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Non-verbal communication

& Intercultural Communication

in-corporating-body-language-into-nlp-or-more-notes-on-the-design-of-automated-body-language

Professional Development in
Business

CHAPTERS 3 & 4

In this lecture we will

Discuss some non-verbal communication theory and terminology

Explore the effects of vocal cues

Identify ways of achieving credibility in inter personal and


intercultural communication

Regard achieving different qualities (likeability, attractiveness,


dominance)

Discuss how non-verbal communication manifests in electronic media

Discuss some definitions of culture

Look at how culture impacts management and intercultural verbal


and non-verbal communication in organisations

Discuss strategies for ensuring a positive intercultural


communication climate

Categories of non-verbal communication


Kinesics

- visual communication ( including posture,


oculesics and locomotion).

Proxemics

spatial communication.

Chronemics
Haptics

time communication.

touch communication.

Vocalics

sound communication or paralanguage and

silence.
Dress

code* (adornment, mimicry)

Personal

projection* (posture, olfatics and locomotion)


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Must

be considered in cultural context

Basically, body-language,

facial expressions

Reinforces and complements

Contradicts

Regulates or repeats

Substitutes

http://peoplepassionate.com/make-instant-connections-using-good-body-language
http://www.vision-spark.com/hiring/conversations-on-hiring-with-real-business-owners/
http://commsmasters.com/tag/difcult-conversations/

Kinesics

Proxemics Spatial communication

http://professionalismtips.blogspot.com.au/
http://www.arewethealiens.com/SundayDiversions28_index.html
http://wizbangblog.com/2014/12/08/the-pope-and-the-president/
http://www.se7ensins.com/forums/threads/unlimited-money-glitch-on-gta-online-for-new-players
.1256702

Chronemics
Based
Often

used in power games between parties.

differ greatly between cultures.

http://professionalismtips.blogspot.com.au/

Can

on the use of time.

Based

on patterns of touching.

Varies

widely between people and cultures.

Misunderstandings

involving haptics can be especially

dangerous.

http://www.elllo.org/english/1051/1069-Amir-Haptics.htm
http://www.shangpu518.com/yuetu/show/26769/

Haptics

Vocalics: sound communication or


paralanguage
Volume

Quality

Pitch

Regularity

Rate

Articulation

Duration

Pronunciation
Silence

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http://www.sellbetter.ca/tag/impact-questions/

Tone

Activity
how many ways can you say Ah?

What

are the meanings?

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http://www.mybemail.com/2011/02/12/ah-there-you-are/

In

Choose

conversational speaking rate.


Use volume and pitch for emphasis.
Use pauses before important points.

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http://blog.internations.org/2012/12/book-review-cultural-agility-by-paula-caligiuri/

Recommended vocal cues

Undesirable vocal cues


Non-fluencies
Lengthy

pauses suggest indecisiveness***.

Loudness
Flatness

(ah, um) suggest incompetence.

may suggest aggressiveness.

and nasality suggest dullness and/or disinterest.

Poor

articulation suggests poor competence.

Fast

speech suggests anxiety.

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High level of eye contact.


Consistency of verbal and non-verbal messages.
Avoiding the insincere smile.
Brisk, confident speech level.
Avoiding indications of tension, nervousness and
fear.
Clothing style matching that of clients.

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http://www.whandassociates.com/4-ways-to-improve-the-credibility-of-your-business/

Achieving credibility

Relaxed

physical behaviour and movement.


Signalling interest in the topic and attentiveness to
client.
Relaxed friendly speech.

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http://
axerosolutions.com/blogs/timeisenhauer/pulse/98/how-community-software-can-add-credibility-to-your-bus
ness

Achieving likeability

Spontaneous revealing behaviour.

Responsive behaviour: eye contact, direct body-orientation.

Seating arrangements that decrease distance and promote


friendliness.

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http://www.skylinetradeshowtips.com/the-power-of-eye-contact-for-booth-stafersand-beyond
/

Achieving interpersonal attractiveness

Being

dominant or domineering is
not considered a positive
characteristic

Maintaining eye contact.

Controlling talking time.

Interrupting to dominate the situation.

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http://public-prod-acquia.gsb.stanford.edu/news/bmag/sbsm0711/kn-dominance.html

Achieving dominance (?)

Show Assertiveness and leadership


Demonstrate confidence; smile.
Maintain eye contact
Use talk time to convey your
message (in a respectful manner)
Be relaxed and direct (but not
too informal.
Make positive head movements
and gestures.
Avoid nervous gestures; fidgeting.

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Intercultural dimensions of non-verbal behaviour


Differences to note between cultures:
Greetings

language

hand

gestures (eg hand purse)

head

movements

facial

expressions

eye

contact, degrees or lack of

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http://nostringer.blogspot.com.au/

Body

What do these mean?

:)
:-D
:-o
>:->

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http://www.synergemarketing.com/blog/5-tips-for-establishing-professional-credibility/

Email non-verbal communication

Can

you invent a new emoticon? (maybe for


apathy?)

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http://www.synergemarketing.com/blog/5-tips-for-establishing-professional-credibility/

Activity

Consider this
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOHvMz7dl2A
HSBC Funny Culture Ads

(Next slide: What went wrong?)


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Intercultural communication
Mr Clarke: Gday mate. Im Robert Clarke. My friends call me Bob.
Heres my card.
Mr Lau: Hello Mr Clarke. I am William Lau. Very glad to meet you. How
Mr Clarke: Call me Bob. Good, thanks. (Reading card: Lau WingLeung) Oh its Wing-Leung! Nice to meet you. Ill call you tomorrow,
Wing-Leung, OK?
Mr Lau (smiles): Yes, I will expect your call. (Both men depart.)

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(Adapted from Scollon & Scollon 2001)

was your trip? (Exchanges business cards.)

Conflict

occurs between the formal expectation of Mr Lau and


the overly familiar Mr Clarke.
Mr Lau expects use of the formal title, Mr in professional
settings; he is not used to being called by his first name.
Mr Clarke wishes to break down barriers and so uses first
names.
Mr Lau is embarrassed at being referred to by his given
Chinese name and so smiles.
Mr Clarke mistakes the smile for friendship and so continues his
informal style of communication.
Cultural sensitivity actually works against the two participants:

Mr Clarke only has partial understanding of Chinese names.

Mr Lau should be clearer on his business card.

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http://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/asian-businessman-in-meeting-high-res-stockphotography/163487144
http://cbl.chinadaily.com.cn/2012-10/11/content_15810986.htm

Explanation of the problem

We live in a global village.


Young Australians travel overseas as a rite of
passage.
We are travelling more and more for
business, family and education.
Multicultural nature of Australian society
22% of all Australians were born overseas
(2006 census) .
We are constantly interacting with other
cultures in Australia and abroad.
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http://www.africanexecutive.com/modules/magazine/articles.php?article=5792
https://
wallpaperscraft.com/download/globe_earth_plane_luggage_computer_mouse_travel
_68600/2048x1152

The importance of intercultural


communication

Starting point was The Silent Language (1959) Edward T.


Hall (popularised proxemics).

1970s specialised books, courses and professional divisions


such as International Communication Association.

Intercultural communication can also refer to sub-cultures


within a culture, e.g. retirees, motor bike riders, surfers.

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http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2498438/Britains-most-crowded-trains-named.htm
http://forums.hababam.nl/archive/index.php/t-150586-indiase-mannen-betasten-vrouwen-in-bussen
.html l
http://mystudyabroadjapan.blogspot.com.au/2013/06/the-japanese-railway-system.html

What is intercultural communication?

What is Culture?

Difficult to define, but refers to a way of thinking and


acting.

Includes traditions, family roles, expectations,


attitudes and non-verbal communication.

Not to be confused with high culture (the opera) and


low culture (pop music).

Can be broken into four dimensions: history/world


view, socialisation, language and non-verbal
communication.

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Activity (2mins)

With somebody near you, think of the elements


you would consider to gain an understanding of
somebodys culture (eg religion).
religion

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The effect of history and world view

It has been said that many Australians are not mindful of the
Indigenous or convict past.

Many cultures respect their history, some more than others .

Many Australian professionals are aware of work happening


now with quick decision-making and fast turnarounds.

An Asian professional may need a slower paced meeting work


is a part of the social fabric, which cannot be rushed.

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The effect of socialisation

Enculturation is the process for bringing up a child


without institutional input.

Education: the official system of schooling.

Acculturation: the imposition of a dominant culture


into a weaker one. Also, the process of acquiring
cultural understanding of an alien culture as a
result of experience.

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Several overlapping stages:

- primary
- secondary
organisational
Varies dramatically between cultures.

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http://www.globalizen.com/courses-and-trainingintercultural-communication-in-business/

The effect of socialisation

Language and culture

Language subtleties

Language relativity

The problems of translation

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http://www.business2community.com/communications/learnin
g-second-language-teaches-better-communication-skills-

The effect of language

Non-verbal communication is more than just body


language e.g. it includes verbal communication quality.

Non-verbal communication can be categorised as: kinesics,


proxemics, chronemics, haptics and
vocalics/paralangauge. Remember?

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http://galleryhip.com/nonverbal-communication-cartoon.html
http://psyblogger.com/culture/how-people-greet-each-other-globally/

The effect of non-verbal communication

Activity
In the following video, what aspects of intercultural
communications are at work in the students advice?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmoYmcZCoiw

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High and low context cultures


Edward T. Hall (1976) divided all cultures into:

high-context cultures (e.g. Japanese, Mediterranean, Middle


Eastern) view the context and relationships as importantly as
the message itself.

low-context cultures (e.g. Australian, Scandinavians) see the


message as being the most important thing.

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An organisation that embraces diversity employs


people irrespective of their

Cultural/national background

Gender

Age

Sexuality

Physical ability

https://catholictrans.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/debunkin
g-myth-2-transgender-people-are-confused/
http://michaelczinkota.com/2014/04/old-people-are-aboutto-change-the-global-economy/
http://www.hufngtonpost.com/barbara-otto/telecommutin
g-is-more-than-a-perk_b_3239553.html

Recognising diversity

Recognising diversity

Recognise that diversity in group/team membership can


result in a wealth of perspectives that can benefit
group/team process.

Males and females in a group/team may define and


approach issues differently.

Members from different cultural backgrounds may have


conflicting values and personal preferences

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Recognising diversity
Seek

to understand individual differences.

Regard

diversity as an opportunity.

Maximise

the SYNERGY that diversity offers

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Context-based values

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Geert Hofstede (1984) studied 117 000


people from 53 cultures, then re-studied 29
000 later to check on his results.

Sampling biases: most were males, all middle


class, and worked for IBM.

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http://www.peoples.ru/science/psihology/geert_hofstede/hofstede_2.shtml

Hofstedes dimensions of Culture

Hofstedes dimensions of Culture


Found there were five dimensions:

Power distance
Uncertainty avoidance
Individualismcollectivism
Masculinityfemininity
Long-termshort-term
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mNntW_DA0x0

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World view

Context

Language

Non-verbal (mis)communication

Humour

Problems and solutions

Try not to offend (as in Youtube below)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTE0G9amZNk
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K8G38hIW1og
http://www.forgreaterworship.com/does-your-worldview-afect-the-way-we-worship/

You talkin to MOI?

Summary of this lecture

Discussion of non-verbal communication theory

Identified ways of achieving professionalism in


interpersonal and intercultural communication contexts

Introduced how non-verbal communication is also


apparent in electronic media

Discussed some definitions of culture

Looked at how culture impacts communication in


organisations

Discussed strategies for ensuring a positive intercultural


communication climate
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