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NETWORK ADDRESS

TRANSLATION (NAT), IP
ADDRESS, DNS AND ATM
PRESENTED BY :
ANUBHA

CONTENTS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

NAT
DNS
ATM
IP ADDRESS
IPV6

Network Address Translation


RFC-1631
A short term solution to the problem of the
depletion of IP addresses

Long term solution is IP v6 (or whatever is finally

agreed on)
CIDR (Classless Inter Domain Routing ) is a possible
short term solution
NAT is another

NAT is a way to conserve IP addresses


Hide a number of hosts behind a single IP address
Use:
10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255,
172.16.0.0-172.32.255.255 or
192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255 for local networks

Translation Modes
Dynamic Translation (IP Masquerading)
large number of internal users share a single external address

Static Translation
a block external addresses are translated to a same size block of
internal addresses

Load Balancing Translation


a single incoming IP address is distributed across a number of
internal servers

Network Redundancy Translation


multiple internet connections are attached to a NAT Firewall that it
chooses and uses based on bandwidth, congestion and availability.

Hacking through NAT


Static Translation
offers no protection of internal hosts
Internal Host Seduction
internals go to the hacker
e-mail attachments Trojan Horse virus
peer-to-peer connections
hacker run porn and gambling sites
solution = application level proxies

State Table Timeout Problem


hacker could hijack a stale connection before it is timed out
very low probability but smart hacker could do it
Source Routing through NAT
if the hacker knows an internal address they can source route a packet to
that host
solution is to not allow source routed packets through the firewall

Domain names
We refer to computers on the Internet (Internet hosts), by names
like:
bpastudio.csudh.edu
These are called domain names or, if you want to be really geeky,
fully qualified domain names.
The key point is that the name identifies a particular computer
no two hosts have the same domain name.

There are also country code top-level


domain names for every nation, like:

.us, United States


.mx, Mexico
.cl, Chile
.uk, United Kingdom
.tv, Tuvalu

These are called country code top-level domains (ccTLDs).


The organization or host do not necessarily have to be in the
country to register the name. For example, .tv is popular
everywhere.

Registering a domain check for


availability

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)


Voice
Data
packets

MUX
Wasted bandwidth

Images

TDM
4

ATM

Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

Networks: ATM

`
4

Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies

3 1

Figure 7.37

ATM Protocol Architecture


ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) the protocol
for packaging data into cells is collectively
referred to as AAL.
Must efficiently package higher level data
such as voice samples, video frames and
datagram packets into a series of cells.
Design Issue: How many adaptation layers
should there be?
Networks: ATM

10

Original ATM Architecture


The AAL interface was initially defined as classes A-D
with SAP (service access points) for AAL1-4.
AAL3 and AAL4 were so similar that they were
merged into AAL3/4.
The data communications community concluded that
AAL3/4 was not suitable for data communications
applications. They pushed for standardization of AAL5
(also referred to as SEAL the Simple and Efficient
Adaptation Layer).
AAL2 was not initially deployed.
Networks: ATM

11

IP Addresses:
Classful Addressing
Objectives
Upon completion you will be able to:
Understand IPv4 addresses and classes
Identify the class of an IP address
Find the network address given an IP address
Understand masks and how to use them
Understand subnets and supernets
TCP/IP Protocol Suite

4.1 INTRODUCTION
The identifier used in the IP layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite to identify
each device connected to the Internet is called the Internet address or IP
address. An IP address is a 32-bit address that uniquely and universally
defines the connection of a host or a router to the Internet. IP addresses
are unique. They are unique in the sense that each address defines one,
and only one, connection to the Internet. Two devices on the Internet can
never have the same address.
The topics discussed in this section include:
Address Space
Notation

4.2 CLASSFUL ADDRESSING


IP addresses, when started a few decades ago, used the concept of classes.
This architecture is called classful addressing. In the mid-1990s, a new
architecture, called classless addressing, was introduced and will
eventually supersede the original architecture. However, part of the
Internet is still using classful addressing, but the migration is very fast.
The topics discussed in this section include:
Recognizing Classes
Netid and Hostid
Classes and Blocks
Network Addresses
Sufficient Information
Mask
CIDR Notation
Address Depletion

Features of IPv6
Larger Address Space
Aggregation-based address hierarchy

Efficient backbone routing


Efficient and Extensible IP datagram
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
Security (IPsec mandatory)
Mobility

Major Improvements of
IPv6 Header
No option field: Replaced by extension
header. Result in a fixed length, 40-byte IP
header.
No header checksum: Result in fast
processing.
No fragmentation at intermediate nodes:
Result in fast IP forwarding.

Bibliography

www.wikipedea.org
www.computerscience.com
www.searchengine.com
www.ip.com