DCS Network Diagram

DCS Network Diagram






Central Chiller Plant generate chilled water for

cooling purposes
Distribution Network distribute chilled water to
User Station interface own building air-conditioning


It is a type of convection HVAC system designed to heat

or cooled high rise building such as commercial building.

Its primarily gives off its cooling effect through
convection by using water to remove heat from a room.
Pipes of water passed through the beam suspended short
distance from the ceiling of a room.
As the beam chills the air around it, the air becomes
denser and falls to the floor.
It is replaced by warmer air moving up from below,
causing a constant floe of convection and cooling the

Simple to design and control
Smaller ductwork
Less mechanical space
Less maintenance
Increase comfort

Not well known in our industry
Higher construction cost
Many engineers arent familiar

with this technology

Dew point concerns, building must
have a good control of humidity to
prevent condensation on chilled
beam surface.