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Presentation

on
Condition Monitoring
Technology

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Presented
By
Engr. Md. Shahin Manjurul Alam
Saj Engineering & Trading Company

Company Profile

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Saj Engineering & Trading Company is established in 1998 to provide the NonDestructive Testing (NDT) and Condition Monitoring (CM) solution in Bangladesh industrial
Market. Since then we are providing the NDT and CM solution in different types of
industries like power generation, fertilizer, chemical, aviation shipbuilding, gas production
and distribution, cement, welding, paper, sugar, pharmaceuticals, research and
educational institutions. For the automobile and industrial market we are supplying
lubricants, filter, radiator and spark plug. For our products we represent the most
renowned manufacturers in the world.
As we have all sorts of latest NDT and CM products we have developed an industrial
inspection service provider under the name of Saj Industrial & Inspection Company.
And till now we have completed 40 Projects successfully and some projects is in our hand.

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Non
Destructive
Testing (NDT)
Products
Cold Welding
Materials &
Services

Condition
Monitoring
Products

MRO &
Packaging
Products

Different types
of Scientific
Equipments

Lubricants/En
gine Oil/
Motor oil

Automobile &
Heavy Duty
Filter

Predictive
Maintenance
Services

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Objective

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Condition Monitoring (CM)


Condition Monitoring Techniques
Vibration Analysis
Oil Analysis
Thermal Analysis
Ultrasound Analysis

Types of machines
Motors
Pumps
Fans
Gearboxes
Engines
Compressors
Steam Turbines
Generators
Gas Turbines
Hydro Turbines

Rotating
Or
Reciprocating Machines

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What type of Maintenance www.sajetc.com


Do we Have

Proactive
PP

Predictive

Lubrication Excellence
Precision Maintenance
Alignment, Balance, etc.

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Select Suppliers
Supplier Specifications

Reactive

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Equipment Performance

Metrics
Equipment Ranking

We are in
here

RCM
TPM

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RCA/FMEA
RCD

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Sm
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Training Programs
Written Procedures
Job Planning/Scheduling
CMMS

FF
Time
Machine Condition Chart

Condition Monitoring

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Condition monitoring is the process of monitoring


a parameter of condition in machinery, such that
a significant change is indicative of a developing
failure. It is a major component of Predictive
Maintenance (PdM). The use of conditional
monitoring allows maintenance to be scheduled,
or other actions to be taken to avoid the
consequences of failure, before the failure occurs.

Condition Monitoring
Techniques

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A wide range of Condition monitoring techniques is


available in the industries over the world and some
have become standards in many industries. The
"standard" technologies are:

1)
2)
3)
4)

Vibration Analysis
Oil Analysis
Thermal Analysis
Ultrasound Analysis

Vibration
Analysis

Thermal
Analysis

Condition Monitoring
For your Plant

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Oil Analysis

Ultrasound
Analysis

If you think this is your plant, then your plant is stand on this 4
technologies

Vibration Analysis

What Is Vibration ?

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Vibration is a "back and forth" movement of a structure. It can also


be referred to as a "cyclical" movement

Vibration Analysis

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More than 20 years ago someone made the statement, The


vibrations produced in a machine are the best indication of the
machines health. This statement still holds true today. Of all the
predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies, vibration analysis
remains the best measure of machine health. This is true because
vibration monitoring can alert us to so many different conditions
that may indicate potential machine failures. Unbalance,
misalignment, bearing faults, resonance, looseness, cavitations and
electrical problems are just a few of the many problems that can be
detected with vibration monitoring.

Common Problems that Generate


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Vibration
1. Misalignment
2. Unbalance
3. Worn belts & pulleys
4. Bearing Defects
5. Hydraulic Forces
6. Aerodynamic Forces
7. Reaction Forces
8. Reciprocating Forces
9. Bent Shafts
10.Rubbing
11.Gear Problems
12.Housing Distortion
13.Certain Electrical
Problems
14.Frictional Forces

What we Measure for


Vibration Analysis

Amplitude: How Much


Movement Occurs or severity
of the vibration.
Amplitude measures as
1. Displacement: mm, mils
(0.001)
2. Velocity: mm/sec, in/sec
3. Acceleration: Gs (1g= Force
of
gravity) or rms (root mean
square)

Frequency: How Often


The Movement Occurs.
How many "cycles" in a
period of time: a second or
a minute
Unit: Cycle per second (Hz)
Cycle per Minute
(CPM)

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Phase: In What Direction Is


The Movement. It also
called phase angle.
Unit: Degree

Vibration Transducer

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SensorsTransducersProbesWhat is it?

.It basically converts mechanical vibration to


an electrical signal

Displacement
Shaft Riders
Proximity Probes
(Eddy Current Probes)

Velocity
Transducer

Accelerometer
Charge Type &
Line Drive
Constant Voltage &
Constant Current

How we Measure:
Probe Orientation

Axial: Axial direction is always


on the parallel to the shaft
axis.

Vertical: A Transducer
Mounted Vertically "Sees
Only Vertical Movement

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Horizontal: A Transducer
Mounted Horizontally
"Sees" Only Horizontal
Movement

Mounting Direction

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Radial
Vertical

Vertical

Axial

Radial Horizontal

ial
x
A

Horizontal

Mounting Direction
Hori.

Vert.

Vert.

Axial

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Hori.

Axial

For detail study of vibration dynamics of machine


vertical, horizontal and axial at each bearing location
For monitoring one point per bearing and add axial when
There is a thrust bearing or axial potential faults eg. misalignment

Machinery Health Monitoring


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Strategy
Application at Typical Plant
Total # Machines 2,500
Typical Industrial Process Plant

Turbines
Generators
Compressors

Motors
Pumps
Fans
Gears

~125 Machines

~1375 Machines

5%
Critical
25%
Essential

Online Solutions for


critical machinery

Wireless
Transmitters

30%
Important

~500 Machines
~500 Machines

20%
Secondary
20%
Non-Essential

Multi Technologies
Portable Solutions

Date Representation

Wave Form Plot or Domain


Plot

FFT Spectrum Plot

Waterfall Plot

Orbit Plot

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FFT Spectrum Plot for some


Problems

Mass
Unbalance

Structural
Resonance

Misalignme
nt

Sleeve Bearing
Looseness/Rubs
X=RPM=CPM
minute=60Hz
1X=1xRPM=1xCPM
2X=2xRPM=2xCPM

Structural
Looseness

Gear Problem
Misalignment
CPM=Cycle per

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Bearing Looseness

Pump Cavitation

Oil Analysis

Oil Analysis

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OIL . . . your engines lifeblood . . .


can reveal its internal condition

What is Oil Analysis

Oil Analysis

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Blood Test

Oil analysis is a quick, nondestructive way to gauge the health


of an engine by looking at what's in the oil. It is as like as
medical blood test, where we can know about our diseases
from our blood.

All Test of Your Oil


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

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Elemental Analysis (Spectral Analysis)


Particle count,
Particle Shape Analysis
Parts per million (PPM) distribution ,
ISO codes and ASTM standard
Ferrography
Oil Chemistry ( Dielectric, TBN, TAN,
Oxydation, Nitration, Sulfations, Glycol,
Soot etc.)
8. Water-in-oil,
9. Viscosity
10.Wear Debris Analysis (WDA)

No.

Element

Symbol

Readout
Range in PPM

Aluminum

Al

0-1,000

Barium

Ba

5-6,000

Boron

0-1,000

Cadmium

Cd

0-1,000

Calcium

Ca

0-6,000

Carbon

Reference

Chromium

Cr

0-1,000

Copper

Cu

0-1,000

Hydrogen

Reference

Iron

Fe

0-1,000

Lead

Pb

0-1,000

10

Magnesium

Mg

0-6,000

11

Manganese

Mn

0-1,000

12

Molybdenum

Mo

0-1,000

13

Nickel

Ni

0-1,000

14

Phosphorus

10-6,000

15

Potassium

0-1,000

16

Silicon

Si

0-1,000

17

Silver

Ag

0-1,000

18

Sodium

Na

0-6,000

19

Tin

Sn

0-1,000

20

Titanium

Ti

0-1,000

21

Vanadium

0-1,000

22

Zinc

Zn

0-6,000

23

Lithium

Li

0-1,000

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Elemental Analysis

Elemental Analysis Case


Study
Wear Metal Trends on F-15 F100-100
Engine
Hours Reason Fe
Ag Al Cr Ni Ti Action
424

426

427

428

430

11

430

12

430

12

R=Routine;L=LabRequested;B=SubmitSpecialSampleASAP
A=NoRecommendation,ContinueRoutineSampling
G=SampleAfterEachFlightDONOTFLYUNTILRESULTSAREKNOWN;
T=GROUNDUNIT,ExamineforDiscrepancy,AdviseLab

Failuredetectedbasedonincreasein
ironwearmetalconcentration

No.4Bearing
MissingParts

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Particle Count and Shape


Analysis

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ParticleShape
Analysis
ParticleCounting

Cutting
Cutting
Wear
Wear

Fatigue
Fatigue
Wear
Wear

Sliding
Sliding
Wear
Wear

Nonmetall
Nonmetall
ic
ic

Ferrography

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Oil Chemistry
Engine

Water (ppm)
Oxidation
(abs/mm2)
TAN (mg KOH/g)
TBN (mg KOH/g)
Alien fluid (%)
Anti-Oxidant
Additive (%)
Anti-wear
Additive (%)
Nitration
(abs/mm2)
Sulfation
(abs/mm2)
Soot (%)
Glycol (%)

Hydraulic

Synthetic
Gas Turbine

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Compressor/
transmissio
n

Gear/Turbine

Wear Debris Analysis

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WDA Images

PLATELETS:
Two dimensional particles
produced by
metal to metal sliding.

SPHERICAL:
Produced by bearing fatigue or by
lubrication failure resulting in local
overheating.

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SPIRALS:
Similar in appearance to
machining swarf, and are
produced by a harder surface
abrading into a softer

CHUNCKY:
Produced by a fatigue mechanism

Infra-Red Thermography

Thermography

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Infra Red Thermography is a technique for producing a visible


image of invisible (to our eyes). Infra red radiation emitted by
objects due to their thermal conditions. The amount of radiation
emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore,
thermography allows one to see variations in temperature.

Why Thermography?

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Non Contact
Rapid Scanning
Data can be recorded in differing formats
Images produced are comprehensive & reliable

Advantages

Non Contact
Non Intrusive
Can work at a distance
Fast and Reliable
Portable
Convincing Results

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The Motto of Thermal Imaging

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SEE THE IMAGE,


SEE THE TEMPERATURE
SEE THE TEMPERATURE,
SEE THE PROBLEM

Thermal Images

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Thermal image showing water ingress (dark areas) on illustrated


section of aircraft

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Boeing 737 Turbine. Shows the heat pattern in the turbine of


this jet.

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Boeing 737 front wheel. Thermal imaging provided by the


Camera shows no uneven wear or heating on this plane wheel.

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Jet Engine analysis

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Electrical

Switch Gear
Fuse boxes
Cable runs
Electrical
connectors
Insulation
Transformers

Fan

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37.4C
35

AR01

30

25

20
18.7C

Fuse Box

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38.1C

35

LI01
30

25
23.3C

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Electrical Connections
Used for the
detection of;
Corroded connections
Slack / loose
connectors
Connectors at too high
an operating
temperature
Hot spots

Electronics

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Electric Motor Bearing

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Electrical Motor

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High Voltage Substation

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Process Plant
Hot spots
Cold spots
(Cryogenics)
Damaged or
missing insulation
Tank levels

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Ultrasound Analysis

What is Ultrasound

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Low frequency sound waves range in size from 3/4


(1.88 cm) to 56 (16.9 m)
(Assuming the average hearing range from 20Hz to
20KHz)

High frequency (ultrasound) sound Waves range


in size from 1/8 (0.34 cm) To 5/8 (1.7 cm)
(Assuming ultrasound range from 20 khz-100khz)

Advantages of Ultrasound

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Directional
Locatable
Multiple applications
Utilizable in all environments
Early warning failure indication
Supports other technologies

Application Groups
Leak detection
Compressed air
Specialty gasses
Vacuum
Steam traps / valves

Electrical Inspection
Mechanical Inspection
Slow speed bearings
Lubrication

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Ultrasonic Leak Detector

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Locate the leak


Measure the Leak
Calculate costs
Calculate Greenhouse
Gas emission
reduction

59

How Leaks Develop

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Fluid: Liquid or gas


Turbulent Flow
Produces Ultrasound
PRESSURE

VACUUM

Good Valve Bad Valve

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Electric Inspection

Switchgear
Transformers
Insulators
Relays
Breakers
*>28.4F
28.0
27.0

24.4

26.0
25.0
24.0
23.0
*<23.0F

26.8

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Electric inspection
Corona
Tracking
Arcing

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*>28.4F
28.0
27.0

24.4

26.0
25.0

26.8

24.0
23.0
*<23.0F

Good for medium and high


voltage

Bearing Inspection

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Very effective on S L O W S P E
ED!
3 Types of testing performed
Comparison
Historical Trending
Spectrum Analysis:
Fault frequency identification

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Levels of Severity

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Db levels over baseline


8 db

LUBRICATION

12 db minor damage-microscopic faults


16 db damage-visual faults
35+ db catastrophic failure imminent

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Whats In Your PDM


Toolbox?

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One Technology CAN NOT do


Everything!!!!!!
Successful Integration is the
key to getting the most out of
your resources:
Awareness
Proper training
Documentation

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