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GRAMMAR :

Complex sentences

Illia Seldon Magfiroh


English Class
Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, 2016

What is a Complex Sentence?

A complex sentence contains both an


independent and a dependent clause.

A complex sentence may contain more than


just two clauses.

A complex sentence may be combined with a


compound sentence to form a compoundcomplex sentence.

Apakah Complex Sentence itu?

A complex sentence has one independent


clause and one or more dependent clauses.

Kalimat majemuk bertingkat yang


menggabungkan antara induk kalimat
(independent sentence) dengan satu atau
lebih anak kalimat (dependent sentence)

Independent & Dependent Clauses

A clause is a group of words containing a


subject and a verb.

An independent clause has a subject and a verb and


can stand alone because it expresses a complete
thought.

I studied for the test.

A dependent clause has a subject and a verb but


cannot stand alone because it does not express a
complete thought. It depends on another clause
to be complete.

Although I was tired.

Complex Sentence

A complex sentence combines both an


independent and dependent clause.

Although I was tired, I studied for the test.

I studied for the test, although I was tired.

SIMPLE VS COMPOUND VS
COMPLEX

A complex sentence is a sentence with an independent clause and at least


one dependent clause. The dependent clause is introduced by either a
subordinate conjunction (such as although, while, or because) or a relative
pronoun (such as who or which).
Simple
My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.
Compound
My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.
Complex
Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.

SIMPLE VS COMPOUND VS
COMPLEX

complex sentence is very different from a


simple sentence or a compound sentence
because it makes clear which ideas are most
important.
Examples:
1.Although Tom reads novels, Jack reads
comics.
2.When he was younger, Mike had many dogs.
3.Many people enjoyed the movie; however,

Subordinating Conjunctions

Many dependent clauses begin with a


subordinating conjunction (also known as a
dependent word)

Subordinate means secondary, so


subordinating conjunctions are words that
introduce secondary ideas.

e.g., because, since, when, while, although, even


though, if, as, whereas

Subordinating conjunctions create a


relationship between clauses, so they must be
used properly.

Punctuating with Dependent Clauses &


Subordinating Conjunctions

When a dependent clause that begins with a


subordinating conjunction falls at the beginning
of the sentence, put a comma after the clause.
(It acts as an introductory clause.)
When it falls at the end, no comma is needed.

Because I didnt study, I didnt pass the exam.

I didnt pass the exam because I didnt study.

What is a Relative Pronoun?

A relative pronoun describes a noun or


pronoun.

Relative pronouns:

who, whom, whomever, whose, which, that

Relative pronouns can be used to begin a


relative clause, which is also dependent and
can be used in a complex sentence.

My uncle, who plays for the Houston Astros, is


coming to visit this week.

Who vs. Which vs. That

Use who (whom, whomever, whose) to add information about a


person or animal.

Use that to add essential information about a thing or animal.

My cat, who is 15-years old, likes to lay on the porch all day.
The animal that I like best is the platypus.

Use which to add non-essential information about a thing or


animal.

A platypus, which is my favorite animal, was recently added to one


of the exhibits at the zoo.

Punctuation with Relative Clauses

Use commas to set off non-essential clauses.

Clauses beginning with which should be non-essential.

My computer, which is a laptop, crashed.


Some clauses beginning with who are non-essential.

My teacher, whom I like a lot, just won an award for Best Teacher.

Do not use commas with essential clauses.

Clauses beginning with that should be essential.

The classes that Im taking this semester are Reading and English.
Some clauses beginning with who are essential.

The tutor who is assigned to our class is very helpful.

In Review.

It is critical to know the difference between


these three different types of words:

Coordinating Conjunctions (aka FANBOYS)

Conjunctive Adverbs (aka Transitional Words)

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so


however, therefore, consequently, also, then

Subordinating Conjunctions (aka Dependent Words)

because, although, since, while, when, unless, if

Conjunctions & Pronouns


SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:
TIME
CAUSE & EFFECT OPPOSITION
after
because
although if
before
since
though
unless
when
now that
even though only if
while
as
whereas whether or not
since
in order that
while
even if
until
so
in case (that)

RELATIVE PRONOUNS:
who
who
ever that
whom
whomever
which
whichever

CONDITION

Complex or Simple Sentence


Worksheet

Directions: Read each sentence below. Identify


each as a complex or simple sentence.
Example A: Because he played well, the boy is
happy. Answer: complex sentence

Directions: Read each sentence below. Identify each as a


complex or simple sentence.
GIVE UNDERLINE FOR YOUR REASON
1. I love to read. ___________________________
2. We ran home and ate dinner. ___________________________
3. After the movie, we all went out for pizza.
_________________________
4. Unless he shows, we have to close up the shop.
_____________________
5. Lets all take a walk after dinner.
___________________________
6. Once I finished lunch, I saw the surprise.
___________________________
7. She had a fun birthday party. ___________________________

Identifying Simple, Compound,


and Complex Sentences
Read the following sentences, and indicate
whether each is simple, compound, or complex.
Example:
Im going to bed early because Im tired.
complex

Read the following sentences, and indicate whether each is


simple, compound, or complex. GIVE UNDERLINE FOR YOUR
REASON
1. We rang the doorbell, but no one answered it. __________
2. I wrote Jane a letter while she was away at camp. __________
3. Have you seen Mr. Nelsons garden at the back of his house? __________
4. When Miss Jones entered the room, we all became quiet. __________
5. Susan likes chemistry, but she likes physics better. __________
6. Since weve lost every game but one, no one is excited about football this
year. __________
7. When Im tired , Im not good company for anyone. __________
8. Wandering aimlessly up the path, Mr. Cutter approached the house.
________
9. Susan sang a solo and accompanied herself on the piano. __________

Read the following sentences, and indicate whether each is


simple, compound, or complex. GIVE UNDERLINE FOR YOUR
REASON
11. When Uncle Jack comes to town, we all have a good time. __________
12. I worked all morning, and then I relaxed in the afternoon. __________
13. Beth likes all seasons of the year, but she likes fall best. __________
14. On our trip we drove every afternoon until five oclock. __________
15. Dave began to feel better before the doctor arrived. __________
16. Whistling loudly, Ken walked past the cemetery. __________
17. How many states can you see from Lookout Mountain? __________
18. If you want your car really clean, let George wash it. __________
19. I must stay home until the man comes to repair the washing machine. _____
20. Our neighbors are going to Canada on their vacation, but we will take
our vacation at home. __________

Writing Complex Sentences (Part


1)

A complex sentence has one main clause and


one or more subordinate clauses.
A conjunction joins words and sentences
together. Conjunctions include; since, until,
after, although, because

Directions: Create a complex sentence with each subordinating


conjunction listed below.
Example A- because
Answer- Because he studied, he was able to pass the exam.
1. after______________________________________________________
2. unless______________________________________________________
3. as______________________________________________________
4. although___________________________________________________________________
5. whenever___________________________________________________________________
6. wherever___________________________________________________________________
7. because___________________________________________________________________

Writing Complex Sentences


Worksheet

A complex sentence has an independent


clause and a dependent clause. An independent
clause is a complete sentence that can stand
on its own. A dependent clause is not a
complete sentence for it cannot stand on its
own. Dependent clauses start with (so,
because, since)

Direction : Write a dependent clause to complete


each complex sentence. Use the connecting words
(so, because, or since).
Example :The boy is happy
____________________________.
Answer :The boy is happy, because he had free
time.