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POLICE INTELLIGENCE

Presented by:
MAQUISO
TUBORO
CANONIGO
DELOS REYES

EMUY
REBULDAD
DELA CRUZ

Chapter 1
Definition of Terms and
Historical Setting
This chapter presents the important
operational definition of terminologies
used in the context of this subject and
the historical development of intelligence
and secret service. It is in this chapter
that the reader can be able to trace and
understand the importance of intelligence
in nation building and security in both

DEFINITION OF TERMS
National Intelligence- refers to
the total product of intelligence
developed by all governmental
agencies that covers the broad
aspects of national policy and
security.

Military Intelligence- it is use in


the
preparation
of
military
policies, plans, and programs. It
includes
the
strategic
and
combat intelligence.
Strategic Intelligence- that
knowledge pertaining to the
capabilities and probable courses
of action of foreign nations.

Combat Intelligence- is required by the


commander in order to determine the
best use of his available firepower and
maneuver forces, to accomplish his
mission, and to maintain the security of
his command.
Order of Battle Intelligence- concerns the
manner in which military forces are
organized and disposed.

Counter Intelligence- an integral


part of all intelligence operations
and as such cant be separated from
combat and strategic intelligence. Its
objective is to safeguard information
against espionage, material and
installations against sabotage, and
personnel against subversive.

Technical Intelligence- concerns


foreign technical developments,
which have a practical military
application
and the physical
characteristics,
performance,
capabilities and limitations of
material and installations, used
by and for foreign .

Area of Operation (AO)- aspects of


the
operational
environment
exclusive of the military forces
involved.
It
concerns
weather
economics,
politics,
sociology,
hydrographic (study of seas, lakes
and etc.)and characteristics of the
environment of an area in which
military operations are taking place
or planned.

Capabilities- form a military


standpoint, enemy capabilities
are courses of action which the
enemy can adopt and which, if
adopted, will influenced the
accomplishment of the friendly
mission, either favorable or not.

Vulnerabilities- A nations
vulnerabilities
are
the
weaknesses, which make it
susceptible to any action,
which
reduces
its
war,
potential, and or its will to
fight.

HISTORICAL SETTING
The desire for advance information is
no doubt a manifestation of our
instinct for survival. A ruler may ask
himself: What will happen next?
What course of action should I take?
How strong are my enemies? What
are they planning against me?

From the beginning we noted that


such inquiries are made not
solely about the situation and
prospect of the single individual
but about those of the group- the
tribe, the kingdom, and the
nation.

The following are some of


the important events and
personalities in the world of
intelligence work
application:

BIBLICAL BEGINNINGS
The earliest sources of intelligence, in the

age of belief are the super natural


interventions in the affairs of men, were
prophets, seers, oracles, soothsayers and
astrologers. Since the God knew what was
going to happen ahead to time, having to
some extent ordained the outcome of events,
it was logical to seek out divine intentions in
the inspirations of holy men in the riddles of
oracles, in the stars and often in dreams.

The earliest recorded instances of


intelligence fathering can be found in
the Holy Bible (Num. 13) When Moses
was in the wilderness with the children
of Israel, he was directed by the Lord to
send a ruler to each of the tribes of
Israel to spy out the land of Canaan
which the Lord had designed as their
home. They spent forty days on their
mission and thereafter reported back to
Moses their findings.

MOSES
One of the first recorded formalized
intelligence efforts, with format, can also
be found in the Holy Bible (Numbers
13:17). And Moses sent them to spy out
the land of Canaan.

RAHAB
The Harlot of Jericho (Joshua 2:1-21) who
sheltered and concealed the agents of
Israel, made a covenant with the agents
and duped their pursuers.

DELILAH
The Philistine used her when she allowed
Philistine spies to hide in her house
(Judges 16:1-19). And she also allowed
sex to gain intelligence from a powerful
enemy.

SUN TZU
The father of The Art of War, and he
believe in his saying that:
If you know thy enemy and know yourself,
you need not fear the results of a
hundred of battles

ALEXANDER THE GREAT


He sought the truth and got it by simplest
expedient. He also devised the first
Letter Sorting and opening to obtain
information.

Gen. Romano Q. Sertorius


His intelligence agents credited their
information to the supernatural power of
animals.

AKBAR
The Great Mogul and sagacious master of
Hindustan employed more than 4,000
agents for the sole purpose of bringing
him the truth that his throne might rest
upon it.

GENGHIS KHAN
A Mongol who used intelligence to conquer
China and invade Cathay. He instructed
his Generals to send out spies and used
prisoners as sources of information.

RENAISSANCE PERIOD
With rise of Nationalism and
Development of modern Armies,
Intelligence became apparent to
large states.

SIR FRANCIS WALSINGHAM


Organized the first National Intelligence
Service. And he protected Queen
Elizabeth I from countless assassins.

ARMAN JEAN du PLESSIS (Richelieu)


Introduced the network of covert collectors,
and he has the dual role as head of the
church in France and Prime Minister,
allowed him to control the direction of the
government.

LOUIS XIV
He systematized political policy, continuous
surveillance,
postal
censorship
and
military intelligence organization.

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
One spy in the right place is worth 20,000
men in the field. He organized two
Bureau of Interest:
Bureau of Intelligence
Topographic Bureau

FREDERICK THE GREAT


He was known as the Father of Organized
Military Espionage. He has divided his
agents into four classes:
a. Common Spies- recruited among poor
folk, glad to earn a small sum or to
accommodate a military officer.
b. Double Spies- the law informers and
unreliable renegades of value, chiefly in
spreading a false information to the
enemy.

c. Spies of Consequences- couriers and


noblemen, staff officers, and kindred
conspirators, invariable requiring a
substantial bribes or bait.
d. Persons who are forced to undertake
espionage against his will.

HANNIBAL
Considered one of the brilliant military
strategies in history. He had developed an
effective intelligence system for 15 years
in Rome, and he usually roam around the
City often disguise as a beggar to gather
first hand information.

JULIUS CEASAR
During his time, the staff of each legion
includes ten Speculators who served as
an information collecting agency. They
also employed ciphers to ensure secrecy
of communications.

GEORGE WASHINGTON
He has the Grand Master mobilized the free
masons of the colonies at the outbreak of
the American war of Independence.

KARL SCHULMEISTER
He is the Napoleons eye, Napoleons
military secret, was born on August 5,
1770. He began his career in offensive
espionage. Under a cover role, he was
able to infiltrate Austrian General Staff.

ALFRED REDL
One of the most brilliant intelligent agent,
though a homosexual. Become chief of
the Austro-Hungarian Secret Service, but
in fact a double agent in Russia.

WILHELM JOHANN CARL EDUARD STIEBER


He was Bismarcks master spy, director of
the Bureaus. Stieber was both an agent of
domestic surveillance and an external
agent.

THE BRAHMA KAUTILYA


In ancient India, he overthrew the NANDA
dynasty and established the first MAYURYAN
king in the Indian throne. He recommended to
his king that for the ruler to succeed, the ruler
should strike at his enemys weak points by
means of spies. He proposed the following
means to conquer enemys stronghold:

Intrigues and Spies


Winning over enemys people- Siege and
assault-Before beginning military
operation, a conqueror should known the
comparative strength and weaknesses of
himself and his enemy. No war should be
undertaken without careful examination
of all factors reported by the kings spies.

MAYURYAN SPY SYSTEM


Rivaled the modern Sovietes and had the
following tasks: Shadow the kings ministers
and officials and attempt to determine their
very thoughts- Report wrong doings of the
people- Operate secretly in foreign countriesSpread unrest- Commit act of sabotageAssassinate military and political leadersOfficial envoys were instructed to make friends
with official of the enemy to compare their
military strengths with their own.

WILLIAM DONOVAN
Major General, organizer of the OSS
(Office of the Strategic Service, US),
builder of a central intelligence system.
The OSS whose exploits become
legendary in World War II.

Herbert Yardley
Head of the MI-8, The forerunner of the
Top Secret National Security
Administration a.k.a. Black Chamber, a
Crypanalytic Organization.

Battle of Midway

In June 1442, the turning point of the Naval of


the Pacific, the victory gained by the Americans
was due to the disrupted messages from the
Imperial Japanese Navy.

dmiral Isoroku Yamamoto


April 1943, the Cryptoanalyst of the U.S. Navy
Communications Intelligence intercepted a top
secret signal relaying the travel of the admiral.
En route he was intercepted and crushed in the
Jungles of Baungainville.

V2- Rackets
OSS agents working in conjunction with
the British Intelligence, through
penetration and technical intelligence
discovered Pneumundo, which was the V2
guide missile research project of Nazi
Germany. It resulted to its destruction

State Informer- Edward I,


King of England in 1725 organized a
systematic police system so called
Witch and Ward. By Royal proclamation,
the professions State Informer was
created in 1734 enjoining all informers
to expose criminal activities and be
compensated.

JOSEPH FOUCHE
The French statesman Joseph Fouche
(1759-1820) served as minister of police
under Napoleon and was influential in the
return of Louis XVIII to the throne in 1815.
Bonapartes Head of Internal Security. He
created a network of agent. His
assistance founded to the modern system
of spying on spies, which later was known
as counter espionage.

JOSEPH PETROSINO
Member, New York Police Department in
early 1900, he was the head of the Italian
Squad. Through extensive intelligence
network, he is credited to smash the
Black Society.

THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF


INVESTIGATION
First established in 1908 as an
Investigative arm of the U.S. Department
Justice. It becomes what is known as the
F.B.I. Under its first Director John Edgar
Hoover in 1924. On September 06, 1939
by a Presidential directive, it came to its
responsibility the task of a domestic
intelligence.

THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY


(CIA)
The agency was created under the US
National Security Act of 1947 a.k.a. Public
Law 110 established by the late President
Truman in January 1946. The CIA is under
the National Security Council. The first
Director of the Agency was Rear Admiral
Roscoe Hillenkoetter.

THE COMMITEE FOR STATE SECURITY


Russia- The Intelligence Agency known
as the KGB- Komitet Gosudarstvennoy
Bezopasnosti (KGB).
MOSSAD
(Ha-mosad le modiin u-telafquidim
meyuhadim)- The agencys is found in
Proverbs XI,14 Where no counsel is, the
people fall, but in the multitude of
counselors their is safety. Mossad has two
branches namely: (1) Aman and (2)
Shabak. The first Director of Mossad is

The KCIA- Korean Central Intelligence


Agency
The Scottland Yard, The London
Metropolitan Police Force- Established by
Sir Robert Peel in 1829. Thus the
beginning of a colorful legendary police
force and considered one of the most
efficient in the world today.
INTELLIGENCE AND THE WORLD WARS
WORLD WAR I
1900- Europe powers developed modern
staff systems and place intelligence on

Intelligence then functioned in time of


peace and war. Intelligence during this
period, concentrated on information
about the armed forces of the enemy and
their capabilities.
AIRCRAFT was introduced as a method of
conducting aerial reconnaissance.
WIRELESS TELEGRAPH was used wherein
CODES AND CIPHERS were applied.

ARMY INTELLIGENCE rapidly expanded this


time period.
AGENT PROVOCATEUR- was employed by
the Russians for the purpose of internal
security and political repression. Spying
was always the specialty of the Russians.
GERMAN INTELLIGENCE- gained a high
reputation for offensive effectiveness
throughout Europe but declined at the
outset of the war.

BRITISH INTELLIGENCE
succeeded greatly by means of
censorship and its CODE ROOM combined
with skillfull use of COVERT agents.
US expanded their NAVAL INTELLIGENCE
wherein DOMESTIC
COUNTERINTELLIGENCE became a
principal activity.

US THREE BRANCHES OF INTELLIGENCE


POSITIVE INTELLIGENCE
function of collecting evaluating and disseminating
intelligence. Prepare situation estimate and
translate documents.
NEGATIVE INTELLIGENCE
it is the counterintelligence functions which involve
in the investigating disloyalty and sedition,
investigate enemy activities, investigate graft and
fraud in organization.
GEOGRAPHIC INTELLIGENCE

Produce maps, photographs, and terrain studies


SECTIONS- Administration, Collection by attaches
and troops, Codes and Ciphers.

WORLD WAR II
GERMAN INTELLIGENCE- started the war

with the worlds best organized


intelligence service through advance
preparation of intelligence accompanied
by troop movements.
GERMAN INTELLEGENCE WEAKENED by
the attitude of the Officer Group wherein
they subordinated intelligence to operation
and did not regard intelligence
asssignment worthy of a soldier.

JAPANESE INTELLIGENCE
failed because it was not provided with
sufficient number of trained personnel to
assemble and evaluate the means of
materials which were collected although
Japanese Intelligence was involved in
short war and defensive in nature.
BRITISH INTELLIGENCE
Its achievement was the delay in the use
of German V-BOMB against them.

In 1942- a female special agent was able


to transmit vital information concerning
the activities and installations of the main
research station at Penemuenda. Its
Intelligence failed in the defeat of
GENERAL MONTGOMERYS forces at
ANNHEM.
US INTELLIGENCE
In 1941, the U.S Strategic Services was
established to research and analyze
military, political and economic
information as it affected the security of

US JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFFS


was organized to act in support of the
army and the navy in the collection and
analysis of Strategic information and to
be responsible for the planning and the
operation of Special services.
US greatest contribution to Intelligence
was the development of the AMPHIBIOUS
WARFARE where coordination of many
types of intelligence activities was
required to provide adequate knowledge
upon which to base the successful

CHINESE INTELLIGENCE
In 1932, TAI LI- organized the Chinas
Secret Police (the BIS) to conduct
espionage and counterespionage against
Japanese Spies and Chinese communist.
SOVIET INTELLIGENCE
AMTORG was organized for the purpose
of purchasing all kinds of materials for
the SOVIET UNIONS.

SMERSH or DEATH TO SPIES


Was organized during the war as
counterintelligence concerned with disaffection
among SOVIET TROOPS and anti-communism in
any form. FIVE MAJOR DIVISIONS: Administration,
Operation, Investigation, Prosecution, and
Personnel.
POST WAR PERIOD: The superpowers
SOVIET INTELLIGENCE
SOVIET INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM- Described as
omnipotent and omnipresent for its vast intricate
organization involving millions of people.

SOVIET COUNTERINTELLIGENCEIRON CURTAIN


No one may cross the boarders of the
USSR without being detected.
All communications are rigidly controlled.
Its contribution to modern Intelligence
was the dissemination of false information
designed to mislead and confuse
opponents and prospective victims.

GRU- MILITARY INTELLIGENCE


ORGANIZATION
Is concerned with political events and
economic conditions and also collects
information for Intelligence purposes all
over the world. It directs foreign sabotage
and maintains network of agents in
military and special agents.
MGB- MILITARY INTELLIGENCE AND THE
MINISTRY OF STATE SECURITY- formerly
NKGB was concerned on political
espionage and propaganda abroad and
for the control of espionage activities of

KGB- Resumed the former function of the


old MGB. It is now the official secret
police agency of the SOVIET Union, in
charge of the state security
(Commission of State Security) K- Omissija
G- Osudarstvennoy B- Ezpasnosti or
Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti.
The failure of the Soviet Intelligence is
due to/Internal Supervision Leader had
little trust in their operatives whom they
keep under surveillance.

BRITISH INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM


Composed of Several Intelligence Agencies:
SIS- Secret Intelligence Service
M16- British Secret Service (Military
Intelligence Section 6) a.k.a. Box 850.
GEORGE MANSFIELD SMITH-CUMMING
was the first Director.
M15- Military Intelligence Section 5,
founded 1909- devoted to counterespionage.

SPECIAL BRANCH OF SCOTLAND YARD- is charged


with guarding the Royal Family and Important
British Officials and Visiting Foreign Dignitaries.
FRENCH INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM
SPECE DE DOCUMENTATION EXTERIEURE ET DEER
CONTRE ESPIONAGE (SDECE-FOREIGN
Intelligence and counterintelligence Service)under the Prime Minister.
GENERAL CHARLES DE GAULLE- Set up the
Bureau Central de Renseigments et D Action
(BCRA Central Office for Intelligence and Action
in London in 1940.

SURETE NATIONALE- part of French Intelligence


Service (Police Intelligence).
GERMAN INTELLIGENCE
EAST GERMANY
RED GESTAPO- security service organized by
East Germany to Combat the Covert activities
of the West Germany Group when it was still
divided by the Berlin Walls.
STASI- Ministry for State Security
WEST GERMANY
BND- Bundes Nachrichten Dienst (Federal
Intelligence Service)

CHAPTER FOUR
INFORMATION COLLECTION AND ITS SOURCES

INFORMATION
All
evaluated
materials
of
every
description including those derived from
observation, reports, rumors, imagery,
and other sources from which intelligence
in produced.

Is a commercial knowledge by others


obtaining
by
personal
study,
investigation, research, analysis, and
observation? The use of modern
gadgets in intelligence and other
things and material that possess or
contain a desire information or
knowledge.

Two General classifications of


sources of information:

1.Open Sources 99% of the info


collected are coming from open
sources.
2.Close Sources 1% of info from
close sources.

Overt Intelligence
is the gathering of information or
documents procured openly without
regard as to whether the subject or
targets become knowledgeable of
the purpose.

Open Sources: Includes information


taken from

Enemy activity POW Civilians


Captured documents
Map Weather, forecast, studies,
report Agencies

Covert Intelligence

is the secret procurement of


information, which is obtained
without the knowledge of the person
or
persons
safeguarding
vital
intelligence interest.

Close Sources: Information are


usually taken through
Surveillance Casing Elicitation
Surreptitious entry Employment of
technical means (Bugging and Tapping
device)
Tactical Interrogation Observation
and Description

Others sources of Information: Overt


and Covert
Routine patrol and Criminal investigation
Use of informants and Interrogations
Search and seizures and Cordon and
scratch
Checkpoints and Police public relations
activities
Coordination with law enforcement
agencies
Inmates of various city jails, national

PERSONS AS SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Informant Net
It is a controlled group of people who
worked through the direction of the
direction of the agent handler. The
informants, principal or cutouts supply
the agent handler directly or indirectly
with Intel information.

Informants (Asset)
People selected as sources of
information, which could be
voluntary, or in consideration of
a price.

Informant
Refers to a person who gives
information to the police voluntarily or
involuntarily without any consideration.
Informer
Those who give information to the
police for price or reward.

Types of Informants
Criminal Informant
An informant who gives information
to the police pertaining to the
underworld about organized
criminals with the understanding
that his identity will be protected.

Confidential Informant
Is similar to the former but he
gives information violate of the
law to include crimes and
criminals.

Voluntary Informant
A type of informant who give
information freely and wilfully as a
witness to a certain act.
Special Informant
Those who gives information
concerning specialized cases only and
it is regarded a special treatment by
the operatives (ex. teachers,
businessmen)

Anonymous Informant
Those who gives information
through telephone with the hope
that the informant cannot be
identified.

Sub-type of Informant
Incident Informant
A person who casually imparts
information to an officer with no
intention
of
providing
subsequent information.

Recruited Informant
A person who is selected
cultivated and developed into
a continuous source of info.

Categories of Recruited
Informants
Spontaneous or Automatic Informant
Informants who by the nature of
their work or position in society
have a certain legal, moral or ethical
responsibilities to report info to the
police.

Ordinary run of the Mill Informants


Informants that are under the
compulsion to report info to the
police.
Special Employee
Informants who are of a specific
operational nature.

Other classification of
Informant

Automatic Penetration
Full time
Rival Elimination
False Informant Frightened
Informant
Self Aggrandizing Informant
Mercenary Informant

Common Motives of
Informants

Reward
Revenge
Fear and avoidance of punishment
Friendship
Patriotism
Vanity
Civic Mindedness
Repentance
Competition
Other motives

Basic to Informant
Recruitment
Selection
It is particularly desirable to be able to
identity and recruit an informant who
has access to many criminal in-group or
subversive organization. Wide access is
probably the single most important
feature in the consideration of recruiting
the potential informant.

Investigation
The investigation of the potential
informants that has tentatively
identified as a probable must be as
thorough as possible. It must
establish possible existing motives as
to this person might assist the police
Intel community. Failure to do so will
deny this office who must perform
the approach and persuasion phase
with little more that a guess. If

Approach
Approach must be done in a setting
from which might include pleasant
surroundings, perhaps a confidential
apartment, preferably in an adjacent
city or a remote area foreign to the
informants living pattern.

Testing
The testing program should
begin, of course, with the limited
assignment, with a gradual
integration
into
the
more
important areas. The occasional
testing of an informant should
continue through the entire
affiliation.

Factors considered in Informant


Recruitment

Sex Health Age Built


Education Ability
Personality

General Treatment of
Informant
1.Avoid the use of derogatory terms in
referring to informants of any type.
2.Avoid disclosing the identity of the
informant which will in most cases ruin
his potential.
3.Protect the interest of the informant;
remember an investigator is usually just
as good as his sources of information.

4.Consider all information from known to unknown


information as valuable until proven otherwise.
5.Be non-committal of the value of the info
received.
6.Express appreciation for all information received
regardless of its values.
7.Keep appointment on time even though
informant may not.
8.Dont get over anxious, be patient. Take your
time
9.Keep control of the investigation.
10.Keep what you know to yourself, dont become
an informants informant.

THE COLLECTION OF
INFORMANTION

Information is endless in terms of


quantity, but is most exploitable when
there is some schema which organizes
categories of interest by the kinds of
things which lend themselves either to
patterns, series, or trends (which can be
easily data analyzed) or detailed
specifics like names, numbers, or
addresses (which make the data
amenable to link analysis).

Identification is important, as one often runs into


the problems of stolen identities, aliases, and
false IDs in intelligence work. Accuracy in
numbers is also important, as, for example, in the
assessment of property value, smuggled
quantities, costs of crime, as well as addresses.
Suspicious incidents are a challenging category
one must learn to master with greater
consideration than is ordinarily given to such
things. Given these challenges, then it is no
wonder that modern intelligence gathering is
usually an extensive and hard-working endeavor
having

both an electronic and human face,


and it has to be a bit overboard, shall
we say, because the gathering or
collection of intelligence is nothing
more than stealing someones
secrets which they are closely
guarding. It is done strategically,
which means according to some
direction, plan, or mission, and it is
done competitively, which means
that your opponents and allies are

The policy making process which is in


formed by intelligence may be
transparent, but the intelligence gathering
or collection process rarely is disclosed.
The first requirement is that your target
must have something worth stealing. If
they dont have anything worth stealing,
then all youre doing is snooping or doing
research. In business, this is known as the
difference between competitive
intelligence and market research.

The military takes intelligence gathering rather


seriously, as it is almost always collected for the
purpose of assessing risks and hazards in
preparation for the order of battle (IPB, or
Intelligence Preparation of Battle space). The most
important thing to remember is that there is no
such thing as intelligence for intelligences sake.
The whole purpose of gathering information about
others secrets and processing it into intelligence is
to provide your leaders or policy makers with
options to make policy more effective and efficient.
There is no point in tasking, collecting, analyzing,
and distributing intelligence products theres no
policy, issue, or anticipated issue on the table.

There are five different categories of


intelligence
1.Current intelligence looks at day-to-day
events
2.Estimative intelligence looks at what might
happen
3.Warning intelligence gives urgent notice that
something might happen
4.Research intelligence is an in-depth study of
an issue
5.Scientific and Technical intelligence is
information on foreign technologies

There are five different


collection disciplines of
intelligence

HUMINT
Human
Intelligence;
the
collection and processing of raw
intelligence from a clandestine
agent working in the field.

IMINT
Imagery
Intelligence;
the
collection,
mapping,
and
interpretation of photographs
from aerial units or satellites.
Sometimes this specialty is
also called PHOTINT.

MASINT
Measurement and Signature Intelligence; a
collective term bringing together disparate
elements that do not fit within the definitions of
Signals Intelligence, Imagery Intelligence, or
Human Intelligence. This category usually
consists of acoustic intelligence; radar
intelligence; nuclear radiation detection
infrared intelligence; electro-optical
intelligence; radio frequency, unintentional
radiation; materials, effluent, and debris
sampling; and electro optical and spectroradiometric sources.

MASINT also refers to Signals


or Imagery Intelligence data
streams
which
require
specialized processing. As a
finished product, MASINT is
used primarily to support
military
commanders
and
other users on a national or
tactical scale.

OSINT
Open Source Intelligence; more than just
newspaper clippings and the Internet, OSINT
involves inventories of the full range of
accessible, acknowledgeable, and unclassified
private sector information sources. Some 80%
of OSINT is not online, not available in English,
and not available in the U.S. The purpose is to
produce Just in Time: Just Enough intelligence,
and the process involves discovery, discovery,
discrimination, distillation, and delivery.

SIGINT
Signals Intelligence; consisting of 4 subfields:
(1) communications intelligence (COMINT),
which deals with electronic signals which
contain speech or text; (2) electronics signals
analysis, primarily ELINT and RADINT, which
deal with emitters such as beacons, jammers,
navigational signals, and radars, with the
former divided into two branches, technical
and operational, the latter forming electronic
orders of battle and called tactical ELINT;

(3) foreign instrumentation signals intelligence


(technical and intelligence information derived
from the collection and processing of foreign
telemetry, deaconry, and associated signals),
which used to be called TELINT and also deals
with PROFORMA (computer-based data); and
(4) signals conversion analysis, which deals
with information derived from the collection
and processing of non imagery infrared and
coherent or non coherent light signals hidden
by such techniques as spectrum-spreading or
frequency-hopping.

Sometimes the term COMINT is used and treated


as a subset of SIGINT for Communications
Intelligence when the enemy simply passes
unsecure information via radio, wire, or other
electromagnetic means, but there may be some
processing of encrypted information, however
transmitted. There are a lot of job titles involved
in the whole process. For example, interception
comprises teams for search, intercept, operator
identification, signal analysis, traffic analysis,
crypto analysis, decryption, study of plaintext,
and the fusion of these processes and the
reporting of results.

Different agencies divide up the


interception tasks differently, as
they do with the processing of
unencrypted written
communications, press and
propaganda broadcasts. If
something is unencrypted, then
COMSEC, or Communications
Security (like OPSEC), comes into
play; which involves measures to
deny persons information derived

ELINT since 2001 is generally only


involved when something is encrypted
(consistent with the Unified Crypto logical
Arc and NSAs mission management
structure), but occasionally the term is
used for the detection of emissions
emanating from atomic detonation of
radioactive sources. FININT, or financial
intelligence, is a hard-to-classify, newly
emerging discipline, practiced primarily
by a Treasure Department agency that
should most probably be considered a

The Importance of Human


Assets
People are the most important source of information
especially in a worldwide scale of intelligence
collection.

Spies are the basic collection platform for any wellrounded intelligence system. Much of intelligence
gathering at the clandestine level is a lot like
undercover police work. Like the policemans attitude
toward the stool pigeon or snitch, its important
to note that to intelligence professionals (case
officers or case handlers), an agent is a foreign
national, an informant, someone committed to
treason and spying on his own country.

The
theory
behind
working
undercover is that it removes any
impediments
to
acquiring
information, and allows a number
of activities such as surveillance,
eavesdropping, use of informants,
and espionage. It typically involves
an assumed identify for a defined
and considerable amount of time.

Undercover work allows someone to


circulate in areas where they are
not ordinarily welcome. The job of
anyone, working undercover is to
make cases, or in other words, to
gather enough information to
enable a successful outcome,
remembering that the goal is to be
a hunter, not a gatherer. The first
rule of clandestine intelligence

You want the payoff to be big. You want the


largest impact possible because youve
maximized your gathering operation as
dangerously as possible.

A distinction is usually made between


agents who are under cover and those who
are under deep cover. This is sometimes
referred to as legals v. illegals although
more common terminology distinguishes
between official and unofficial cover.
Official cover refers to disguising and
intelligence officer as an attach or liaison
officer at an embassy or overseas post.

Nonofficial cover refers to someone in


deeper disguise who is acting like a
businessman, journalist, tourist, or
college professor on an exchange
program. Those people on nonofficial
cover make up what is called the NOC
list (for Nonofficial Cover), and the NOC
list is closely guarded secret because
NOCs are either high level principal agent
or staff employees under a variety of
covers. There is usually little to no cover
working out of an embassy because
everyone knows embassies are a hub of

If a case officer under official cover


works out of an move, so usually such
officers restrict their recruitment
activities to a third country outside
where their embassy is. On the other
hand, NOCs often have dual nationality,
and require handling by an inside case
officer, and employ covers that
distinguishes as cover for status (the
legitimacy to live and work in a
particular country) and cover for
action (the aliases or identities which

Stages of Undercover Work


THE EARLY STAGES
A typical pattern is to bring someone in
as the girlfriend or boyfriend of an
infiltrator, and then distance themselves
from that infiltrator. Once its clear to all
the parties involved that the undercover
agent is single again, another undercover
agent is brought in as the boyfriend or
girlfriend of the first undercover agent.
This allows the gathering unit to work

as a team, which is better for safety. The


initial targets are usually the big leaders
of a group that has been infiltrated, but
often the undercover operatives have to
settle for going after the small fries,
accumulating information and case
material as they go. A supervisor or case
officer usually makes the decision about
whether enough important has been
accumulated to decide if and when the
operation should be terminated, and a
system will have usually been put in
place for the operative to turn over

THE MIDDLE STAGES


Some agents are allowed to create their own
cover stories or legend, and this will depend
upon the type of behaviour involved (drugs,
contraband, gambling, subversive groups,
terrorism). The need may arise for false
documents or computer records for such
agents. This is not ordinarily done with minor
cases. The need may arise for creating various
kind of setup situations in which the agent
proves their criminality or loyalty by
engaging in a staged showdown with police or
a brush with the law.

THE LATE STAGES Some deep cover


agents lose perspective and go native so
agencies have policies in place to help
avoid this. Most agencies will call
someone in who has been doing this kind
of work too long so that they can salvage
their usefulness as a regular employee.
Danger,
temptation,
and
paranoia
become a rogue agent where one of the
hallmarks of this is that they arrange their
own private surveillance and protection.

Recruiting Infiltrators
The smartest and safest way to steal anything is
to recruit someone who can steal it for you and
who never knows your true identity. This works
for just about anything you want to do thats
illegal and you dont want to get caught for it.
One may balk at the ethical implications of this,
but once someone is properly recruited, you can
use them for just about anything. They can be
used for sabotage, deception, covert operations,
assassination, or just about anything.

Many
intelligence
operations are built on lies,
deception,
and
using
people, generally foolish
people.
Using
people
generally follows a pattern:

1.The recruit doesnt realize what they


are going to be doing
2.The recruiter fools them into thinking
they arent doing anything so terrible
3.The recruiter traps them in situations
where they have no choice but to
whatever theyre told to do

Employees of intelligence services dont


consider themselves spies; they consider
themselves recruiters of spies.
Sometimes, they sneak into foreign
countries and do spy work themselves,
but they still primarily think of
themselves as case officers, supervisors,
or handlers. In actual practice, there is a
vast bureaucracy of people backing up
the spy and their handler, or case officer.
In any clandestine operation, the upper
echelon of a spy bureaucracy consists of:

1.A regional desk officer, Who oversees all


HUMINT operations in that region of the
world;
2.Watch officers, who staff a 24-hour crisis
center;
3.A counter intelligence officer, who
oversees clandestine meetings between
officers and agents; and
4.A reports officer, who acts as a liaison
between officers in the field and analysts
at headquarters.

The spies themselves are mostly considered traitor or


fools, and fools come in an amazing variety of forms:

1.People with loose lips, careless


security attitudes (inadvertent spies)
2.People fleeing the rule of their own
country (defectors)

3.People looking for a source of


extra income (walk-ins)
4.People who have made a plea
bargain with law enforcement
(undercover)
5.People tricked, bribed, or
blackmailed (recruits)
6.People caught spying against
you (double agents)

Spies are usually classified as PRIMARY or


ACCESS agents. A primary agent is someone
with actual access to the information you need.
An access agent knows somebody who is more
important, and serves as a gateway or portal to
others. Recruiting spies is all about deception.
Case officers regularly deceive spies as much as
spies deceive the people they spy on. Those
who recruit and manage spies, however, must
always come off as honest and sincere friends,
and tell believable lies. Much of tradecraft is the
pursuit of skill at lying.

Heres one of the most standard


deceptions:
The False Flag - The case officer
pretends to hold a nationality or be a
person whom the target expects to be
friendly to be friendly to the targets own
interests. Some examples: (1) a Chinese
businessman thinks hes working for the
Republic of China when he is really
spying for Taiwan; (2) a student in Lima
thinks hes passing documents to Cuban

Three resources that a recruiter will


need, and plenty of it, are: money,
drugs, and sex. Money is generally used
to attract a recruits attention, and
sooner or later, its all going to come
down to money. Normally, the money
will come from the budgets of the
intelligence service; and at other times,
activities will be self-influenced. Drugs
are generally used to service or create
an addiction which is then used for
blackmail purposes, if appropriate.

Alcohol is the drug of choice, but


anything that will build rapport and
encourage talking is suitable. Sex almost
never involves the case officer engaging
in it with the recruit. Instead, the case
officer uses prostitutes paid to pretend
being innocent lovers capitalizes on an
ongoing affair uses another recruit, or an
innocent amateur.

Steps of Recruiting
Infiltrators
PHASE ONE consists of Spotting,
Evaluating,
and
actual
Recruiting. PHASE TWO consists
of Testing, Training, Handling,
and Terminating the recruit.

SPOTTING
means looking for people who have access.
Handlers look for angry or desperate people in
mid-level management positions. The best
prospects are the ambitious and disgruntled.
Secondarily, handlers look for clerks,
secretaries, or invisible people in the
organization. Often, they have personal
problems or vices that can be worked as well as
anger and desperation. In many cases, the case
officer will have to settle for an access agent
who can plant electronic surveillance devices.

EVALUATION
means personality profiling. The
prospect should be thoroughly and
evaluated in order to determine
their motives mental health. A
sufficient cover story is usually
created at this step. An adequate
cover story involves layers of
deception.

RECRUITING
Takes the form of meeting and getting to
know the target. A close, personal
relationship is cultivated, and trust is
built. It starts with small, personal
favors, an increase in rewards, and then
the final step of asking someone to
clearly betray their employer,
government, coworker, lover, etc...
Blackmail is used as a last resort if
psychological ploys fail.

In the advanced second phase, TESTING


means
checking
your
informants
information
against
known
facts.
Regardless of the reasons for error, if a
spy doesnt produce credible information,
they
should
be
threatened
with
termination at this point, or dropped as a
source. Spies are also often fluttered at
this point, which means that they are
given a polygraph examination, or
interrogated.

TRAINING
involves teaching the spy how to use
specialized equipment and codes.
One of the other important things
the spy will want training in is
escape and evasion tactics. Training
should also involve coaching the
person in how to spend money.

HANDLING
is a term short for psychological handling
which usually involves the passing of control
from you to another, usually superior, case
officer. The handling off of spies is done for
several reasons: so they dont get too close to
their original recruiter; to make feel they are
getting better protection; and to make them
feel they are getting promoted. Often, it has
been your agency which has generated some
fear, convincing the spy that their mother or
other relative needs protection.

TERMINATION
is always done by the agency. The
most common reason given for
termination is budget problems.
Usually, the person is allowed to
immigrate and is given a new
identity, a desk job, and sometimes
a pension. Other times, they are
allowed to get caught or killed

Its important to break off all contacts with a


terminated agent. They cannot be allowed
to quit or resign.
Case officers and their spies should work up
a special communications code between
them. It may involve the type of clothing
worn, or a series of hand signals. Code
words and nickname are also involved. A
code word generally refers to an intelligence
document and has a classified meaning; a
nickname usually consists of two words and
is assigned an unclassified meaning.

At a minimum, the following


should be able to be
communicated without
words:

We need to meet so that we can


talk
I have material to pass on to you
I think I am being followed
You have a tail
Everything in OK

Spies have copied, photographed, or


memorized things, which they then
pass on to their contacts. Most
intelligence services use what are
called COURIERS to handle all such
exchanges and contacts.
Sometimes, couriers are involved in
the initial recruitment and training
of a spy; and at other times, theyre
unrelated to the case. Professional
messenger and postal services are

A traditional exchange is:


The Dead Drop the spy and their
courier have arranged a place,
usually a dumpster or public
garbage can where material is
discarded and later picked up.

Telephone conversations are always


avoided, as are computerized forms
of communicating over the Internet.
A few Internet exceptions exist,
however, as a popular form of
exchange takes place not with
encryption, but with postings in
public bulletin boards or Usenet
discussion groups. In other words,
no direct computer-to-computer
connections are allowed. SAFE

Most commonly, they are hotel or


motel rooms; other times, a rental
houses or apartment. Safe houses are
always constantly being rented, the
purpose being that their newness
prevents the planting of surveillance
devices. As a general rule, spies and
visitors should always be blindfolded
when taken to a safe houses.

Sexual and Non-Sexual


Compromises
Sex is only one of several methods for
turning someone into a traitor or spy.
Almost all the motives for becoming such
a person are expressed in the acronym
MICE (Money, Ideology, Compromise,
and
Ego).
Sex
falls
under
the
Compromise category. The letter C (for
Compromise) can itself be subdivided
into three (3) distinct subparts:

Heterosexual Compromise
Homosexual Compromise
Nonsexual Compromise

The theory behind the use of sex in


espionage is based mostly on
Freudian theory, the idea that the
sex drive is basic, so basic, in fact,
that it is the basis of all other drives,
a generalized drive, if you will.
Additionally, the sex drive is
compulsive or addictive. It cuts
across various degrees of mental
intellect. There are several known
incidents in which powerful and

The use of beautiful women in baited


situations is known as planting a
honey trap, or more formally
entrapment, but sometimes a goodlooking man (or Romeo) is planted.
The Arab countries are said to know
everything about NATO activities and
plans because it has so efficiently
penetrated be Arab Romeos.

A rather interesting part of spy history


involves the use of HOMOSEXUAL agents.
Some of the most notorious spies in
history have been homosexuals (the
Cambridge Spy Ring) or sexual deviants
(the KGB agent Geoffrey Prime). Most
sexual deviants dont succeed in the spy
business, but homosexual apparently do.
Instead of being called honey-traps a
homosexual compromise situation is
called a drone-traps.

Some techniques are:


1.Black-marketing targets are
threatened with exposure for buying
contraband goods and services on the
black market.
2.Currency violations - targets are
threatened with exposure for violating
currency laws of the host nation.

3.Security violations - targets are


threatened with exposure for
violating no trespassing zones or
being on government property of
the host nation
4.Criminal Law violations - targets
are threatened with prosecution
for various criminal offenses that
they have been setup in.

Any refugee or war criminal makes


excellent material for recruitment.
The immigration quota system may
be used to threaten people. An
applicant is converted into a spy by
promises of moving quickly on their
visa application (permission to leave
the country) in return for agreeing to
spy in their newly adopted countries.
Some nations offer to pay all tuition
expenses if the student, studying in

Job titles come in many forms. At the top


the hierarchies are officers in the various
intelligence agencies. An intelligence
officer position is usually an executive
position, which means they get to stay
home at headquarters most of the time.
Underneath this career level are junior
officers who are known as legal or illegal.
A legal junior officer is one sent overseas
under cover as a diplomat or attach.
Illegal junior officers have more
deceptive covers, usually as a business
or sales person. Among the junior officer

Almost all junior officers stationed


abroad serve as case officers, or
controllers. They are expected to
recruit and run agents who come
from the host country, setting up
what is known as assets or a spy
ring. The people who work in various
supporting capacities at the home
office are called analyst.

The persons recruited in


the host country to work
as assets, spies, or traitors
are called agents. One of
the defining characteristics
of all agents is that theyre
expendable. There are
different types of agents:

1.Penetration agents, or moles, who work


under deep cover and are well-placed;
2.Double agents, who work for both sides;
3.Cut-outs, who act as intermediaries or
mercenaries;
4.Feedback agents, who provide running
commentary on political events, and may
consist of
5.Stay-behinds, which are those left in
place by retreating troops in wartime; and
all-purpose

Advocates of HUMINT (Human Intelligence)


believe that, despite technological advances,
traditional espionage remains crucial in
providing information known as the
foreknowledge before something takes place;
i.e., information about intentions, political
activity and strategic concepts of an
adversarys leadership. Moreover, taking into
consideration the current threat the world is
faced, terrorism, where targets have gotten
smaller, more mobile and have gone
underground, the human intelligence platform
becomes more important as well.

CHAPTER FIVE
INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS

INTELLIGENCE OPERATION
Its is result of intelligence planning,
planning is always ahead of
operation although an operation
although an operation can be made
without a plan, it is usually due to
sudden and inevitable situations but
definitely this is poor intelligence
management.

Different Task involve in Police


Intelligence Operation
1.Discovery and identification activity
2.Surveillance and Liaison Program
3.Informant Management
4.Clippings Services and Debriefing
5.Relevant Miscellaneous Activities
6.Casing
7.Utilization of Informant for planning and
organizational employment purposes.

THE 14 OPERATIONAL
CYCLES
1.Mission and Target
Infiltration the insertion of action agent inside
the target organization Penetration recruitment
of action agent inside the target organization
2.Planning
3.Spotting
4.Investigation PBI/CBI
5. Recruitment the only qualification of an
agent is to have an access to the target

Training
7.Briefing
8.Dispatch
9.Communication Technical telephone/
radio, Non-technical personal meeting,
live drop/dead drop
10.Debriefing

11.Payments depends upon the motivation


-Buy his life not his job
-Regulatory and dependability that counts not the
amount
-Pay no bonuses
-Supplemental the agent income from regular
sources enough to ease his financial worries but
not enough to cause him to live in style
12. Disposition involve activity on rerouting,
retraining, retesting, termination
13. Reporting
14.Operational Testing

COVER AND UNDERCOVER


Cover the means by which an individual
group of organization conceals the true nature
of its acts and or existence from the observer.

Cover story a biographical data through


fictional that will portray the personality of the
agent he assumed, a scenario to cover up the
operation.
Cover Support an agent assigned in target
areas with the primary mission of supporting
the cover story.

Importance of Cover
1.Secrecy of operation against enemy
intelligence
2.Secrecy of operation against friendly
agencies who do not have the need to
know
3.Successful accomplishment of the
mission

Types of Cover
1.Natural Cover using actual or true
background
2.Artificial using biographical data
adopted for the purpose
3.Cover with in a Cover justification
of existence
4.Multiple Cover any cover you wish.

Hazards of Cover
1.Static
or
dormant
opposition
(ordinary citizen)
2.Unhostile
active
opposition
(Political Security agencies)
3.Hostile active opposition (enemy
intl. operatives)

Precautions in case of
Compromise
1.Move out immediately
2.Start new facility for operation and
develop it
3.Build entirely new cover
4.Use circuitous routes and provide
careful counter surveillance measures
5.Be specifically careful o former
contacts with non-intelligence personnel

ORGANIZATIONAL COVER
is an account consisting of
biographical which when adopted by
an individual will assume the
personality he wants to adopt.
Objectives: To camouflage and protect
operational personnel and their
activities Protect installation on which
clandestine activities are based.

Guidelines when Organizational


Cover is Compromise
1.Make physical move or relocation
2.Start new facility for the old operation
and let it grow
3.Use new personnel
4.Let old personnel remain in place
5.Build entirely new cover
6.When files are relocated use circuitous to
avoid surveillance and other CI

UNDERCOVER ASSIGNMENT
is an investigation technique in
which agent conceal his official
identity an obtain information
from that organization.

Planning Undercover
Assignment
1.Determine level on which investigation
is intended
2.Develop appropriate cover and cover
story
3.Selection of qualified personnel
4.Consideration of all operational details
to include documentation, contract
reporting, housing and coverage
5.Briefing, coaching and rehearsals

Uses of Undercover
Assignment
1.Use independently to get first hand info
about the subject of investigation
Ex.
a)Security evaluation of every installation
b)Gain confidence of suspended persons
c)Agent penetration
d)Verify info from human resources
e)Undercover concealed identify

2.Supplement other investigative


techniques like:
a)Playing ground works for raids and
searches by going entry
b)To assist in locating evidence
c)To install, maintain investigative
equipments of undercover assignment

Types of Undercover
Assignment

1.Dwelling
2.Work
3.Social
4.Jurisdictional assignment
5.Combinational assignment
6.Rope job striking up friendship
with the subject

UNDERCOVER AGENT
special
qualifications:
Knowledge of the language,
Area background regarding
events, Knowledge about the
custom and habits, Physical
appearance, an artist.

Factors considered in Selecting


Cover Story

1.Mutual Point of Interest


2.Justification of presents
3.Previous and permanent address
4.Efficiency of role
5.Freedom from the movement
6.Means of communication
7.Social and financial status
8.Optional alternate plan
9.Safe departure

Selecting Action Agents


1.Placement location of prospective agent with
respect to the target.
2.Access it is the capability of a prospective agent
to obtain the desired info for the Intel organization or
to perform to Intel collection mission in the area.
Primary Access it is the access to the desired info.
Secondary Access it is the access to the desired
info through a principal source where the latter has
the direct access.
Outside Access the agent is employed outside the
target and merely monitors info from a third person
who is monitoring info in the area.

Motivating Agents
1.Ideology believes in the principle
of lives
2.Patriotism
3. Remuneration
4. Career development
5. Fear

Nature of Agent Handling


1.Sharing a secret purpose
2.Agent handler controls the agent
operationally was administratively
3.Rapport with each other
4.Respect with each other

Basic Principles in Agent


Management

1.Agent handler must be in charge of


the operation
2.The act ensure the agent adherence
3.Good rapport must be established
between the agent handler and the
agent
4.The agent handler must constantly
reinforce the agents motivation

CONTROL

authority to direct the agent


to
carryout
task
or
requirement on behalf of the
clandestine organization in an
acceptable
manner
and
security.

Two Categories of Control


1.Positive Control is characterized
by professionalism and rapport
Agent motivation
Psychological control
2.Negative Control characterized by
blackmail and threat

Disciplinary Action includes verbal


reprimand for poor performance or
insecure actions with holding certain
material rewards, reduction of
agents salary or in extreme situation
the threat of termination
professional relationship
Escrow Account control of an agent
by putting his salary in a bank to be
withdrawn only after a fulfillment of
a condition

Key Elements in Agent Management

1.Direction and control


a. Leadership
b. Action
c. Personal example
2.Natural weaknesses
a. Inability to keep secret
b. Need for recognition
c. Stain and dual experience
d. Experience

Agent Termination
Problems involve:
1.Amount of knowledge the agent has in
the operation and personnel
2.His inclination to use knowledge to the
disadvantages of the intelligence service
3.Moral obligation to the agent the
causes of loss incurred by him as a result
of his connection with the Intel service

The Task of Procurement and


Collection of Information
Procurement represents the collection of
information from overt sources such as:
1.Newspaper
2.Magazines
3.Radio Intercepts
4.Public and Private library
5.Public and Private establishment
6.General Public
7.And other similar in nature

Procurement as use in intelligence parlance is the aggressive effort


to acquire certain specific information that may not be readily
available. To this end a number of means may be used, these are:

1.The Classical Intelligence such


as and which utilize human being
to gather information.
2.The
modern
or
technical
intelligence
which
employs
machine
human
such
as
satellites, electronic gadgets to
gather information.

Procuring Agents

1.Agent in Place An agent who has been


recruited by an intelligence service within
highly sensitive targets who is just
beginning a career or have been long or
(outside) insider.
2.Double Agent An enemy agent, who
has been captured, turned around and
sent back where he came from as an
agent of his captors.
3.Expandable Agent An agent though
whom false information is leaked to the
enemy.

5.Agent of Influence An agent


who uses influence to gain
information.
6.Agent Provocation

Theory and Practice of Double- Cross System


(Double Agent System)

1.To control the enemy system, or as


much of its as we could get our hands on.
2.To catch fresh spies when they
appeared.
3.To gain knowledge other personalities
and methods of the enemies intelligence
service.
4.To obtain information about the codes

5.To get evidence of enemy plans


and
intentions
from
the
questions asked from them.
6.To influence enemy plans by
the answers sent to the enemy.
7.To deceive the enemy about
our plans and intentions.

Some Methods Used in Acquiring


Information (Foreign Agents)
1.Stealing or purchasing information from employees.
2.Getting information from records or other sources.
3.Using various methods of reproducing documents,
equipments, or models.
4.Using front as commercial concerns, travel
agencies, associates business groups and other
organization to obtain confidential information or data,
this can be of value to the user.
5.Using various forms of threats to obtain information.
6.Using black mail technique (homosexual, adultery,
etc.)

7.Using various means to extract


information from members of the family
or close friends of the employee.
8.Picking information by personal
observation of production, operation, test
runs, shipment of finished products or
confidential product or papers.
9.Picking information in social and other
gatherings.
10.Attempting Subversion by offers of
money or using the emotions such as
love, hatred, desire for powers and
others.