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(Autonomous Institution, approved by UGC and Accredited by NAAC with A Grade)

TECHNICAL
SEMINAR
Presented by
D. Sai Spandana
ECE C (13311A04B5)
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LIFE DETECTION
SYSTEM
USING MICROWAVES

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MICROWAVES

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MICROWAVES
Microwaves are electromagnetic waves whose
frequencies range from about 300 MHz 300 GHz (1 MHz
= 106 Hz and 1 GHz = 109 Hz) or wavelengths in air
ranging from 100 cm 1 mm.
The word microwave means very short wave, which is
the shortest wavelength region of the radio spectrum and
a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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PROPERTIES OF MICROWAVES
Microwave is an
electromagnetic
radiation of short
wavelength.

They can reflect by


conducting
surfaces just like
optical waves since
they travel in
straight line.

Microwaves are
easily attenuated
within short
distances.
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Microwave
currents flow
through a thin
outer layer of an
ordinary cable.

They are not


reflected by
ionosphere
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THE FREQUENCY BANDS

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This REFLECTIVE
and PENETRATIVE
property of
microwaves is
the underlying
principle, which
makes
DETECTION OF
LIFE possible
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Make any
sense? Yes?
No? Maybe?
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The principle

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Microwave is
sent through
rubble to
detect vital
signs of life.

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Microwave
would reflect
back from
some objects.

When the
beam hits the
body, the
signal
reflected with
an additional
modulation
created by
movement of
heart and
lungs.

The reception
of modulated
signals shows
the presence
of alive
human inside
the rubble.

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The need for such a


system

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Existing ways to detect the human being under the earthquake


rubble and collapsed buildings are utilization of the dogs, optical
devices and acoustic life detectors and the rescue robot.
Dogs : Detect the dead persons as well which wastes precious time
Optical Devices : Limited number of degrees of freedom, require
expert operators.
Acoustic Life Detectors : Such as geophones are simple to use but
they require quiet working environments, a condition difficult to reach
especially in critical situations.
Rescue Robot :
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Can navigate deep into the rubble to search for


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A PROPOSED MODEL
BLOCK DIAGRAM

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3 MAJOR COMPONENTS
Microwave
Controlled
Clutter
Cancellation
System
Dual Antenna
System
Microwave
Circuit
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MICROWAVE CIRCUIT
Phase
Locked
Oscilla
tor

Microwa
ve
Circuit

The phase locked oscillator is used to


generate a very stable EM wave of
2GHz range.
Power dividers and directional

Direction
al
Couplers

couplers , couple part of the


transmission power in a transmission
line by a known amount out through

Circulator

another port.
In this system , 10dB coupler is used

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to divide the power into 1/10th and19

DUAL ANTENNAS
The dual antenna system has two antennas, which are energized sequentially by
an electronically controlled microwave single-pole double-throw (SPDT) switch.
The switch turns on and off at a frequency of 100 Hz which is much higher than
the frequency range of the breathing and heartbeat signals between 0.2 Hz and
3 Hz.
In this dual-antenna system, the two antenna channels are completely
independent.

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Clutter cancellation
Programmab
le Phase
Shifters

Programmab
le
Attenuator

RF Amplifier

Microprocess
or Control
Unit

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Detection Doppler shift


If the distance between the observer and the source is increasing,
the frequency apparently decreases and apparently increases if
the distance between the observer and the source is decreasing.
By the Doppler Effect, microwave beam reflected from a moving
surface undergoes a frequency shift proportional to the surface
velocity.
If the surface is moving periodically, such as the chest surface of
person due to breathing, this can be termed as a phase shift
proportional to the surface displacement.
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Result

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Frequency spectrum of background


noise

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result

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Frequency spectrum of breathing and


heartbeat

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analysis
advantages
Powerful tool in applications where it is
not desirable to disturb a subjects
physiological and/or emotional state
during detection or in other situations
where access to the subject is limited.
L-band frequency free for use by
commercial applications - so we expect
a minimum interference with other
devices.

No need to use heart beat and the


breathing sensor.

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disadvantages
Project is expensive but once it is
implemented the expenses can be
reduce lower extend.
The L- band frequency is unable to
penetrate more metal like structure but
it can penetrate over 10 layers of bricks.
The involvement of clutter signal may
destroy the vital information of life
signs. But if the proper demodulation is
used one can receive the vital signs
efficiently.
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