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DISTORTION
IN WELDING
SUBJECT : ANALYSIS OF MANUFACTURING
PROCESSES

CONTENTS
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Introduction: Distortion in Welding


Significance of Material Properties
Influence of Welding Processes & Procedures
Types of Welding Distortions
Welding Suitability Index based on Distortion
Measurement of Distortion
Control of Distortion in Weldments
Correction of Distorted Weldments
Future Scope in Measuring Weld Distortions

Introduction: Distortion
in Welding
Q.
What is Distortion ?
Any unwanted physical change or departure from
specifications in a fabricated structure or
component, as a consequence of welding

Figure: Distortion in Sheet due to


Welding

Figure: Simulation for T-Joint


Welding

Introduction: Distortion in Welding


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Main Causes of Distortion


Non-Uniform Expansion and Contraction, i.e. Shrinkage due
to plastic thermal strain, of the weld metal and base metal
during the heating and cooling cycle
Internal stresses formed in base metal due to removing
restraints given to welds by fixed components surrounding it
So, both Welding processes & procedures and Material
properties
affect the extent of distortion

Effects of Distortion:

Complicate further fabrication


Reduced application of the structure
High cost of rectifying deformations

Significance of Material Properties


5

Properties of
Materials

Effects
(Requirements for Less
Distortion)

Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion ()

Lower coefficient of thermal expansion

Thermal Conductivity (K)

High Thermal Conductivity leads to low


thermal gradients

Yield Strength (y)

Lower the yield strength of the parent


material, lower the residual stresses
causing distortions

Modulus of Elasticity (E)

Higher the Modulus of Elasticity


(stiffness) of the parent material

Influence of Welding Processes & Procedures


6

Factors affecting
Volume of Heated
Metal

Effects
(Requirements for Less
Distortion)

Welding Processes

Concentrated heat source


High welding speeds
Deep penetration
Single Pass Welding, Least Weld runs

Amount of Weld Metal

Minimum amount of weld metal

Welding Speed

Maximum Welding speed Minimizes heat


spread and built-up, Solidification of
weld metal should be controlled

Edge Preparation and


Fit-up

Uniform Edge Preparations to allow


consistent shrinkage along the joint,
Close Fit-Ups

Welding Procedure

Mechanised, Single Pass, High Speed

Schematic View of
Distortions in Welding
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Longitudinal Shrinkage
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Shrinkage in the direction of the weld axis

Cause:
Preheat or fast cooling problem
Shrinkage stresses in high constraint
areas

Prevention:
Weld toward areas of less constraint
Weld short length
Figure: Longitudinal
Also preheat to even out the cooling
Shrinkage
rates
Straightening press, jacks, clamps should
be used

Longitudinal Shrinkage
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Butt Welds

L= longitudinal shrinkage, mm
I = welding current, amps
T = length of the weld, mm
t=plate thickness, mm

Figure: Butt Joint

Fillet Welds

L = longitudinal Shrinkage
Figure: T-joint with two
Aw = Cross-sectional area of the weld metalfillet welds
Ap = Cross-sectional area of the resisting structure

Transverse Shrinkage
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Shrinkage running into or inside a weld, transverse to the


weld axis direction

Cause: Weld metal hardness problem,


Constraints applied to weld-joints

Butt Welds :

t = transverse Shrinkage

w = Cross-sectional area of
weld, mm2

t = plate thicknes, mm

Figure: Transverse
Shrinkage

Figure: Butt Joint

Transverse Shrinkage
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Fillet Weld :

For a T-joint with two fillet welds :

t = transverse Shrinkage

l= leg of fillet weld, mm

t = plate thickness, mm

Figure: T-joint with two


fillet welds

For fillet weld(s) in Lap Joint :

t = transverse Shrinkage

l= leg of fillet weld, mm

t = plate thickness, mm

Figure: Fillet weld in Lap


Joint

Longitudinal Vs
Transverse Shrinkage
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Longitudinal Shrinkage
Butt
Welds

3mm per 3m of weld

Transverse Shrinkage
1.5 to 3mm per weld for
60 V joint, depending on
number of runs

Amount of transverse shrinkage in a butt weld is much


more (i.e. 1000th times of the weld length) than the
longitudinal shrinkage
Fillet
Welds

0.8mm per 3m of weld

0.8mm per weld where


the leg length does not
exceed 3/4 plate thickness

Increasing the leg length of fillet welds increases


shrinkage

Angular Distortion
14

Weld tends to be wider at the top


than the bottom, causing more
solidification shrinkage and
thermal contraction

For Double-V Edge Butt weld-joint,


it depends upon root face and
root gap

Fillet weld-joints, it depends upon Figure: Angular Distortion in Butt


Weld-joint
flange width, weld leg length and
flange thickness

Depends Upon :

Width and depth of fusion zone


relative to plate thickness

Type of joint

Weld pass sequence

Thermo-mechanical material

Figure: Angular Distortion in Fillet


Weld-Joint

Angular Distortion
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Occurs at butt, lap, T, corner joints due to single-sided as


well as asymmetrical double-sided welding

Prevention:
Reducing volume of weld metal
Using double-V joint and alternate welding
Placing welds around neutral axis
Presetting: By compensating the amount of distortion to
occur in welding
Elastic pre-springing can reduce angular changes after
restraint is removed.
Preheating and post weld treatment

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Bowing or Longitudinal
Bending

Weld line does not coincide with neutral axis of a weld


structure

Longitudinal shrinkage of the weld metal induces


bending moments

Amount of distortion depends on :

Shrinkage moment
Resistance of the member to bending

A = cross-sectional area of the weld,mm2


d = distance from C.G. to outermost fibre,
mm
L = length of the weld, mm
I = Moment of Inertia of the section, mm4

Figure: Longitudinal Bending

Rotational Distortion
17

In this, sheets being butt welded either come closer to each


other or the distance between them is widened

Depends upon:

Thickness of parent material


Temperature difference between a molten pool and the unheaten parent
material (difference in heat flow)
Speed of Welding,
Heat Source

Figure: Rotational Distortions

Rotational Distortion
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Progressively welding
material at
widely different heat inputs

Expanding & Contracting


Zones in arc butt welding

Here, Manual welds are termed as slow welds, while


Automatic welds are termed as fast welds

Buckling Distortions
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When thin plates are welded, considerable residual stresses


occur in areas away from the weld and cause Buckling

Occurs when Specimen Length exceeds the Critical Length for


a given thickness

Amount of deformation of Buckling distortion is much greater


than that in Bending

Buckling due to welding of a panel increases directly as the


thickness decreases

Figure: Bucking Distortion

Figure: Relationship for buckling


distortion of butt weld for

Twisting Distortions
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Twisting is the due to low torsional resistance on


thin materials

Buckling And Twisting


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Prevention:

Minimize Shrinkage by decreasing volume of


weld metal and highest compatible speed
Keep the length of the welded member as short
as practical
Incorporate torsional resistances to twisting as
much feasible

Welding Suitability Index


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Welding Suitability Index based on Distortion ( )

where,
Tm, a, , E, y, refers to material under consideration
Tm*, a*, *, E*, y* refers to those of reference material
Tm: Melting Temperature, (C)
a : Thermal Diffusivity, (mm2 / sec)
: Thermal Expansion, (1/C) *10-6
E : Elastic Modulus, (kN/mm2)
y, : Yield Limit, (N/mm2)

Base Metal

Thermal
Thermal
Elastic
Yield
Melting Diffusivity, Expansion, Modulus,
Limit, y,
Temperatur a (mm2 /
(1/C)
E
e, Tm (C)
sec)
*10-6
(kN/mm2) (N/mm2)

Welding
Suitability
Indices in
Distortion

Low Alloy Steel


High Alloy
Steel
Aluminium
Alloy

1520

7.5-9.5

11

210

200-700

1400

5.0-7.5

16

200

250-550

0.86

600

75-100

24

65

80-280

0.01

Titanium Alloy

1800

8.5

110

500-700

1.08

Copper Alloy

1080

120

18

130

30-420

0.02

Nickel Alloy

1435

15

13

215

120-630

0.43

Welding Suitability Indices in Distortion


1.2
1
0.8

Welding Suitability
Indices in Distortion

0.6
0.4
0.2

23

0
0

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Measurement of
Distortion

Distortion in the post weld cooled state is determined


by applying length and angular measuring techniques

Transverse and Longitudinal Shrinkage are determined by Measuring


Tape
Angular Shrinkage is measured on a measuring plate by means of
straight edge set agaisnt the component (as shown in below figure)

Figure: Measuring Longitudinal


& Transverse Shrinkage

Figure: Measuring Angular Distortions

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Measurement of
Distortion

Measuring Bending or Angular Distortion

Figure: Measuring Angular Distortions

Figure: Measuring Angular Distortions


or Bending

Figure: Measuring Bending

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Measurement of
Distortion

Circumferential measurements
on spherical and cylindrical
shells are performed by string
wrapped around the structure

Figure: Distortions in Circumferential

Vertically extended
components, e.g. Pillars,
supports and tank walls,
inclinations and deflections
are measured by means of
strings hanging exactly
vertically and tensioning
weight immersing in water

Figure: Distortions in vertically Extended

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Measurement of
Distortion

Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)

Figure: Anticipated displacements

Figure: LVDT set-up with Workpiece


Dimensions

Figure: Measured results (FEM vs LVDT)

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Measurement of
Distortion

Small Scale Distortions using a


Stereoscopic Video Imaging system

Figure: 3d deformation measurement using a stereoscopic video


imaging system

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Control of Distortion in
Weldments

Welding Residual stresses and Welding Distortion


behave in a contrary way
Least root gap:

As small as possible, but sufficient for good penetration

Excessive gaps should be avoided

Included angle should not exceed 60

For heavy sections, double-V preparation should be


preferred

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Control of Distortion in
Weldments

Tack Welding

Sufficiently long tack


welds transmit shrinkage
forces
Tack weld length should
be two-three times the
plate thickness
Preheating, slag removal
and further defect
removal methods are
employed to counter
undesired phenomenon
due to tack weld

Narrow Groove Section in


Welding

Least as possible to produce


least heat concentration

U shape groove is preferable


than Vee shape

Symmetrical weld groove


reduces angular shrinkage, but
residual stresses are increased

Double-sided fillet weld is


selected over single-sided fillet
weld

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Control of Distortion in
Weldments

Direction of Welding :
Away from the point of restraint and towards the point of maximum freedom

Weld Metal Deposited :


No excess metal should be deposited

Block Sequence and Cascade Sequence :

To deposit long welds of high thickness

Layer deposited until the effective throat thickness is achieved

Figure: Block
Sequence

Figure: Cascade
Sequence

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Control of Distortion in
Weldments

Welding Sequnce :

For large surface area consisting of several


plates, transverse seams should be welded
first followed by longitudinal seams

In welding I- or H- beam joints within each


web plate and flange are to welded first, Figure: Welding Sequence
followed by butt joints between web plates
for large plates
and flanges of a beam

Figure: Welding Sequence for I or H

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Control of Distortion in
Weldments
For cylindrical vessel, longitudinal seams

should be welded first, followed by the


circumferential seams

Figure: Welding Sequence for cylindrical


vessel

In welding frames of different length and thicknesses, least


distortionwould result if weld 1 & 2 are done simultaneously
followed by 3 & 4, as shown in given figure

Figure: Various Welding


Sequence for Welding
Frames

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Control of Distortion in
Weldments

Back- Step Welding Sequence :

Measure to counteract the wedge shaped-opening and


closing(rotational distortion)

Reduces transverse and longitudinal shrinkage

Used widely in fabrication of large structures, such as ships,


storage tanks

Figure: Back-Step Welding Sequence

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Control of Distortion in
Weldments

Counter or Opposing Set-up

Figure: Counter Set-up for Angular Distortion Figure: Warpage in a T-beam and
Suggested Counter setup

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Control of Distortion in
Weldments

Distortion control in Thin Plates and Sheets

Used in light gauges

Copper abstract heat from weld


reducing heating and warpage or
buckling of the plates
Water-cooled jig, Copper Clamps,

Copper tubes used

Fixing :

Figure: Water Cooled Jig for rapid


removal of heat to control distortion in
welding shheet metal

Fixing parts, to be joined by welding, in a frame or rigidly as


possible

To reduce back-spring shrinkage

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Correction of Distorted
Weldments

If a weldment warps despite the precautions taken,


there are ways and means of correcting the defect
using one of the following two methods:

Future Scope
38

Artificial Neural Networks used to measure the


distortion more precisely

Mechanised techniques with proper simulation can


give least distortion in the welded product

References
39

R. S. Parmar, Welding Engineering and Technology,


Khanna Publishers, 2010

Zhili Fen, Processes and mechanisms of welding


residual stress and distortion, 2005, Pg 209-216

airproducts.com

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