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Energy Storage/release
 The Oxidation of Carbon Fuels is an important
source of cellular energy.
 ATP serves as the principal immediate donor
of free energy.
 Motion, active transport, signal amplification,
and biosynthesis can occur only if ATP is
continually regenerated.
 The carbon in fuel molecules – such as
glucose and fats - is oxidized to CO2, and the
energy released is used to regenerate ATP.
 The carbon oxidation energy is used in some
cases to create a compound with high
phosphoryl transfer potential and I other cases
to create an ion gradient. In either case, the
end point is the formation of ATP.

Glycolysis is the first stage of respiration .

 Glycolysis yields two molecules of ATP (free energy containing molecule). . glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. the next step of cellular respiration called the citric acid cycle. Glycolysis literally means "splitting sugars."  In glycolysis. Without oxygen. occurs in the matrix of cell mitochondria.  Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen.  In the presence of oxygen. two molecules of pyruvic acid and two "high energy" electron carrying molecules of NADH.  This process is called fermentation.  While glycolysis takes place in the cytosol of the cell's cytoplasm. glycolysis allows cells to make small amounts of ATP. glucose (a six carbon sugar) is split into two molecules of a three-carbon sugar.

Overview of glycolysis .

Two phases of glycolysis .

Preparatory Phase Fig 14-2 .

using ATP as the phosphate donor.Reaction 1: Phosphorylation • This phosphorylation is catalyzed by hexokinase. The charge on the phosphate also traps the sugar in the cell. • Hexokinase transfers a phosphate group from ATP to glucose. making it more chemically reactive. .

fructose-6-phosphate. .Reaction 2: Isomerization • The enzyme responsible for this isomerization is phosphoglucoisomerase. • The carbonyl oxygen of glucose 6-phosphate is shifted from C-1 to C-2. • Glucose-6-phosphate is converted to its isomer.

investing a second molecule of ATP.Reaction 3: Phosphorylation • The enzyme that responsible in this reaction is phosphofrutokinase. • This is a key step for regulation of glycolysis . • Phosphofructokinase transfers a phosphate group from ATP to the opposite end of the sugar.

Reaction 4: Cleavage • Aldolase. which is an enzyme that cleaves the sugar molecule into two different threecarbon sugars which are isomers. • The products are dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. .

must be converted to glyceraldehyde-3phosphate by the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase.Reaction 5: Isomerization • The triose phosphate. • This reaction never reaches equilibrium due to glyceraldehyde-3phosphate is used as the substrate of the next . dihydroxyacetone phosphate.

Fig 14-2 .

Reaction 6: Oxidation • The enzyme which is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyzes two sequential reactions. • Second. the energy released from this exergonic redox reaction is used to attach a phosphate group to oxidized substrate. • First. making a product of . the sugar is oxidized by the transfer of electrons to NAD+ forming NADH.

• The phosphate group added in the previous step is transferred to ADP in an exergonic reaction. . knows as 3-phosphoglycerate.Reaction 7: Substrate level phosphorylation • The enzyme phosphoglycerokinase transfers a phosphoryl group from 1.3-bisphosphglycerate to ADP to form an ATP. • The carbonyl group of a sugar has been oxidized to the carboxyl group (-COO-) of an organic acid.

• The enzyme. . relocates the remaining phosphate group. phosphoglyceromutase. in which the phosphoryl group of 3phosphoglycerate is moved from C-3 to C-2.Reaction 8: shift of phosphoryl group • The phosphoglyceromutase reaction.

Reaction 9: Dehydration • The dehydration reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme. a compound with a very high potential energy. . • Enolase causes a double bond to form in the substrate by extracting a water molecule. yielding phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). called as enolase.

• This is a second example of substratelevel phosphorylation.Reaction 10: substrate level phosphorylation • Pyruvate kinase mediates the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP to make ATP and forming pyruvate. .

These enzyme activities are regulated by The reversible binding of allosteric effectors or by covalent modification Transcription of these enzyme . the reactions catalysed by hexokinase. such as the formation of fatty acids In metabolic pathways. enzyme catalysing essentially irreversible reactions are potential sites of control. In glycolysis. phosphofructokinase.The Glycolytic Pathway is Tightly Controlled • 1. The rate of conversion of glucose into pyruvate is regulated to meet two major cellular needs: The production of ATP The provision of building blocks foe synthetic reactions. 2. •. 1. and pyruvate kinase are virtually irreversible. •. •. each of them serves as control site. 2.

Summary .

Stage 1.6-phosphate . which is the conversion of glucose into fructose-1.

6bisphophate into two three-carbon fragments .Stage 2: cleavage of the fructose-1.

Stage 3: ATP is harvested when the threecarbon fragments are oxidized to pyruvate .


they are converted to lactic acid (which will make your muscles burn) . and 2 NADH molecules. Or. 2 water molecules.THE END RESULT IS • 4 ATP molecules. 2 pyruvate. are either passed along and used in the Krebs Cycle to create more ATP. • 4 ATP molecules – 2 ATP molecules (used in the initial step to add phosphorus to our glucose molecule) = 2 ATP molecules net • The 2 pyruvate molecules. in the absence of oxygen.

Reaction of glycolysis .