Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 136

Protection Engineering

And Research Laboratories


Session II & III :
Over current Protection
9th

Training on Power System Element Protection,


& 17th March, 2007 at L&T Manappakam, Chennai.

Dr. G. Pradeep Kumar

Contents
Introduction
Over current protection principles
Setting principles
Co-ordination examples
Over current protection application
Directional over current protection
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

Introduction
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

Introduction
Detect abnormal conditions
Isolate faulty part of the system
Speed
Fast operation to minimise damage and danger

Discrimination
Isolate only the faulty section

Dependability / reliability
Security / stability
Cost of protection / against cost of potential
hazards
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination

F1

F2

F3

Co-ordinate protection so that relay nearest to


fault operates first
Minimise system disruption due to the fault

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

Over Current Protection


Fuses
Simple
Can provide very fast fault clearance
<10ms for large current

Limit fault energy


Arcing Time
Pre Arc
Time

Prospective Fault
Current

Total
Operating
Time
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

Overcurrent Protection
Fuses - Disadvantages
Problematic co-ordination
Fuse A

Fuse B

IFA approx 2 x IFB

Limited sensitivity to earth faults


Single phasing
Fixed characteristic
Need replacing following fault clearance
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

Over Current Protection


Direct Acting AC Trip (1)
Directly connected trip coil

Trip
IF
Trip
Coil
Oil dashpot
Time lag
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

Over Current Protection


Direct Acting AC Trip (2)
Time limit fuse
I F'

Fuse

Trip Coil

IF

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

Over Current Protection


Direct Acting AC Trip (3)
No volt trip coil
IF

IF
'
5
1

Used for fail-safe tripping of motor feeders


2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

10

Over Current Protection


Direct Acting AC Trip (4)
AC series trip
51

Trip Coil
IF

Common for electromechanical O/C relays


2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

11

Over Current Protection


Direct Acting AC Trip (5)
Capacitor discharge
trip
I F'
+

51
-

Sensitive
Trip
Coil

IF

Used with static relays where no secure DC


supply is available
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

12

Over Current Protection


DC Shunt Trip
IF

I F'

51

DC
BATTERY

Requires secure DC auxiliary

No trip if DC fails

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

SHUNT
TRIP
COIL

9th March

13

Over Current
Protection Principles
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

14

Over Current Protection


Principles
Operating Speed
Instantaneous
Time delayed

Discrimination
Current setting
Time setting
Current and time

Cost
Generally cheapest form of protection relay
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

15

Over Current Protection


Instantaneous Relays
B

50

IF2

50

IF1

Current settings chosen so that only the relay


closest to fault operates
Problem
Relies on there being a difference in fault level
between the two relay locations
Cannot discriminate if IF1 = IF2
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

16

Over Current Protection


Definite Time Relays

51

51

0.9 sec

0.5 sec

Operating time is independent of fault current


Relay closest to fault has shortest operating
time
Longest operating time is at the source where
fault level is highest
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

17

Over Current Protection


Definite Time Relays
TIME

TOP

IS

Applied Current

(Relay Current Setting)


2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

18

Over Current Protection


Inverse Time Relays
TIME

IS
(Relay Current Setting)

Applied Current

Inverse Definite Minimum Time characteristic


2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

19

Over Current Protection


Disc Type O/C Relays
COIL
DISC
1 2

SHADING RINGS

IT
I1

E1

Disc rotates due to action of two fluxes


2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

20

Over Current Protection


Disc Type O/C Relays
Current setting via plug bridge
Time multiplier setting via disc
movement
Single characteristic
Consider 2 ph & EF or 3 ph plus
additional EF relay

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

21

Over Current Protection


Static relay
Electronic, multi characteristic
Fine settings, wide range
Integral instantaneous elements

Numerical relay
I>1

Multiple characteristics and stages


Current settings in primary or

I>2
Tim
e

I>3

secondary values
Additional protection elements
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

I>4
Curren
t

9th March

22

Setting Principles
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

23

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination
Systematic application of current-actuated protective
devices in the electrical power system, which, in response to
a fault or overload, will remove only a minimum amount of
equipment from service.
The coordination study of an electric power system consists
of an organized time-current study of all devices in series
from the utilization device to the source.
This study is a comparison of the time it takes the individual
devices to operate when certain levels of normal or
abnormal current pass through the protective devices.
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

24

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination - Objective
To determine the characteristics, ratings, and settings of
overcurrent protective devices.
To ensure that the minimum unfaulted load is interrupted
when the protective devices isolate a fault or overload
anywhere in the system.
At the same time, the devices and settings selected should
provide satisfactory protection against overloads on the
equipment and interrupt short circuits as rapidly as possible.

Minimize the equipment damage and process outage costs,


To protect personnel from the effects of these failures.
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

25

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination Study
Primary Considerations
Short Circuit currents
Maximum and minimum momentary (first cycle) shortcircuit current
Maximum and minimum interrupting duty (5 cycle to 2
s) short-circuit current
Maximum and minimum ground-fault current

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

26

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination Study
Pick-up current
pickup is defined as that minimum current that starts
an action.
pickup current of an overcurrent relay is the minimum
value of current that will cause the relay to close its
contacts.
For an induction disk overcurrent relay, pickup is the
minimum current that will cause the disk to start to
move and ultimately close its contacts.

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

27

IEC IDMT Characteristics


1000

SI

t =

0.14

Operating Time (s)

(I0.02 -1)
100

VI

t = 13.5
(I -1)

10
LTI

SI

EI

t =

80
(I2 -1)

1
VI

EI

LTI

t =

120
(I - 1)

0.1
1

10
Current (Multiples of Is)

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

100

9th March

28

Time Multiplier Setting (TMS)


Time Multiplier Setting (TMS) or Time Dial
Setting (TDS)
Means of adjusting the time taken by the relay
to trip once the current exceeds the set value
T.M.S.

T
Tm

Where,
T

- is the required time of operation

Tm - is the time obtained from the relay characteristics


curve at TMS 1.0 and using the Plug Setting Multiplier
(PSM) equivalent to the maximum fault current
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

29

Instantaneous Element Setting


IT

(1.1)( I MAX )( A.F.)


(TXMR RATIO )( C.T.RATIO )

Where,
IT is the Instantaneous Trip (Amperes)
1.1 is the Safety Factor
I

max

is Maximum Fault Current Seen (Amperes)

A.F. is Asymmetric Factor


TXMR Ratio is Transformer Ratio
C.T. Ratio is Current Transformer Ratio
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

30

IEEE Inverse Time Characteristics


Reset Time of an Inverse -Time Overcurrent Relay
For 0 M 1

t ( I ) reset

time

tr

TD

2
M 1

(1)

Pickup Time of an Inverse - Time Overcurrent Relay

B
P
M 1

For M 1 t ( I ) trip time TD

(2)

Where,
t(I) is the reset time in equation (1) and the trip time in equation (2)
in seconds
TD is the time dial setting
M is the Iinput/Ipickup ( Ipickup is the relay current set point)
t(r) is the reset time (for M=0)
A, B, p constants to provide selected curve characteristics
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

31

IEEE Inverse Time Characteristics

Characteristics

Moderately
Inverse

Very Inverse

Extremely
Inverse

tr

0.0515

0.1140

0.02000

4.85

19.61

0.491

2.0000

21.6

28.2

0.1217

2.0000

29.1

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

32

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination Principles
Relay closest to fault
must operate first
R1

Other relays must have

R2

IF1

adequate additional
operating time to prevent
them operating

Current setting chosen to


allow FLC
Consider worst case
conditions, operating
IS2 IS1

Maximum Fault
Level

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

modes and current flows


9th March

33

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination Examples
E

Operating time (s)

10

C
B
0.1

0.01
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

FLB

FLC

FLD

Current (A)

9th March

34

Over Current Protection


Current Setting
Set just above full load current
allow 10% tolerance

Allow relay to reset if fault is cleared by


downstream device
consider pickup/drop off ratio (reset ratio)
relay must fully reset with full load current
flowing
PU/DO for static/numerical = 95%
PU/DO for EM relay = 90%

e.g for numerical relay, Is = 1.1 x IFL/0.95


2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

35

Over Current Protection


Current Setting
Current grading
Ensure that if upstream relay has started downstream
relay has also started

R1

R2

IF1

Set upstream device current setting greater than


downstream relay
e.g. IsR1 = 1.1 x IsR2
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

36

Over Current Protection


Grading Margin
Operating time difference between two
devices to ensure that downstream device
will clear fault before upstream device trips
Must include
breaker opening time
allowance for errors
relay overshoot time

GRADING
MARGIN

safety margin

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

37

Over Current Protection


Grading Margin Between Relays

R1

R2

Traditional

breaker op time
relay overshoot
allow. For errors
safety margin
Total

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

0.1
0.05
0.15
0.1
0.4s

9th March

38

Over Current Protection


Grading Margin Between Relays
Formula
t = (2Er + Ect) t/100 + tcb + to + ts
Er

= relay timing error (%)

Ect = CT measurement error (%)


t

= op time of downstream relay (s)

tcb = CB interrupting time (s)

to

= relay overshoot time (s)

ts

= safety margin (s)

Op time of 0.5s
0.375s margin for EM relay, oil CB
0.24s margin for static relay, vacuum CB

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

39

Over Current Protection


Grading Margin Relay With Fuse

Grading Margin = 0.4Tf + 0.15s over whole characteristic


Assume fuse minimum operating time = 0.01s
Use EI or VI curve to grade with fuse
Current setting of relay should be 3-4 x rating of fuse to
ensure co-ordination

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

40

Over Current Protection


Time Multiplier Setting
Used to adjust the

100

inverse characteristic
Not a time setting but a
multiplier
Calculate TMS to give

Operating Time (s)

operating time of an
10

desired operating time in


accordance with the
grading margin
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

0.1
1

10
100
Current (Multiples of Is)

9th March

41

Over Current Protection


Time Multiplier Setting
Calculate required relay operating time, Treq
considering grading margin & fault level

Calculate op time of inverse characteristic with


TMS = 1, T1
TMS = Treq /T1

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

42

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination Procedure
Calculate required operating current
Calculate required grading margin
Calculate required operating time
Select characteristic
Calculate required TMS
Draw characteristic, check grading over whole
curve

Grading curves should be drawn to a common


voltage base to aid comparison
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

43

Co-ordination Examples
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

44

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination Example 1
200/5

100/5
I

FMAX
= 1400 Amp

B
Is = 5 Amp

A
Is = 5 Amp; TMS = 0.05,
SI

Grade relay B with relay A


Co-ordinate at max fault level seen by both
relays = 1400A
Assume grading margin of 0.4s
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

45

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination Example 1
200/5

100/5
I FMAX

B
Is = 5 Amp

= 1400 Amp

Is = 5 Amp; TMS = 0.05, SI

Relay B is set to 200A primary, 5A secondary


Relay A set to 100A If (1400A) = PSM of 14
relay A OP time = t = 0.14 x TMS = 0.14 x 0.05 = 0.13
(I0.02 -1)
(140.02 -1)
Relay B Op time = 0.13 + grading margin = 0.13 + 0.4 =
0.53s
Relay A uses SI curve so relay B should also use SI curve
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

46

Over Current Protection


Co-ordination Example 1
200/
5

100/
5

I FMAX
= 1400
A
Amp
Is = 5 Amp; TMS = 0.05,
SI

B
Is = 5 Amp

Relay B Op time = 0.13 + grading margin = 0.13 + 0.4 = 0.53s

Relay A uses SI curve so relay B should also use SI curve

Relay B set to 200A If (1400A) = PSM of 7


relay B OP time TMS = 1 = 0.14 x TMS =
(I0.02 -1)

= 3.52s

(70.02 -1)

Required TMS = Required Op time = 0.53 = 0.15


Op time TMS=1

0.14

3.52

Set relay B to 200A, TMS = 0.15, SI

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

47

Over current
Protection Application
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

48

Over Current Protection


2:1:1 Fault Current
Turns Ratio
3 :1

A phase-phase fault on one


side of transformer
produces 2-1-1 distribution
on other side
Use an over current
element in each phase
(cover the 2x phase)
2 & EF relays can be used

Iline
Idelta

0.866

If3

provided fault current > 4x


setting
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

49

Over Current Protection


2:1:1 Fault Current
Turns Ratio
3 :1

Istar = E-/2Xt = 3 E-n/2Xt


Istar = 0.866 E-n /Xt
Istar = 0.866 If3
Idelta = Istar/3 = If3 /2

Iline

Iline = If3
Idelta

0.866

If3

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

50

Over Current Protection


2:1:1 Fault Current

51

51

HV

LV

Grade HV relay

with respect to
2-1-1 for -
fault
Not only at
max fault level
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

86.6%If3 If3

9th March

51

Over Current Protection


Instantaneous Protection
Fast clearance of faults
ensure good operation factor, If >> Is (5 x ?)
Current setting must be co-ordinated to prevent overtripping
Used to provide fast tripping on HV side of transformers
Used on feeders with auto re-close, prevents transient
faults becoming permanent
AR ensures healthy feeders are re-energised
Consider operation due to DC offset - transient overreach
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

52

Over Current Protection


Instantaneous Protection
Set HV inst 130% IfLV
HV2

HV1

LV

Stable for inrush


No operation for LV

TIME

HV1

HV2

fault
Fast operation for HV

LV

fault
Reduces op times
IF(LV)

IF(HV)

CURRENT

1.3IF(LV)
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

required of upstream
relays
9th March

53

Over Current Protection


Transient Over-reach
Ability to ignore DC offset

Low overreach allows low Inst setting to be


used
high operation factor
immunity to LV transformer faults
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

54

Over Current Protection


Transient Over-reach
I1

I1 = steady state rms


pickup

Overreach = (I1 - I2)/I2

Typical values

I2

I2 = rms pickup with fully offset


signal
Low overreach allows low

numerical relay = < 5%


simple EM relay = >60%

setting - high operation


factor

High transient overreach


necessitates high settings poor sensitivity, slow

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

55

Over Current Protection


Partial Differential Protection
Zoned busbar
protection using over
current relays
67

67

bus section relay

51

not required reduced grading


stages
Time delayed tripping

51
51

51

for busbar fault

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

56

Over Current Protection


Earth Fault Protection
Earth fault current may be limited
Sensitivity and speed requirements may not be
met by over current relays
Use dedicated EF protection relays

Connect to measure residual (zero sequence)


current
Can be set to values less than full load current

Co-ordinate as for OC elements


May not be possible to provide co-ordination
with fuses
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

57

Over Current Protection


Earth Fault Relay Connection
3 Wire system

E/F

OC

OC

OC

Combined with OC relays

E/F

OC

OC

Economise using 2x OC relays

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

58

Over Current Protection


Earth Fault Relay Connection
4 Wire system

E/F

OC

OC

OC

EF relay setting must be

E/F

OC

OC

OC

Independent of neutral current

greater than normal neutral

but must use 3 OC relays for

current

phase to neutral faults

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

59

Over Current Protection


Earth Fault Relay Current Setting

Solid earth
30% Ifull load
adequate
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

Resistance earth
setting w.r.t earth fault level
special considerations for
impedance earthing directional?
9th March

60

Over Current Protection


Sensitive Earth Fault Relays
Settings down to
0.2% possible

A
B
C

Isolated/high
impedance earth networks

E/F

For low settings cannot use residual connection, use


dedicated CT
Advisable to use core balance CT
CT ratio related to earth fault current not line current
Relays tuned to system frequency to reject 3rd
harmonic
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

61

Over Current Protection


CBCT Connections

OPERATION

NO
OPERATION

Need to take care with core

CABLE
BOX

CABLE
GLAND
CABLE
GLAND/SHEATH

balance CT and armoured cables

Sheath acts as earth return path

Must account for earth current


path in connections - insulate
cable gland

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

EARTH
CONNECTION

E/F

9th March

62

Over Current Protection


Earth Fault Relay Effective Setting
IF

Effective Setting %In

100

E/F

I
E / F Relay
Setting = Is

Relay Setting
%In

100

Voltage developed across Earth Fault element is applied to B and


C phase CT which will draw appropriate magnetising current

Effective setting (Primary Operating Current)


IEFF = CT ratio(Is + 3Imag)

Minimum sensitivity is not necessarily the minimum setting

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

63

Directional Over
Current Protection
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

64

Directional Over
Current Protection
IEEE dictionary, C37.100-1992 defines a directional
relay as;
A relay that responds to the relative phase
position of a current with respect to another
current or voltage reference.
Types of directional relays
directional over current
directional ground
directional comparison

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

65

Directional Over
Current Protection
Generally required if current can flow in both
directions through a relay location
e.g. Parallel feeder circuits
Ring Main Circuits

0.9

0.1

0.5

0.5

0.1

0.9

Relays operate for current flow in direction


indicated. (Typical operating times shown).
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

66

Directional Over
Current Protection
With ring closed :
Both load and fault current may flow in either direction along
feeder circuits. Thus, directional relays are required.
Directional relays look into the feeder.
Need to establish principle for relay.

51

67

67

67

Load

51

67

Load

67

67

Load
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

67

Parallel Feeder Protection


Non-Directional Relays :-

51 C

51 B

51 D

5
1

Load

A&B
Conventional Grading :Grade A with C

C&D

and Grade B with D

Relays A and B have the same setting.


2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

Fault level at F

9th March

68

Parallel Feeder Protection


Consider fault on one feeder :I1 + I2
I1

51 A

I2

51 B

51

51

LOAD

Relays C and D see the same fault current (I2). As C


and D have similar settings both feeders will be tripped.

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

69

Parallel Feeder Protection


Solution :- Directional Control at C and D.
I1 + I2
I1

51 A

I2

51 B

67

LOAD

67

Relay D does not operate due to current flow in the


reverse direction.
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

70

Parallel Feeder Protection


Setting philosophy for directional relays
E
51 A

Load

67
51

51 B

67

Load current always flows in non-operate direction.


Any current flow in operate direction is indicative of a fault
condition.
Thus Relays C and D may be set :- Sensitive
- Fast operating time
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

71

Parallel Feeder Protection


Usually, relays are set :-

50% full load current (note thermal rating)

Minimum T.M.S.

Grading procedure :1.

Grade A (and B) with E assuming one feeder in


service.

2.

Grade A with D (and B with C) assuming both


feeders in service.

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

72

Double-end Fed
Transmission Line

CB1

I1

CB2
I2

R1

CB3

I3

R2

I4

R4

R3

I1

CB4

I3
V

V
I2

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

I4

9th March

73

Double-end Fed
Transmission Line - Fault
CB1

CB2
A

I1

R1

CB3

CB4

I2

I3

R2

I4

R4

R3

I1
V

I2

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

I4

I3
V

9th March

74

Double-end Fed
Transmission Line
CB1

CB2
I1

CB3

CB4

I2

R1

I3

R2

R4

R3

I1

I4

I3
V

V
V

I2

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

I4

9th March

75

Directional Relay
Co-ordination
Directional relays can be provided at all circuit
breakers in conjunction with time delay
elements
Relay 4 opens CB 4 before relay 2 opens CB 2
Similarly, relay 1 opens CB 1 before relay 3
opens CB 3
Phase comparison directional relays 2 and 4
operate whereas relay 3 sends a block
command to CB 2 keeping it from tripping
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

76

Electromagnetic Directional Relay

Current flows in the voltage


coil producing a flux v

Current flow in the current

coil produces a flux i

Due to a phase

Laminated
magnetic circuit

Disk rotor
C.T.

torque

displacement between the


two fluxes, a torque is

Laminated
magnetic circuit

produced in the disc

The disc moves to close a


contact if the power flow is

Restraining
spring

Shaft

in the selected direction

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

77

Directional Relay Phasor Diagram

The phasor diagram, which uses


the voltage applied to the relay
(V), as reference is as shown in
this figure.

v is the phase angle of the

current in the voltage coil

i is the phase angle of the


current in the current coil

Iv

is the angle by which a line that


is in quadrature to the flux
produced by the voltage coil

leads the reference - MTA


2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

78

Directional Relay Torque Equation


The torque is given by

T K a v i sin( i v )
The flux produced by the voltage coil is proportional to
the current in the voltage coil
Similarly, the flux produced by the current coil is
proportional to the current in that coil
Making these substitutions and adding the effect of the
restraining spring, the torque equation becomes

T K b I v I i sin( i v ) K 2
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

79

Directional Relay Torque Equation


The current Iv is proportional to V. Making this
substitution we get
T K1VI sin( i v ) K 2

K1VI cos ( i v ) K 2
2

K1VI cos i ( v ) K 2
2

T K1VI cos( i ) K 2
Defining (v +/2) as , we get
In this equation is the Maximum Torque Angle.
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

80

Directional Relay Torque Equation

Consider the torque equation

T K1VI cos( i ) K 2

Notice that for specified values


of V and I the torque is
maximum when the current
leads the voltage by an angle

I min

equal to ; the current is in


phase with the MTL.

In other words the torque


equation can be written as

T K1VI cos( ) K 2
Where is the angle between the fault current and maximum torque line

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

81

Establishing Direction
Polarising Quantity
The DIRECTION of Alternating Current may only be
determined with respect to a COMMON
REFERENCE.
In relaying terms, the REFERENCE is called the
POLARISING QUANTITY.
The most convenient reference quantity is
POLARISING VOLTAGE taken from the Power
System Voltages.
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

82

Directional Decision by Phase


Comparison (1)
S1 = Reference Direction = Polarising Signal = V POL
S2 = Current Signal = I
OPERATION when S2 is within 90 of S1 :S1
S2

S2

S2

S2
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

S2

S2

S2

9th March

83

Directional Decision by Phase


Comparison (2)
RESTRAINT when S2 lags S1 by

S1

between 90 and 270 :-

S2

S2

S2

S2

S2
S2
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

S2

9th March

84

Phase Over Current Relay


Polarising Voltage
OPERATE SIGNAL =

IA

POLARISING SIGNAL :-

Which voltage to use ?


Selectable from
VA
VB
VC
VA-B
VB-C
VC-A

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

85

Directional Relay
Applied Voltage :

VA

Applied Current :

IA

Assuming voltage coil angle ~ 90

MTA

A
VA
IA
Operate
IAF
VAF
IVA

Zero Torque
Line

VA

Restrain

Maximum torque obtained when IA in phase with VA.


Question :
- is this connection suitable for a typical power system ?
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

86

Polarising Voltage
VA

Applied Voltage

VBC

Applied Current

IA

IA
IAF
MTA

VBC
IVBC

Polarising voltage remains healthy

Fault current in centre of


characteristic

VBC
ZERO TORQUE
LINE
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

87

Relay Connection Angle


The angle between the current applied to the relay and the
voltage applied to the relay at system unity power factor
e.g. 90 (Quadrature) Connection :

IA and VBC

IA
VA

90
VBC

VC

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

VB

9th March

88

Maximum Torque Angle (M.T.A.)


for Electromechanical Relays
The angle by which the current applied to the relay must be
displaced from the voltage applied to the relay to produce
maximum torque
e.g. 45

MAX TORQUE
LINE

OPERATE
RESTRAIN

IA FOR MAX TORQUE

VA

45

MTA
VBC

ZERO TORQUE
LINE
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

89

Relay Characteristic Angle


(R.C.A.) for Numeric Relays
The angle by which the current applied to the relay must
be displaced from the voltage applied to the relay to
produce maximum operational sensitivity
e.g. 45

OPERATE
RESTRAIN

45

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

IA FOR MAXIMUM OPERATE


SENSITIVITY

VA
RCA

VBC

9th March

90

Various Relay Connections


Zero degree connection consists of using the
current of phase A and the voltage of phase A
Other possibilities are to use the combinations of
different voltages for polarizing each current
Current

IA

Voltages

IC

V A -V

V B -V

V C -V

V B -V

V C -V

V A -V

{V
+{V

IB

-V

-V

{V
+{V

-V

-V

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

{V
+{V

-V

-V

9th March

91

30 Connection
Let us consider the first set of voltages and
currents
V
Current

IA

Voltages

V A -V
V B -V
{V
+{V

B -V
A

-V

IB

V B -V

V C -V

C}
C

{V
+{V

C -V
B

-V

V A -V

IC

V C -V

V C -V

V A -V

A }
A

{V
+{V

A -V
C

-V

IC
IA

IB
V B -V

B}
B

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

92

30 Connection
With =30, we can achieve the maximum
torque for unity power factor
Im
IA

Restraint

MTL

Operate

Relay does
not operate

Relay
operates

V A -V

Re
Z

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

93

90 Connection
Let us consider the second set of voltages and
currents
V
Current

IA
V A -V

Voltages

V B -V
{V
+{V

-V
B
A

-V

IB

V B -V

V C -V

}
C
C

{V
+{V

-V
C
B

-V

V C -V

IC

V C -V

V A -V

}
A
A

{V
+{V

-V
A
C

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

-V

V B -V

IC
IA

IB

V A -V

}
B
B

9th March

94

90 Connection
With =30, we can achieve the maximum torque for fault
currents angles of =-60
Im
IA

Restrain

V B -V

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

Re

9th March

95

60 Connection
Let us consider the third set of voltages and
currents
V A -V
V

Current

IA

Voltages

V A -V
V B -V
{V
+{V

-V

-V
A

IB

V B -V

}
C

{V
+{V

V B -V

IC

V C -V

V A -V

-V

-V
B

}
A

{V
+{V

V C -V

-V

-V
C

IA

IB
V C -V

}
B

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

IC

V C -V

V B -V

V A -V

9th March

96

60 Connection
With =30, we can achieve the maximum torque for fault
currents angles of =-30
Im
Restrain

IA
Relay does
not operate

Operate

Relay
operates

MTL

{V
{V

A -V C } +
B-V C}

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

Re

9th March

97

Over Current Relays


Selection of R.C.A.
90 connection 30 RCA (lead)
Plain feeder, zero sequence source behind relay

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

98

Over Current Relays


Selection of R.C.A.
90 connection 45 RCA (lead)
Plain or Transformer Feeder :- Zero Sequence Source in Front of
Relay

Transformer Feeder :- Delta/Star Transformer in Front of


Relay

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

99

Directional Relay
C.T. Connections
Clearly, correct polarity of current coil and voltage coil is essential to
ensure correct application.
- Refer to manufacturers diagrams.
Philosophy of 2 x over current / 1 x earth fault may be retained if 90
connection is used for over current elements.
i.e :

VAB
67N

67

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

67

VBC

9th March

100

Directional Relay
C.T. Connections
Must use 3 x over current elements if 30 connection is
used.
i.e :

67N

67

67

VCB
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

VAC

67

VBA

9th March

101

Directional Earth Fault


Requirements are similar to directional over current
i.e. need operating signal
and polarising signal
Operating Signal
obtained from residual connection of line CT's
i.e. Iop = 3Io
Polarising Signal
The use of either phase-neutral or phase-phase voltage as the
reference becomes inappropriate for the comparison with residual
current.
Most appropriate polarising signal is the residual voltage.
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

102

Residual Voltage
May be obtained from broken delta V.T. secondary.
A
B
C
VA-G

VB-G

VC-G

VRES = VA-G + VB-G + VC-G = 3V0

Notes :

VRES

1.

VT primary must be earthed.

2.

VT must be of the '5 limb' construction (or 3 x single phase units)

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

103

Residual Voltage
E

ZS

Solidly Earthed

ZL

System
A-G
VA

VA
VB VC

VC
VA

VB
VC

VB VC

VRES
VA
VC

VB

VB

VRES

VB

VC

Residual Voltage at R (relaying point) is dependant upon Z S / ZL


ratio.
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

104

Residual Voltage
Resistance Earthed
System

ZS

ZL

ZE

A-G

G
VA-G
G.F

VC-G

VB-G VC-G
VRE

VS A-G
VC-G

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

S
R G.F

S V
A-G
R G.F

VB-G

VRES
VA-G
VC-G

VB-G VC-G

VB-G

VB-G

VRE
S

VB-G

VC-G

9th March

105

Directional Earth Fault Relays


Relay Characteristic Angle
0 - Resistance earthed systems
45 (I lags V) - Distribution systems (solidly earthed)
60 (I lags V) - Transmission systems (solidly earthed)
Zero sequence network :ZS0

3R

I0

ZL0

V0

V0 = ( - ) I0 (ZS0 + 3R)
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

106

Current Polarising
A solidly earthed, high fault level (low source impedance) system
may result in a small value of residual voltage at the relaying point.
If residual voltage is too low to provide a reliable polarising signal
then a current polarising signal may be used as an alternative.
The current polarising signal may be derived from a CT located in a
suitable system neutral to earth connection.
e.g.

OP
PO
L
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

DEF Relay

9th March

107

Negative Sequence
Directional Relay
Only one relays is enough
for detecting all phase-tophase and phase-to-phaseto-ground faults
Negative sequence relay

I 2 Filter

does not react to load


currents and power swings
V 2 Filter

Instead for switching


voltages and currents,
sequence filters are used
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

Relay

9th March

108

Negative Sequence
Directional Relay
V2 I 2 ( s ) Z 2 ( s )

Negative sequence

currents lead the negative


I2

sequence voltages by 95

- 120 for forward faults.


A relay that has a

Negative Sequence Network

maximum torque angle of

I2

about 70 is usually used.


I 2 (s)Z

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

(s)

-I

(s)Z

(s) =V

9th March

109

Example 2
Calculate the torque developed by the three phase directional
elements of the following relay for the fault condition given
Relay
Connection

: 90

MTA

: 30

K1

: 1.0

Fault Information
VA : 12.50 ; VB : 63.5-120 ; VC : 63.5120
IA : 98-68 ; IB : 10-125 ; IC : 12118

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

110

Example 2
Vca

Vab

Vc
Ic
Va

Ib

Vb

Vbc

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

Ia

9th March

111

Example 2
VBC : 109.98-90 ; VCA : 70.59128.82 ;
VAB : 70.5951.18
IA : 98-68 ; IB : 10-125 ; IC : 12118
TA = K1*VBC*IA*Cos()
Where is the angle between the A Phase element maximum torque
line and A phase current
We are given that the MTA is 30, that is the maximum torque line
leads the polarizing voltage by 30

TA = 1.0 * 109.98 * 98 * Cos(-90+30-(-68))


= 10673 N-m

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

112

Example 2
Similarly,
TB = K1*VCA*IB*Cos()
Where is the angle between the B phase element maximum
torque line and B phase current
We are given that the MTA is 30, that is the maximum torque line
leads the polarizing voltage by 30

TB = 1.0 * 70.59 * 10 * Cos(128.82+30-(-125))


= 168.62 N-m

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

113

Example 2
And,
TC = K1*VAB*IC*Cos()
Where is the angle between the C phase element maximum torque
line and C phase current
We are given that the MTA is 30, that is the maximum torque line
leads the polarizing voltage by 30

TC = 1.0 * 70.59 * 12 * Cos(51.18+30-(118))


= 678.10 N-m

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

114

Example 3
138 / 13.8kV

15 MVA
1
Zt = 0.08 p.u.

0.7
Short Circuit Level
Max 250 MVA
Min 200 MVA

1.0

2.0

1.0

50 A
138 / 13.8kV
15 MVA
Zt = 0.08 p.u.
150 A

200 A

100 A

Line Parameters
Bus

Impedance

From

To

Ohms

0.70

1.00

2.00

1.00

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

115

Example 3
Select Base Capacity = 25 MVA
Select Base Voltage on Bus 1 = 13.8 kV
Base Current,
Ib

25 1000
1046 A
3 13.8

Base Impedance,
Zb

( Base Voltage in kV )2

Base Capacity in MVA

Line Parameters
Bus

Impedance

From

To

p.u.

0.0919

0.1313

0.2625

0.1313

(13.8)2

25
7.618

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

116

Example 3
Maximum short circuit current - Fault on Source Bus
Source Impedance

1
0.1 p.u
10

Minimum short circuit current - Fault on Source Bus


Source Impedance

250
10.0 p.u.
25

200
8.0 p.u.
25

1
0.125 p.u.
8

Transformer Impedance on 15 MVA and 13.8 kV base = 0.08


Transformer Impedance on 25 MVA and 13.8 kV base

25 (13.8)2
Zt 0.08
0.1333 p.u.
2
15 (13.8)
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

117

Example 3
Selection

Relay
Location Bus

Of

CT

Maximum
Load
Current (A)

Ratios

CT

and

Ratio

Selected

Current
Relay

Settings
Current

Percent

Setting
Primary

Current (A)

500

800/5

75

600

350

500/5

100

500

150

200/5

100

200

50

100/5

75

75

50

100/5

75

75

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

118

Example 3
Fault

Current

Calculations

Total Impedance to Fault p.u.

Fault Current (A)

Location of Fault

Maximum

Minimum

Minimum

Maximum

Bus

(One

(Two

(One

(Two

Transformer in

transformers in

Transformer in

Transformers in

Circuit)

circuit)

circuit)

circuit)

0.2583

0.1667

4049

6274

0.3502

0.2586

2986

4045

0.4815

0.3899

2172

2683

0.7440

0.6524

1406

1603

0.8753

0.7837

1195

1335

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

119

Example 3
Choosing relay 5 parameters
Coordination parameters Fault at Bus 5
Relay
Bus

at

Current in Multiples
of Relay Setting
17.800

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

TMS

Relay Operating
Time
0.21

9th March

120

Example 3

0.21s
1335A
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

121

Example 3
Choosing relay 4 parameters
Coordination parameters Fault at Bus 5
Relay
Bus

at

Current in Multiples
of Relay Setting

TMS

Relay Operating
Time

17.800

0.21

17.800

0.63

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

122

Example 3

0.63s
0.21s
1335A

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

123

Example 3
Checking relay 4 parameters
Coordination parameters Fault at Bus 4
Current

Current in Multiples
of Relay Setting

TMS

Relay Operating
Time

1603

21.373

0.55

1406

18.75

0.6

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

124

Example 3

0.55s

1603A

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

125

Example 3
Choosing relay 3 parameters
Coordination parameters Fault at Bus 4
Relay
Bus

at

Current in Multiples
of Relay Setting

TMS

Relay Operating
Time

(1603/75) 21.373

0.55

(1603/200)8.015

1.7

0.93

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

126

Example 3

0.93s
0.55s

1603A

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

127

Example 3
Checking relay 3 parameters
Coordination parameters Fault at Bus 3
Current

Current in Multiples
of Relay Setting

TMS

Relay Operating
Time

2683

13.415

1.7

0.48

2172

10.86

1.7

0.62

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

128

Example 3
Choosing relay 2 parameters
Coordination parameters Fault at Bus 3
Relay
Bus

at

Current in Multiples
of Relay Setting

TMS

Relay Operating
Time

(2683/200) 13.415

1.7

0.48

(2683/500)5.366

0.75

0.85

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

129

Example 3

0.85s
0.48s

2683A

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

130

Example 3
Checking relay 2 parameters
Coordination parameters Fault at Bus 2
Current

Current in Multiples
of Relay Setting

TMS

Relay Operating
Time

4045

8.09

0.75

0.42

2986

5.97

0.75

0.69

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

131

Example 3
Choosing relay 1 parameters
Coordination parameters Fault at Bus 2
Relay
Bus

at

Current in Multiples
of Relay Setting

TMS

Relay Operating
Time

(4045/500) 8.09

0.75

0.42

(4045/600)6.74

1.1

0.82

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

132

Example 3

0.82s
0.42s

4045A

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

133

Example 3
Checking relay 1 parameters
Coordination parameters Fault at Bus 1
Current

Current in Multiples
of Relay Setting

TMS

Relay Operating
Time

6274

10.46

1.1

0.41

4049

6.75

1.1

0.82

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

134

Example 3

2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

135

Thank you
2007 Protection Engineering And Research Laboratories

9th March

136