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Submitted by
Fahmi Hashim, M Tech CE SE
Project Guide : Vineesh P
Assistant Lecturer AWH Engineering

Precast prestressed hollow core flooring is used extensively
around the world because of economical, light weight,
faster assembling etc.
This type of slabs is generally used in the construction of
floors for high-rise apartments or multi- storey buildings in
low-seismic regions.
The present study is on the analysis of seismic behaviour
of precast hollow core slabs in high rise buildings using
ETABS software.
Comparison of behaviour of hollow core slab building and
solid slab building keeping the member size same.

Modelling precast
flooring(hollowcore) in ETABS
Model them as membrane elements (i.e. no out of
plane bending capacity)
The hollowcore supplier will have the weights of the
hollowcore panels. You can specify a equivalent solid
thickness of concrete to account for the weight.
We are not going to use this model to design the
hollowcore slab. You will use this only to get the
forces/moments for the design of supporting precast

Advantages of Prestressed Hollow

Core slab
1. They consume lesser raw material and possess
higher concrete strength, are structurally efficient,
have reduced thickness; and also offer the possibility
for reuse and recycling.
2. Heavy weight capacity, exceptional fire resistance,
lower self-weight, superior acoustic insulation and
thermal properties, cost-effective construction
solution, offers better designing flexibility to
builders , rapid speed of erection, moderate use of
raw material, requires few construction site workers.

Lesser Storey Shear and more Lateral drift for
Hollow core slab.
Hollow core slab building shows better
performance when compared to solid slab
building. Based on the analysis results it can be
concluded that hollow core slab building
consumes less material when compared to solid
slab building. Therefore hollow core slab building
is the best choice compared to solid slab

1) Why it is not done in Kerala
Hollow core is done in low seismic regions
2) Its Limiting Points of Failure
How much vibration the hollow core slab building will withstand

Familiarisation of basics of Etabs for pre tensioning

----- September

Response Spectrum Analysis for the Conventional Building ----October

Response Spectrum for Hollow core slab
Comparison-Vibration Limitation



1) Use of Precast Hollow Core Slabs in High Rise Buildings , International Journal
of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT),Vol. 3 Issue 10, October- 2014
2) Equivalent Static Analysis of High-Rise Building with Different Lateral Load
Resisting Systems, Vol. 2 Issue 1, January- 2013
3) Calculation of Voided Slabs Rigidities, World Academy of Science, Engineering
and Technology International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction
and Architectural Engineering Vol:6, No:5, 2012, Civil Engineering Systems and
Sustainable Innovations ISBN: 978-93-83083-78-7 139
4) Analysis and Design of a G+7 storeyed Precast Building, Khaja Rasool
Thagaragunta1, M. Helen Santhi2 1M.Tech Structural Engineering, SMBS, VIT
Chennai, India 2SMBS, VIT Chennai, India
5) Comparative Study of Flat Slab and Conventional Slab Structure Using
ETABS for Different Earthquake Zones of India,, IRJET Volume: 02 Issue: 03 |

6) Feasibility of Construction with Hollow-Core Concrete Slabs

over R.C.C. Construction: A Case Study, International Journal of
Engineering Studies and Technical Approach.
KOLLAM, KERALA, INDIA, Journal of Engineering

Science and Technology Vol. 10, No. 7 (2015) 865 - 877

Use of Precast Hollow Core Slabs in High Rise Buildings

The present study is on the analysis of seismic behaviour of precast

hollow core slabs in high rise buildings using ETABS software.
Comparision of behaviour of hollow core slab building and solid slab
building for different seismic zones keeping the member size same
for all models.
A 33 storey commercial office building with precast hollow core
slabs have been analyzed Structural system used for these
buildings are taken as concrete special moment-resisting frame
with ductile shear walls. Five different models of hollow core slab
building with different member sizes have been performed.

Static analysis has been carried out by equivalent static method

and dynamic analysis has been carried out by response spectrum
method as per recommendation of IS: 1893(Part 1):2002.Based on
analysis results of five models it has been concluded that model
5member sizes shows better performance when compared to other
four models member sizes. Keeping model 5 member sizes constant,
4 models of hollow core slab building and 4 models of solid slab
building have been performed for different seismic zones and
compared with various factors such as base shear, storey drift. Thus
hollow core slab building shows better performance when compared
to solid slab building.

Analysis and Design of a G+7 storeyed

Precast Building
This paper presents the method for analysis and design of precast
building. The precast building behaves uniquely than cast in-situ building. The
main aim of this study is to analyze and capture the behavior of precast
structure for the applied gravity and lateral loads.
For this purpose a
reference project at Chennai location is taken and modelled in ETABS software
to analyze the structure.



Recently, Flat slab buildings are commonly used for the construction
because use of flat slab building provides many advantages over
conventional RC Frame building in terms of economical, use of space, easier
formwork, architectural flexibility and importantly shorter construction time.
The structural efficiency of the Flat slab construction is most difficult by its
poor performance under earthquake loading. It is necessary to analyse
seismic behaviour of buildings for various heights to see what are the
changes are going to occur for the conventional RC frame building, flat slab
building with and without drops. The analysis is done with E-Tabs V9.7.4
The object of the present study covers the behaviour of multi storey
buildings having conventional RC frame building, flat slabs and to study the
effect of height of the building on the performance of these types of
buildings under seismic forces. Present study covers information on the
parameters storey drift, lateral displacement, seismic base shear, natural
time period.

Comparative Study of Flat Slab and

Conventional Slab Structure Using ETABS
for Different Earthquake Zones of India
In todays construction activity the use of flat slab is quite common which As the
advancement era began practice of flat slab becomes quite common. In the
present dissertation work a G+5 commercial multistoried building having flat slab
and conventional slab has been analyzed for the parameters like base shear,
storey drift, axial force, and displacement.
The performance and behaviour of both the structures in all seismic zones of India
has been studied. In the present work the storey shear of flat slab is 5% more
than conventional slab structure, the axial forces on flats lab building is nearly 6%
more than conventional building, the difference in storey displacement of flat and
conventional building are approximately 4mm in each floor. The present work
provides reasonable information about the suitability of flat slab for various
seismic zones without compromising the performance over the conventional slab

Feasibility of Construction with HollowCore Concrete Slabs over R.C.C.

Construction: A Case Study
In state of Chhattisgarh, several construction activities came up as a part of the Infrastructural Development
Scheme. The constructions of buildings are in general done by R.C.C. But, with the need of a faster construction
methods without compromising with the quality and yet keeping it less labour intensive, precast techniques have
become the need of the hour. Shankaracharya Medical college building has been planned following this technology.
One of the biggest advantages is the faster rate of construction as compared to the conventional reinforced cement
concrete method.
Hollow core slabs are generally constructed using low-slump high-strength concrete and pre- stressed using highstrength pre-stressing strands (typically seven-wire strands with diameters ranging from 9 mm and 13 mm).
Continuous voids are formed through each unit to reduce its weight and improve its structural performance. Hollow
core slabs are typically 0.9 m to 1.25 m wide and 150 mm to 300 mm thick. The span of these slabs may reach upto
18.0 m.
The project under study is the Shankaracharya Medical College and Hospital Building situated at Junwani. The
project consists of a G+5 building to be used as hospital and a G+4 building for medical college. The target was to
complete the whole project within 24 months along with finishing. The total area of construction was 2.3*104 sq.m
for medical college and 2.7*104 sq.m for the hospital building. If this was to be constructed by conventional
methods, i.e., if an R.C.C structure was to be built then the estimated time required would be 36 months. Due to the
time limitation it was decided to construct a steel framed structure along with pre-cast pre- stressed hollow-core
concrete slabs for roofs and floors.

All the slabs were 150 mm thick, 1.20 m wide, and 6.00 m long. The thickness of the
slabs was taken 150 mm, the slab width 1.20 m is controlled by the available bed width
used to manufacture the slabs, and the length was chosen to be 6.0 m, which is typical
for the 150 mm thick slab. The concrete mix used to cast the slab was composed of 370
kg/m3 cement (ordinary Portland cement) with a maximum water/cement ratio of 0.35.
It contained 1140 kg/m3 coarse aggregates (10 mm maximum size), 285 kg/m3 fine
aggregates (5 to 0 mm), and 500 kg/m3 washed sand. Cubes were taken from the
concrete and tested in compression at age 7 days and 28 days, which yielded concrete
compression strengths of 74 and 89.5 MPa, respectively. The slabs were pre- stressed
using 9 mm diameter, 1770 MPa low relaxation, seven-wire strands. The strands were
placed at 30 mm from the soffit of the slab. Two additional 9 mm diameter strands were
placed at 30 mm from the top fibers of the slabs to straighten the slabs.
The common method of constructing hollow core slab is by using high strength, zero
slump concrete which is reinforced by using high tensile-strength, pre-stressing wire
strands of 9 mm diameter. Hollow-core slab is typically 0.9 wide and 200 mm thick.
Span of slabs varied from 5m upto 18m placed simply supported over beams. The total
construction of building has been planned as 50,000 sq meter to be achieved in G+5
story. The reinforced cement concrete construction if planned with M-30 grade of
concrete, 16mm diameter steel bars being used as reinforcement in column (0.9 x
0.6m), 150 mm thick R.C.C. slab used with 10mm bars. Vitrified tiles are provided as
flooring over base course. The partition walls are made of concrete blocks. The finishing
with putty and color wash 2 coats is considered for the purpose of estimation.


Masonry structures fail miserably due to lateral loads. Recent earthquakes in India and the
world and the resulting losses highlighted the structural inadequacy of masonry buildings to
seismic loads. Increase in frequency of earthquake in Kerala recently and increasing concern
motivated the study. Localized survey at Kollam town in Kerala found that most of the
structures were masonry. Kerala falls in Zones II and III. IS 13828 and IS 4326 provides
masonry structures empirical design and construction features which may raise the
earthquake resistance. The study is concerned with the numerical analysis of brick masonry
walls (with and without seismic resistive features) subjected to dynamic loading with
emphasis on their non-linear behaviour. Mechanical properties of three varieties of brick and
three different mix proportion of mortar were determined. Using the material properties,
nonlinear dynamic analysis of a masonry wall panel was done using ANSYS software and the
ground motion record of Bhuj earthquake. The effect of size and position of openings in the
masonry walls, the pier size, provision of lintels and the effect of mortar on resistance of
walls under dynamic loads are discussed and possible retrofitting measures are suggested
to strengthen the masonry brick wall.

Questionnaire survey results

A total of 6800 data was used for the analysis. The statistics of the buildings analysed consisted of
residential buildings (64.2%), commercial buildings (19.2%), industrial buildings (1%), government buildings
(3.5%), hospitals and public buildings, and educational buildings (5.1%). The detailed analysis of the buildings
on their compliance with the seismic resistant provisions was presented in Potty and Sirajuddin [36, 37].
Experimental tests on masonry units and mortar
The experimental testing was structured to identify the properties of the masonry units and mortars prepared
locally. The properties of the bricks and blocks were compared with the limits proposed in the codes namely IS
2185 [39] and IS 1077 [40]. The experimental study on materials for wall construction revealed that, most of
them failed to meet the standard specified by IS. It is mainly due to poor quality control and use of inferior
quality raw materials. It was found that wire cut bricks were the most ideal material available for construction
of walls. It meets strength requirements and it is economical.
Basic material properties such as Compressive Strength, Modulus of Elasticity and Poissons ratio of the three
varieties of brick and the Compressive Strength, Modulus of Elasticity and Poissons ratio of the three different
mix proportions of mortar were experimentally determined. The choice of wire cut and fired brick and three
mortars (1:4, 1:6 and 1:8) were identified for numerical analysis.
4.3. Evaluation of efficiency of the empirical seismic guidelines for masonry buildings
The results of modal analysis of masonry wall of three different mortar mixes and without opening were
compared. The masonry walls with richer mortar mixes have higher frequencies because they are stiffer, as
expected. The frequencies also agree well with frequencies of models of masonry walls and whole houses,
which verifies the micro finite element models.
Table 3 shows the results of the nonlinear dynamic analysis of masonry walls with door and window opening
conforming to different provisions of the Indian seismic codes for 1:4, 1:6 and 1:8 mortars and subject to both
in-plane and out-of- plane accelerations using the Bhuj ground motion records. Column 3 shows the different
features recommended by the codes which were used in the model. Table 3 indicates which all cases are safe
or unsafe. The case of 1:8 mortar has not been investigated for out-of-plane earthquake since it is not
recommended for use by the Seismic codes.

From the questionnaire survey analysis, the following general conclusions can be
. made
In general, many buildings in Kollam city seem to have sufficient resistance against
moderate earthquakes as per Indian standard specifications and general criteria.
The rapid growth of residential structures and lack of seismic resistance requires
attention of authorities. Government should impose new rules regarding seismic
resistance regulations and should educate the public about the possible damages
due to earthquakes. The tendency of providing large openings and asymmetric
designs are to be curbed. Economic retrofits in the form of wire meshed concrete
on the corners of masonry walls in tiled roof structures and division of longer walls
.to shorter ones can be done for structures greater than 30 years of age

From the nonlinear analysis on the eight wall models structures to examine the seismic
provisions of the code, the conclusions are In the masonry wall with rich mortar mix
proportion, the magnitude of maximum stresses developed was found to be small under the
nonlinear dynamic analysis. Wall was more vulnerable to earthquake in out-of-plane
direction than to earthquake in in-plane direction. When the wave hit in the out-of-plane
direction of wall, the stiffness offered by the wall was less, or the height to thickness ratio
was much greater. The wall was safe in in-plane dynamic loading when the pier distance
was kept at 0.6 m for mortar mix proportion of 1:4 and 1:6. But it was not safe against outof-plane loading. When the pier distance was reduced to 0.34 m, the equivalent stress
developed on the wall was more than the stress developed in the case of pier distance of
0.6 m, for mortar mix proportion 1:4 and 1:6. In this case, the maximum stress developed
was more than the permissible crushing or compressive strength (0.35 N/mm2) of masonry,
for both mortar mix proportions. So masonry wall was not safe in both in-plane and out-ofplane dynamic loading for a pier distance of 0.34 m. So in this case, the IS code
recommendation is not being satisfied, even in the in-plane loading.

When sizes of openings were increased and the positions of openings were kept near the
edge of the wall, the maximum equivalent stress was found to be developed at the bottom
corner of the opening. Here the opening from the edge of the wall is at a distance of 0.325
m, which is more than the thickness of the wall. Even in this case, the wall is not safe in inplane and out-of-plane dynamic loading and it does not satisfy the code recommendation
for minimum edge distance. It was found that providing a concrete frame around the
openings of the wall with a pier distance of 0.34 m will make the existing unreinforced brick
masonry structure safe against collapse. In this case, concrete frame takes the stresses
acting on the wall. The maximum equivalent stress (1.69 N/mm2 in in-plane and 1.7 N/mm2
in out-of-plane loading) developed in the model was less than the permissible stress of
concrete (20 N/mm2). It is to be noted that the concrete frame consisted of M20 concrete
and reinforcement bars as per seismic guidelines (10 cm thick beam and 8 mm diameter
reinforcement bar). When the size of opening was increased and the position of opening
was kept near the edge of the wall, the structure was not safe even in the in-plane loading.
So the opening near the edge of the wall should be avoided.


Precast concrete systems represent an efficient alternative for building construction. The behaviour of a precast system depends
on connections and it should be modelled properly in the computational models for analysis and design. This study presents the
modelling of connections in a wall type precast building system. A case study on a 23-storeyed building, made up of precast wall
panels and slabs, to study the modelling of vertical joints in terms of shear transfer, is presented in the paper. Two
computational models were investigated to find the effect of modelling the vertical joints between the wall panels, on the drifts
and the generated forces in the walls. It was observed that the model, which was not considering any shear transfer through the
vertical joints, tend to provide conservative results in terms of amount of steel requirement. The emulative monolithic wall
system seems to be adequate in moderate seismic zones. The provisions of tie reinforcements, reinforced shear keys and dowel
bars provide the required structural integrity for the precast system to avoid progressive collapse.
The case study provided some information on the design and modelling aspects of a wall type precast building. The modelling of
vertical joints was done with two extreme conditions, since there is no proper guidelines to model the joints more economically
by considering the actual shear transfer.
The conclusions drawn from the case study on a precast wall panel system building are as follows. The emulative monolithic
wall system seems to be adequate in moderate seismic zones. The provisions of tie reinforcements, reinforced shear keys and
dowel bars provide the required structural integrity for the precast system. The modelling of vertical joints without
considering the shear transfer through the shear keys, reinforced with shear links, lead to a conservative design. Non-linear
shear springs can be incorporated in the model to get more realistic wall forces. This will lead to a more economical design.