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SEMINAR ON

:
QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS
AND
INTERPRETATION

Presented by:
Ms. Prekshya Thapa
College of Nursing,
B. P. Koirala Institute of Health
Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Introduction:
• The purpose of data analysis is to
organize, provide structure to, and elicit
meaning from data.
• In qualitative studies, data collection and
data analysis often occur simultaneously
rather than after data are collected.
• The search for important themes and
concept begins from the moment data
collection gets underway.
• Qualitative analysis is the labor-intensive
activity that requires creativity,
conceptual sensitivity and sheer hard
work.

QUALITATIVE DATA
ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION

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Qualitative data analysis
challenges:
• Qualitative data analysis is
particularly challenging enterprise
for three major reasons.
• First, there are no universal rules for
analyzing qualitative data , and the
absence of standard procedures
makes it difficult to explain how to
do such analyses.
• The second challenge is the
enormous amount of work required.
Qualitative analyst must organize
and make a sense of pages and
pages of narrative materials.
QUALITATIVE DATA
ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION

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• Qualitative data must balance the need to be concise with the need to maintain the richness and evidentiary value of their data.Qualitative data analysis challenges: • A final challenge comes in reducing data for reporting purposes. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4 .

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 5 . often reading the data over and over again in a search for meaning and deeper understandings.Qualitative analysis process • Qualitative researchers typically scrutinize their data carefully and deliberately. • Insights and theories cannot emerge until researchers become completely familiar with data.

Qualitative data analysis • Morse and Field (1995) note that qualitative data analysis is a “process of fitting data together. of linking and attributing consequences to antecedents. of making invisible obvious. It is a process of conjecture and verification.” • Morse and Field (1995) have identified four process of analysis: – – – – Comprehending Synthesizing Theorizing Recontextualizing QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 6 . of correction and modification . of suggestion and defense.

Thus comprehension is completed when saturation is achieved. and new data do not add much to that description. rich description of phenomenon under study.Qualitative data analysis process 1. Comprehending: . QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 7 . . Early in analytic process. When comprehension is achieved . qualitative researchers strive to make sense of the data and to learn “ what is going on” . they are able to prepare thorough .

At this stage. .Qualitative data analysis process 2. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 8 . researcher can make some generalized statements about the phenomenon and about study participants. Synthesizing . researchers get a sense of what is typical regard to the phenomenon . and what variation is like. . At the end of the synthesis. It involves a “sifting” of the data and putting pieces together.

researchers develop alternative explanations of the phenomenon and then hold these explanations up to determine their fit with the data. Theorizing continues to evolve until the best explanation is obtained. Theorizing involves a systematic sorting of a data. .Qualitative data analysis process 3. Theorizing : . QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 9 . During this process. .

Qualitative data analysis process 4. Recontextualizing . . Although the intellectual processes in qualitative analysis are not linear in the same sense that quantitative analysis is. it is the theory that must be recontextualized and generalized. The process of recontextualizing involves further development of the theory to explore its applicability to other settings or groups. In qualitative inquires whose ultimate goal is theory development. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 10 . these four processes follow a rough progression over the course of the study.

• Theorizing and Recontextualizing are the processes that are difficult to undertake before synthesis has been completed. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 11 .Qualitative data analysis process • Comprehension occurs primarily while in the field • Synthesis begins in the field but may continue well after the field work is done.

Qualitative Data Management And Organization A. TRANSCRIBING QUALITATIVE DATA QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 12 .

– Verbatim transcription of the tapes is crucial step in preparing for data analysis and researchers need to ensure that the transcription are accurate and that they validly reflect the interview experience.Qualitative Data Management and Organization Transcribing qualitative data – Audiotaped/videotaped interviews and field notes are major data sources in qualitative studies. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 13 .

 It is crucial to impress on transcribers the importance of verbatim accounts. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 14 .Transcribing qualitative data • Transcription errors are almost inevitable.g. which means the researchers need to check the accuracy of transcribed data. Deliberate alterations of data:  Transcribers may intentionally “fix” data to make the transcription look more like what they “should” look like.  For e. or “tidy up” the text by deleting “ums” and “uhs”. omit the sounds such as phone ringing. That there are three categories of error: 1. transcriber may alter profanities.

. Researchers should take place to verify accuracy before analysis gets underway. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 15 .Transcribing qualitative data II. The insertion or omission of commas or question marks can alter the interpretation of the text. Accidental alterations of the data: . . "but the transcription might read “this was totally mute”. Another error is the misinterpretation of the text. For example. the actual words might be. “ this was totally moot.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 16 . . Data are unavoidably altered by the fact that transcriptions capture only a portion of experience of an interview experience. transcriptions will inevitably miss nonverbal clues such as body language. Unavoidable alterations: . For example.Transcribing qualitative data III. intonations and so on.

which requires careful training of transcribers. and continuous efforts to verify accuracy. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 17 . ongoing feedback.Qualitative data management and organization • Researcher should begin data analysis with the best possible quality data.

B. DEVELOPING A CATEGORY SCHEME QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 18 .

more manageable units that can be retrieved and reviewed.Qualitative data management and organization Developing a Category Scheme – Qualitative data analysis begins with data organization. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 19 . – This phase of data analysis is essentially reductionist.data must be converted to smaller.by classifying and indexing the data.

Developing a Category Scheme – The most commonly used procedure is to develop a category scheme and then to code data according to the categories. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 20 . – Developing a high category scheme involves a careful reading of the data. – Researcher whose aims are primarily descriptive tend to use categories that are fairly concrete. with an eye to identifying underlying concepts and clusters of concepts.

Effects of welfare reform on hunger 3. they help a lot because it is hard. just for my C1 kids because I can go a day without eating. Food Pantries 3. having enough food 2. Use of food service/programs 1. D3 and you hate doing that because it is embarrassing. Borrowing money D. I got to live day by day for food for my kids. Food Inadequacy Experiences 1. Special issues 1. I don’t worry about me. I have A2 to call down to the shelter to get them to send you food. Problems feeding family. Mothers sacrificing for children 2. Strategies to avoid hunger 1. I have to do things so my kids can eat. it is really hard. C. it is a pain in the butt.Coding scheme for food insecurity and hunger A. Food Stamps 2. Stigma D1 I hate being on welfare. Excerpt from Polit et al. relatives 2. I don’t A1 need their cash. but as long as my kids eat. Getting food from friends. But I never have to worry about my kids starving because I have family. QUALITATIVE DATA (2000) study for food ANALYSIS AND 21 insecurity and hunger in INTERPRETATION . Soup Kitchens B1 B. Having to eat undesirable food. but the food stamps. but I have to live day by day.

• In creating conceptual categories. and compare them to other segments for similarities and dissimilarities to determine what the meaning of those phenomena are. closely examine them.Developing a Category Scheme • Studies that are designed to develop a theory are more likely to involve abstract .conceptual categories. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 22 . researchers must break the data into segments.

incidents. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 23 . or statements:  – What is this? – What is going on? – What does it stand for? – What else is like this? – What is this distinct from? • Important concepts that emerge from close examination of the data are then given a label that forms a basis for a category.• The researcher ask the questions such as the following about discrete events.

C. CODING QUALITATIVE DATA QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 24 .

Qualitative Data Management And Organization Coding Qualitative Data – Once the category scheme has been developed. or may not fully comprehend the underlying meaning of some aspect of the data. – Researchers may have difficulty deciding the most appropriate code. the data are read in their entirety and coded for correspondence to the categoriesa task that is seldom easy. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 25 .

– A concept might not be identified as salient until it has emerged a few times. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 26 . – Making changes midway is often vexing.Coding of qualitative data – Researchers often discover during coding that the initial categories were incomplete. – It is common for categories to emerge that were not initially identified. but a comprehensive category system is vital.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 27 . – It is also recommended that a single person code the entire data set to ensure the highest possible coding consistency across interviews or observations.Coding of qualitative data – Another issue is that narrative materials usually are not linear. embedded in complex fashion. paragraphs from transcribed interviews may contain elements relating to three or four different categories. – For example.

D. MANUAL METHODS OF ORGANIZING QUALITATIVE DATA QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 28 .

– When a category is simple. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 29 .Qualitative data analysis process Manual methods of organizing qualitative data: – Traditional manual methods of organizing qualitative data are becoming less common as a result of widespread use of software that can perform indexing functions. researchers sometimes use colored paper clips or Post-It notes to code narrative content.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 30 .Manual methods of organizing qualitative data: • For example. red clips for the text on menopausal side effects. if we were analyzing interviews about women's concerns about the menopause. yellow clips for text relating to aging and so on. we might use blue paper clips for text relating to loss of fertility.

E. COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR MANAGING QUALITATIVE DATA QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 31 .

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 32 . – These programs allows the researchers to enter the entire data file into the computer . code each portion of the narrative and then retrieve and display the text for specified code for analysis.Qualitative data management and organization Computer Programs For Managing Qualitative Data – Computer assisted qualitative data analysis software removes the work of cutting up pages of narrative material.

• Researchers must continue to be analysts and critical thinkers. and it cannot tell researchers how to analyze the data. • Software cannot.Computer Programs For Managing Qualitative Data • The software can also be used to examine the relationship between the codes. however. do the coding. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 33 .

Computer Programs For Managing Qualitative Data • The main types of software package that are available to handle and manage qualitative data include: – Text retrievers are the programs that help researchers locate text and terms in data bases and documents. – Code and retrieve packages permit the researchers to code text. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 34 .

Computer Programs For Managing Qualitative Data – Theory building software. QUALITATIVE DATA – cmc2004-060.pdf ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 35 . develop hierarchies of codes. – Software for concept mapping permits researchers to construct more sophisticated diagrams than theory building software. and create hyperlinks to create nonhierarchical networks. – Concept maps include concepts and relationships between them. diagram. permits the researchers to examine the relationships between the concepts.

ANALYSIS AND 36 INTERPRETATION .Computer Programs For Managing Qualitative Data – Data conversion/collection software converts audio into text. • Proponents insists that it frees up time and permits to pay attention to QUALITATIVE DATA important conceptual issues. – Voice recognition software can convert spoken voice into text and is attractive because of the time and expense needed to transcribe audiotape interviews. but some prefer manual methods because they allow researchers to get closer to the data. • Computer programs offer many advantages for managing qualitative data.

com/fos/ recognition software for bypassing transcription) HyperResearch (software for qualitative analysis) http://www. The (software http://www.soc.nuance (Voice recognition software .com/ 37 .banxia .ac.freedom ofspeech.com/demain.com/ bypassing transcription) Freedom of Speech (Voice http://www.researc hware.com/ for qualitative analysis) Decision Explorer (software for mapping concepts) http://www.uk/ Ethnograph.d e/ http://caqdas.su rrey.ATLAS/ti (software for qualitative analysis) Computer Assisted Qualitative Analysis (CAQDAS) Networking Project http://www.atlasti.html Dragon Naturally Speaking http://www.qualisr esearch.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 38 . manageable segments. • Qualitative data analysis involves pervasive ideas and searching for general concepts through an inductive process.Analytic procedures • Data management in qualitative research is reductionist in nature: it involves converting masses of data into smaller .

• According to desantis and ugarriza(2000) :" a theme is an abstract entity that brings meaning and identity to a current experience and its variant manifestations. As such. a theme captures and unifies the nature or basis of the experience into a meaningful whole" QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 39 .Analytic procedures • The analysis of qualitative materials typically begins with a search for broad categories or themes.

to identify what is distinctive about the emerging themes or categories. symbols or meanings. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 40 . • The similarity principle involves looking for units of information with the similar contents.Analytic procedures • Thematic analysis relies on similarity and dissimilarity principle. • The contrast principle guides efforts to find out how content or symbols differ from other content or symbols-that is.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 41 .Analytic procedures • During the analysis. qualitative researchers must distinguish between the ideas that apply to all people and aspects of experience that are unique to particular participants • The analysis of individual cases " enables the researcher to understand those aspects of experience that occur not as individual 'unit of meaning' but as part of the pattern formed by the confluence of the meaning within the individual accounts”.

Analytic procedures • Thematic analysis involves not only discovering commonalities across participants but also seeking natural variation. • Researchers must attend not only to what themes arise.   – Does the theme apply only to certain types of people? – In certain contexts? – At certain periods? – What are the conditions that precede the observed phenomenon? And – What are the apparent consequences of it? QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 42 . but also how they are patterned.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 43 . • For example. major decision points and events factors affecting the decisions. for qualitative studies that focus on dynamic experiencessuch as decision making-it is sometimes useful to develop flow charts or timelines that highlight time sequences . events and processes. • Researchers' search for themes and patterns sometimes can be facilitated by charting devices that enable them to summarize the evolution of the behaviors.Analytic procedures • In other words. the qualitative analyst must be sensitive to relationships within the data.

Analytic procedures • berends. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 44 .pdf • Two-dimensional matrices to array thematic material is another frequently used method of displaying thematic material. each row of a matrix is allocated to individual participants and columns are used to enter either raw data or themes. • Traditionally .

Analytic procedures • Thematic Chart Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 etc… Theme • Case Chart Them The Theme e1 me 2 3 etc… Case QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 45 .

using figurative language to evoke a visual analogy. • Metaphors can be powerfully expressive tool for qualitative analysts.Analytic procedures • Some qualitative researchers -especially phenomenologist -use metaphors as an analytic strategy.pdf QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 46 . • A metaphor is a symbolic comparison. • Moser.

• That is . In this phase. linear process. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 47 . researchers drive themes from the narrative materials . go back to the materials with the themes in mind to see if the materials really do fit and then refine the themes as necessary.Analytic procedures • Identifying key themes and categories is seldom a tidy.iteration is always necessary. • A further step involves validation. the concern is whether the themes accurately represent the perspectives of participants.

researchers strive to weave thematic pieces together into an integrated whole .Analytic procedure • In the final analysis stage. • The various themes need to be interrelated to provide an overall structure (such as theory or integrated description) to the data. • The integration task is a difficult one. because it demands creativity and intellectual rigor if it is to be successful QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 48 .

just as it isn’t always necessary to use multivariate modeling in statistics! • Let us take the example of the research question about the perceived health needs of carers.Qualitative Data Analysis • It isn’t always necessary to go through all the stages. – What are the perceptions of carers living with people with learning disability. as regards their own health needs? QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 49 .

• Maybe several respondents mention that they struggle with depression and loneliness. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 50 .Qualitative Data Analysis • We may simply be interested in finding out the community services that should be provided to meet these perceived needs or might want to know what sorts of services are valued or requested by the majority of carers.

– This kind of analysis is sometimes called qualitative content analysis. – The qualitative data can then be categorized quantitatively. and subjected to statistical analysis. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 51 .Qualitative data analysis • There are three broad levels of analysis that could be pursued here: – One strategy would be to simply count the number of times a particular word or concept occurs (eg loneliness) in a narrative.

– Do participants talk of being lonely even when others are present? – Are there particular times of day or week when they experience loneliness? QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 52 .g.Qualitative data analysis • For a thematic analysis we would want to go deeper than this. extracted and examined in more detail. sentences or paragraphs) referring to loneliness could be given a particular code. • All units of data(e.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 53 .Qualitative data analysis – In what terms do they express loneliness? – Do men and women talk of loneliness in different ways? – Are those who speak of loneliness also those who experience depression? – Themes could eventually be developed such as ‘lonely but never alone’ or ‘these four walls’.

• The disability may be attributed to an accident. without which the person cared for would still be ‘normal’.Qualitative data analysis • For a theoretical analysis such as grounded theory we would want to go further still. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 54 . • Perhaps we have developed theories if we have been analyzing data about depression being associated with perceived loss of a ‘normal’ child/spouse. or to some failure of medical care.

that is data which seems to contradict theory. • We may even search for ‘deviant cases’.Qualitative data analysis • We may be able to test this emerging theory against existing theories of loss in the literature. • This process is sometimes known as ‘analytic induction’. and seek to modify theory to take account of this new finding. and is used to build and test emerging theory QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 55 . or against further analysis of the data.

and the depth of analysis that is required. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 56 . • It may even come down to the amount of time available.Qualitative data analysis • So some decisions have to be made by the researcher as to the questions she or he is asking of the data. or ease of access to adequate resources.

Analytic Procedures
• Qualitative content analysis:
– Qualitative content analysis is the
analysis of the content of
narrative data to identify
prominent themes and pattern
among the themes.
– It involves breaking down the

data into smaller units, coding
and naming the unit according to
the content they represent, and
grouping coded material based
on shared concepts.
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Ethnographic
Analysis
 Ethnographers are continually
looking for the patterns in the
behavior and thoughts of
participants, comparing one
pattern against another,
analyzing many patterns
simultaneously
 As they analyze patterns of
everyday life, ethnographers
acquire deeper understandings
of the culture being studied.

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Ethnographic
analysis
• Maps, flowcharts and
organizational charts are useful
tools that help to crystallize
and illustrate the data.
• Matrices(two dimension
displays ) can also help to
highlight a comparison
graphically, to cross-reference
categories and to discover
emerging patterns.

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Locating Interviewing Analyzing Asking Making Discovering Writing descriptive structural contrast the an a taxonomic componential an domain ethnographic ethnographic ethnography informant cultural an informant questions questions analysis analysis questions themes analysis interviews record SPRADLEY’S METHOD 60 .

are the broad categories that encompass smaller ones. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 61 . which are the units of cultural knowledge.Ethnographic Analysis • Thus in Spradley's methods there is four levels of data analysis. the first of which is domain analysis. • Domains.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 62 . • The ethnographers focuses on the cultural meaning of terms and symbols(objects and events) used in culture and their interrelationships. ethnographers identify the relational patterns among the terms in the domains that are used by members of the culture.Ethnographic analysis • During this first level of data analysis.

Ethnographic
analysis
• In taxonomic analysis,
ethnographic decides how
many domains the analysis will
encompass.
• After making this decision, a
taxonomy-a system of
classifying and organizing
terms-is developed to illustrate
the internal organization of a
domain and the relationship
among the subcategories of
the domain.
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Ethnographic
analysis
• In componential analysis,
relationships among the terms
in the domains are examined.
The ethnographer analyze the
data for similarities and
differences among the cultural
terms in a domain.
• Finally, in theme analysis,
cultural themes are uncovered.

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Ethnographic
analysis
• Domains are connected in
cultural themes, which help to
provide holistic view of culture
being studied. The discovery of
cultural meaning is the
outcome.

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AIM: – To explore the GPNC culture in medical departments. • Bergenholtz H1. making general palliative nursing care (GPNC) a core nursing task.The culture of general palliative nursing care in medical departments: an ethnographic study. however little is known about its actual practice. GPNC in the hospital setting is described as challenging.  Hølge-Hazelton B. approximately half of the population dies in hospital. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 66 . • BACKGROUND: – In many countries. Jarlbaek L.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 67 . with observational field studies and interviews with nurses from three medical departments in a Danish regional hospital.• METHODS: – An ethnographic study. using Spradley's 12-step method. the practice and the nurses' reflections on GPNC: – (1) GPNC provided in a treatment setting. • FINDINGS: – Three cultural themes emerged from the analysis. – (2) transition to loving care and the licence to perform palliative care (PC) and – (3) potential for team improvement. focusing on the setting.

An ethnography: Understanding emergency nursing practice belief systems • An ethnography_ Understan ding emergency nursing pr actice_LoBiondo.pdf QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 68 .

all of whom are from the duquesne school of phenomenology. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 69 . Giorgi(1985). and vankaam (1966).Phenomenological analysis • Three frequently used methods for phenomenology are the methods of Colaizzi(1978).

often through the identification of essential themes. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 70 .Phenomenological analysis • Phenomenological analysis using all three methods involves a search for common patterns . but there are some important differences among these approaches • The basic outcome of all three methods is the description of the meaning of an experience.

• Van Kaam's method requires that intersubjective agreement QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS be reached INTERPRETATION withAND other expert 71 . His view is that it is inappropriate either to return to participants to validate findings or to use external judges to review analysis. • Giorgi analysis relies solely on researchers.Phenomenological analysis • Colaizzi method is only one that calls for a validation of results by returning to study participants.

Repeat Steps 1-3 for each protocol Step 1 Read written protoco l Step 2 Extract Significa nt stateme nts Refer back to original protocols Step 4 Extract Significan t statemen ts COLAIZZI’S Step 3 Formulate meanings for each significant statement Step 6 Formulat e Step 5 exhausti Integra ve te descripti results on into into stateme exhaus nt of tive identific descrip ation of tion of its the fundame pheno ntal METHOD menon Step 7 structure Return to participants for validation of findings Step 8 (if neces sary ) releva nt new data are worke d into final produ ct of 72 resear .

epub QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 73 .Example of Phenomenological Study using Colaizzi’s Method • Supporting hemodialysis patients_ A phenomenologi cal study.

Step 1 Statem ents of patient s read Step 2 Key phrases were extracte d Step 3 Each significant statement s were written in scientific language Step 6 Descripti Step 5 on of the Findings investiga were Step 4 ted integrat Concepts phenom ed into were enon compreh organized was ensive into presente descripti thematic d in the on of the categorie form of desired s an phenom explicit Supporting enon Step 7 and Hemodialysis Findings were clear returned to the Patients: stateme participants and A nt were evaluated 74 .

Grounded theory analysis • Grounded theory methods emerged in the 1960s in connection with Glaser and Strauss's (1967) research program on dying in hospitals. • The two co-originators eventually split and developed divergent school of thought . which have been called the "Glaserian" and "Straussian" version of grounded theory. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 75 .

In one interview) with those in another to determine if they are similar. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 76 . • This method involves a comparison of elements present in one data source(e.g.Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • Grounded theory in both systems of analysis uses the constant comparative method of analysis.

• The concept of fit is an important element in the Glaserian grounded theory analysis. In this fashion. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 77 . commonalities are identified. • By fit. Glaser meant that the developing categories of the substantive theory must fit the data.Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • The process continues until the content of each source has been compared to the content in all sources.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 78 . • The substance of the topic under study is conceptualized through substantive codes.Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • Fit enables the researcher to determine if data can be placed in the same category or if they can be related to one another. • Coding in the Glaserian approach is used to conceptualize data into patterns. while the theoretical codes provide insights into how codes relate to each other.

Coding Substantive Theoretical Open Selective Level III I II Core Categ ories QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 79 .

• Open codes may the actual words used by the participants. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 80 .Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • Substantive codes are either open or selective. • Open coding used in the first stage of constant comparative analysis captures what is going on in the data.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 81 . data are broken down into incidents and their similarities and differences are examined.Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • Through the open coding . researcher might ask" what category or the property of the category does this incident indicate?“ • There are three level of open coding that vary in the degree of abstraction. • During the open coding.

e. and then condense them into broader level II codes.g. • Researchers constantly compare new level I codes to previously identified ones.Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • Level 1 codes(in vivo codes) are derived directly from the language of the substantive area and have vivid imagery. : These 5 level I codes were collapsed into level II code as “Reaping the Blessing” QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 82 .

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 83 .

Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • Level III codes (theoretical constructs) are the most abstract. • Open coding ends when the core category is discovered and then selective coding begins. Collapsing level II codes aids in identifying constructs. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 84 .

• In the selective coding. researcher code only those data that are related to the core variable.Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • The core category is a pattern of behavior that is relevant and/or problematic for participants. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 85 .

meaning that it is related to many categories. – It must reoccur frequently in the data. – It relates meaningfully and easily to other categories. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 86 .Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • Glaser (1978) provided nine criteria to help researchers decide on a core category: – It must be central. – It takes more time to saturate than other categories.

– It can be kind of theoretical code. – It is a dimension of the problem.Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method – It has clear and grabbing implications for formal theory. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 87 . – It is completely variable.

• The product of typical grounded theory analysis is a theoretical model that endeavors to generate " a theory of continually resolving the main concern." QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 88 . which explain most of the behavior in an area of interest.Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • Glasers' grounded theory method is concerned with the generation of categories and hypothesis rather than testing them.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 89 .Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory method • Once the basic problem or central concern emerges. the grounded theorists goes on to discover the process these participants experience in coping with or resolving this problem.

processes. the basic problem must emerge from the data-it must be discovered. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 90 . differs from the Glaser and Strauss method with regard to method.Strauss and Corbin's approach • The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory analysis. • Glaser stressed that to generate a grounded theory. and outcomes.

rather than starting with a preconceived problem.Strauss and Corbin's approach • The theory is . grounded in the data. • Research problem can come from literature or a researcher's personal and professional experience QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 91 . from the very start. • Strauss and Corbin stated that research itself is only one of the possible sources of a research problem.

the analyst relates concepts to each other. • In open coding. data are broken down into parts and concepts are identified and their properties and dimension are delineated. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 92 .Strauss and Corbin's approach • The Corbin and Strauss method involves two types of coding: open and axial coding. • In axial coding.

Strauss and Corbin's approach • The first step in integrating the findings is to decide on the central category(sometimes called the core category). • Techniques to facilitate the central category are writing the storyline. and reviewing and organizing memos. which is the main theme of the research. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 93 . using diagrams.

• Grounded Theory_Evolving Self-Care in Individuals wi th Schizophrenia and Diabete s Mellitus.pdf QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 94 .

Focus Group Data Analysis: • Focus group interviews yield rich and complex data that pose special analytic challenges. partly because of technical problems. • Focus group interviews are especially difficult to transcribe . QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 95 .

Focus Group Data Analysis: • For example. • An additional issue is the inevitability that several participants will speak at once. making it impossible for the transcriptionist to discern everything being said. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 96 . particularly because the participant tend to speak at different volumes. it is difficult to place microphones so that the voices of all group members are picked up with equal clarity .

 Analysis of group-level data involves scrutiny of themes.Focus group data analysis  A controversial issue in the analysis of the focus group data is whether the unit of analysis is individual or group. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 97 .  Some writer maintain that group is the proper unit of analysis. interactions and sequences within and between groups.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 98 . however argued that analysis should occur at both the group and individual level.Focus group data analysis • Others. • Those who insist on only group level analysis argue that what individuals say in focus group cannot be treated as personal disclosures because they are inevitably treated influenced by the dynamics of the group.

are sometimes used to identify who said what in focus group sessions. as supplements to audiotapes.Focus group data analysis • For those who wish to analyze data from individual participants. it is essential to maintain information about what each person did-a task that is not possible if researcher rely solely on audiotapes • Videotapes. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 99 .

Focus group data analysis • Transcription quality is especially important in focus group interviews. • Emotional content as well as words must be faithfully recorded because participants are responding not only to questions being posed. but also to the experience of being in the group. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 100 .

and also to how. and why themes are developed. • Because of group dynamics. when.Focus group data analysis • Field notes. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 101 . focus group analysts must be sensitive to both the thematic content of these interviews. debriefing notes and verbatim transcripts ideally must be integrated to yield a comprehensive transcript for analysis.

Focus group data analysis • Some of the issues that could be central to focus group analysis are the following: – Does an issue raised in a focus group constitute a theme or merely a strongly held viewpoint of one or two members? – Do the same issues or themes arise in more than one group? QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 102 .

why might this be the case-were participants different in characteristics and experiences or did group processes affect the discussions? QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 103 .Focus group data analysis – If there are group differences.

Focus group data analysis – Are some issues sufficiently salient that not only are they discussed in response to specific questions posed by the moderator . but also spontaneously emerge at multiple points in the session? – Do group members find certain issues both interesting and important? QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 104 .

in an iterative process. categorize and code them.Interpretation of Qualitative findings • Interpretation and analysis of qualitative data occur simultaneously. researcher interpret the data as they read and reread them . QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 105 . inductively develop a thematic analysis. • That is. and integrate the themes into unified whole.

insightful conclusions. find their essential patterns .Interpretation of Qualitative findings • Incubation is the process of living the data in which the researchers must try to understand their meanings . 106 INTERPRETATION . • Another key ingredient in interpretation and meaning making is researchers' self awareness and ability to reflect on their own world view and QUALITATIVE DATA perspectivesthat ANALYSIS AND is reflexivity. and draw legitimate .

• Prudent qualitative researchers hold their interpretations up for closer scrutiny as well as review by peers and outside reviewers. • Efforts to validate analysis are necessarily efforts to validate the interpretations as well.Interpretation of Qualitative findings • Creativity also plays important roles in uncovering meaning of the data. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 107 .

Critiquing qualitative Analysis •  Evaluating a qualitative analysis in a report is not easy to do. • The main problem is that readers do not – have access to the information they would need to determine whether the researchers exercised good judgment and critical insight in coding the narrative materials – developing the thematic analysis and integrating QUALITATIVEmaterials DATA into ANALYSIS AND 108 meaning whole. INTERPRETATION . even for experienced researchers.

Critiquing qualitative Analysis • Researchers are seldom able to include the handful of data in a journal article. a primary task usually is assessing whether researchers took sufficient steps to validate inferences and QUALITATIVE DATA conclusions. the process they used to abstract meaning from the data is difficult to describe and illustrate. • Moreover. ANALYSIS AND 109 INTERPRETATION . • In a critique of qualitative analysis.

• The report should provide information about the approach used to analyze the data.Critiquing qualitative Analysis • A major focus of critique. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 110 . then. is whether the researchers adequately documented the analytic process.

if researchers say they are using the Glaser and Strauss approach to grounded theory analysis. whether the researchers documented that they have used one approach consistently and have been faithful to the integrity of its procedures. for example. they should not also QUALITATIVE DATA include elements from Strauss111 ANALYSIS AND and Corbin INTERPRETATION method. • Thus. .Critiquing qualitative Analysis • One aspect of a qualitative analysis that can be critiqued. however is.

) a)  A theme is a label. b)  Themes must be determined before data analysis. d)  Themes predict relationships among variables. Ans: a.• Which of the following best describes the term themes? (Select all that apply. c)  Themes describe large quantities of data in a condensed format. c QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 112 .

On the basis of this.  That no additional subjects need to be identified d.• The nurse researcher identifies that saturation has occurred in a research study.  That additional subjects should be interviewed b.  That a new category of subjects should be interviewed c. what does the researcher conclude? a.  That additional data can emerge from current interviews Ans: c QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 113 .

London: The NIHR RDS for the East Midlands / Yorkshire & the Humber.com QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 114 . Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice.pubmed.).com • www. In: Polit.References • (2012)Qualitative data analysis.T. (2007) Qualitative Research Analysis. National Health Services. • www. Ltd. D.. • United Kingdom. C. 9th Edition. New Delhi: Wolters Kluwer India Pvt.F. Beck.googlescholar. (eds.