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Functional anatomy of the muscles

of the limbs

Development of the limb muscles

Peculiarities of the limb muscles
Auxiliary apparatus of the limb muscles
Differences of the upper and lower limb
5. Topography of the upper limb
6. Topography of the lower limb
7. Weak places of the pelvis and hernias

Development of the limb muscles

It is supposed that muscles of the limbs are developed from the
cells of the ventral myotomes which migrate into the
mesenchyme bud of the limb.
Muscles which are inserted to the bones of free limb with both
ends form the Autochthonous group of the muscles.
Some muscles which are derivatives of migrated cells move
one its end to the trunk and become inserted to it. Such muscles
form the Trunkopetal group of the muscles (e.g. pectoral major
and minor muscles, latissimus dorsi muscle).
The third group is developed from the myotomes of the trunk
and is inserted with one end to the bones of the limb forming
the Trunkofugal muscles ( trapesium m., rhomboid mm., levator
scapulae m., anterior serrate m).
At the lower limbs trunkofugal muscles are absent.
Trunkopetal muscles of the lower limb: greater psoas m.,
quadratus lumborum m..

Peculiarities of the limb muscles

Big amount of the long
Presence of big
amount of muscular
- retinaculi,
- synovial vagines,
- synovial bursae,
- tendinous vinculae,
- fibromuscular canals.

Localization of the
limb muscles
Muscles have perpendicular
direction to the axis of
movement at the joint.
Minimum one pair of
muscles /one by one for opposite
movements/ exist for each axis.
Function of each muscle
depends on the its position to
the axis of movement.

Retinaculi of the upper limb

Retinaculum flexorum
Canalis carpi radialis:
tendon m. flexor carpi radialis.

Canalis carpalis:
Synovial vagines of tendons of muscles
flexor digitorum,
tendon of m.flexoris pollicis longus,
nervus medianus.

Canalis carpi ulnaris:

Arteria ulnaris
Vena ulnaris
Nervus ulnaris

Retinaculi of the upper limb

Retinaculum extensorum
/6 canals transmitting tendons/
I - m.abductor pollicis longus
m.extensor pollicis brevis
II - m.extensor carpi radialis longus
m.extensor carpi radialis brevis
III - m.extensor pillicis longus
IV m.extensor digitorum
m. extensor indicis
V - m. extensor digiti minimi
VI m.extensor carpi ulnaris

Synovial sheaths of the palmar and dorsal surface of the hand

Retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb

Retinaculum extensorum
It presses the tendons of the anterior leg muscles to
the bones
It has 2 parts:
1. Upper /between the leg bones above the malleoli/
2. Lower /distally in front of the ankle joint, Y-shaped/
- originates from the lateral surface of the calcaneus
and tarsal sinus
- separates into two bands:
a) superior - passes to the medial malleolus;
b) inferior to the navicular and medial cuneiform
It splits into a superficial and deep layers the
extensor tendons forming four fibrous canals
I synovial vagine of the extensor digitorum longus
andperoneus tertius m
II - synovial vagine of the extensor hallucis longus
III- synovial vagine of the tibialis anterior muscle
IV blood vessels and nerve

Retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb

Retinaculum flexorum
Passes from the calcaneus
to the medial malleolus
Forms 4 osteofibrous
I synovial vagine of the
tibialis posterior,
II - synovial vagine of the
flexor digitorum longus,
III synovial vagine of the
flexor hallucis longus,
IV posterior tibial artery
and tibial nerve.

Retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb

It has 2 parts:
1) Upper
- from the lateral malleolus to
the calcaneus,
- transmits the common synovial
vagine of the peroneus longus and
brevis muscles
- located on the lateral surface of
he calcaneum,
- transmits separated synovial
vagines of the peroneus longus
and brevis muscles.

Synovial vagines and the grooves of the

plantar surface

Differences of the muscles of the upper and

lower limbs
Amounts of the muscles of upper limbs is bigger
Volum and weight of the muscles is bigger at the lower limbs
Lower limbs havent group of the muscles pronators
Pelvic girdle doesnt have proper muscles, these muscles are
well developed at the shoulder girdle
Flexors prevail at the upper limbs, extensors at the lower
Lower limbs have well developed group of adductors.
Muscles of the upper limbs have small surface of attachment
to the bones.
At the upper limb point of effort is placed closely to the
fulcrum than at the lower limb.

Topography of the upper limb


Axillary fossa

It is seen in abduction

It is bounded: inferiorly by the greater pectoral m. in front;

by the latissimus dorsi and teres major m. behind;
medially by an imaginary line between borders of these mm. on
the chest
laterally by a connecting line on the inner surface of the upper


Axillary cavity

Anterior wall major and minor pectoral muscles:

3 triangles
Posterior wall subscapular m.
teres major m.
latissimus dorsi m.;
2 oppenings
trilaterum = triangular
quadrilaterum = quadrangular;
Medial wall serratus anterior m.
Lateral wall humarus + muscles.

Topography of the shoulder girdle


Deltoideopectoral triangle
(groove) - a
Lateral and medial
bicipital grooves b, c

Topography of the upper limb

1. Canal of the radial
nerve = canalis
spiralis = canalis

between the humerus and

triceps muscle

2. Fossa of beauty:

on the posterior surface of

the elbow joint

3. Gluters triangle and


connect the epicondyles

and apex of the olecranon

Topography of the forearm




Canal of the ulnar nerve:

between the medial
epicondyle, proximal ulna
and origin of the forearm
Canalis supinatorius:
between the supinatorius
muscle and radius
Pirogovs space: between
the third and fourth
layers of the forearm
muscles at its distal part.

Topography of the forearm

and hand
Elbow fossa:
laterally brachioradial m.,
medially pronator teres m.,
superiorly brachial m..

Antebrachial grooves:
Lateral = radial: between
brachioradial and flexor carpi
radialis mm;

Median: between flexor carpi

radialis and flexor digitorum
superficialis mm ;

Medial = ulnar: between flexor

digitorum superficialis and flexor
carpi ulnaris mm .
Anatomical snuff-box

Suprapirifom and
The piriform foramen passes
through the greater sciatic foramen,
above and below which narrow
openings remain and transmit the
gluteal vessels and nerves.

Lacuna musculorum:
Above inghinal lig,; laterally sartorius m.; medially arcus ileopectineus.

Lacuna vasorum:
Above inghinal lig,; laterally arcus ileopubicus; medially lig. lacunare;
behind arcus ileopectineus.

Femoral triangle:
Laterally sartorius m.;
Above inghinal ligament;
Medially adductor
longus m.

Canalis adductorius:
Laterally medial belly
of cvadriceps m.;
Medially adductor
magnus m.;
Anteriorly - membrana

Under normal conditions doesnt

Lateral femoral vein;
Posterior deep layer of fascia lata
Anterior inghinal ligament and
superior horn of the crescent-shaped
margin of fascia lata.
There is a narrow opening in the
medial corner of lacuna vasorum the
femoral ring = inlet
Laterally femoral vein;
Anterior and superior Pouparts
Medially lacunar ligament;
Posterior pectineal ligament.
Outlet chiatus saphenus.

Femoral canal

Canals of the leg

Groubers canal =
canalis cruropopliteus
Extends between the
superficial and deep mm.
of the leg.
It gives a branch canalis
musculoperoneus inferior
formed by the middle third
of the fibula and the flexor
hallucis longus.
Canalis musculoperoneus
superior it is placed in the
upper third of the leg,
between the fibula and
peroneus longus muscle.
Pirogovs canal it is a
fascial canal located
between two heads of the
gastrocnemius muscle.

Weak places of the

1. Obturator canal
2. Suprapirifom foramen
3. Infrapiriform foramen

Obturator Hernia: This extremely

rare abdominal hernia develops mostly
in women. This hernia protrudes from
the pelvic cavity through an opening
in the pelvic bone (obturator foramen).
This will not show any bulge but can
act like a bowel obstruction and cause
nausea and vomiting.

Ischiatic and obturator hernias

Ischiatic hernias:
1. Suprapiriform hernia;
2. Infrapiriform hernia;
3. Hernia of the lesser piriform

Perineal hernias

2 anterior
7 - posterior

Femoral hernias

Femoral Hernia: It occurs when the intestine enters

the canal carrying the femoral artery into the upper
Femoral hernias are most common in women, especially
those who are pregnant or obese.