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Energy Systems

for Exercise

Presenter: Ms. Lea Green

The human body is made to


move in many ways:

Quick and powerful


Graceful & coordinated
Sustained for many hours

And is dependent upon the capacity to


produce energy

We have a great amount of


diversity

Quick movements-lasts a few seconds


Reduced speed-lasts for several minutes
Reduced intensity(50%)-lasts for several
hours

The body uses different energy systems


for each activity

Cells in the body need


energy to function
FOOD=ENERGY (E)

Cells dont get Energy directly


from food, it must be broken
down into:
ATP-Adensosine TRIphosphate
ATP = a form of energy one
can immediately use, it is
needed for cells to function &
muscles to contract

Nutrients that give us


energy:
Carbohydrat
es
Fats
Proteins

Digestio
n

Glucose
Fatty acids
Amino Acids

Absorbed into the blood & transported to cells


(muscle, liver & nerve)
They are used to produce ATP or stored

ATP is stored in small amounts,


therefore the rest is stored as:
Glucose = Glycogen (muscle & liver)
Fatty Acids = Body fat
Amino Acids = Growth, repair or
excreted as waste

Predominant Energy Pathways


ATP (2-3 seconds)
ATP-CP Energy System (8-10
seconds)
Anaerobic Energy System (2-3
minutes)
Aerobic Energy System (3 minutes +)

0 sec
min +

4 sec

10 sec

1.5 min

Strength Power:
power lift, shot put, golf
swing
Sustained Power:
sprints, fast breaks, football

Anaerobic Power
Endurance:
200-400 m dash, 100 m
swim
Aerobic
Endurance:
Beyond 800 m run
Immediate/short-term
oxidative

Aerobic-

ATP-CP Energy System


ATP is stored in the muscle & liver for Quick
Energy

Nerve impulses trigger breakdown of ATP into


ADP
ADP = Adenosine Diphosphate & 1
Phosphate
The splitting of the Phosphate bond = Energy
for work

Ex. Muscle Contraction, Moving hand from a


hot stove, Jumping & Throwing

The ATP Molecule


a. Adenosine Triphosphate
(ATP)
Adenosine
P
P
P
b. The breakdown of ATP:
Adenosine

P
P
Energy

Energy for cellular


function

ATP = ADP + energy for biological work + P


(ADP = Adenosine Diphosphate)

For contractions to continue ATP must


be REBUILT
This comes from the splitting of CP
(Creatine Phosphate a Hi energy
source, automatic)
When ATP is used it is rebuilt as long
as there is CP
Energy released from CP breaking
down, resynthesizes the ADP & P

REMEMBER only small amounts of


ATP are stored = only 2-3 sec. of
Energy
ATP-CP = 8-10 sec. of Energy
The usefulness isnt the AMOUNT of
Energy but the QUICK & POWERFUL
movements
For longer periods of work = The
Aerobic & Anaerobic Energy System
must be utilized

The Immediate Resynthesis of ATP by


CP
a. Creatine Phosphate
(CP)

Creatine
P

High energy
bond

b. CP = Creatine + energy for resynthesis of ATP


+P
Creatine
P
Energy
c. ADP + energy from CP + P = ATP (reversal of ATP = ADP + P + energy
for work)

Adenosine

P
P
P

Anaerobic Energy System

Without oxygen = Activities that


require a large burst of energy over a
short period of time
Anaerobic Glycolysis = Production of
ATP from Carbohydrates without
oxygen
(breakdown of glucose)

Since glycogen is stored in the muscle


& liver, it is available quickly
This system provides ATP when ATP-CP
runs out
Again, ATP-CP lasts for a few seconds,
the Anaerobic Energy System allows for
2-3 minutes of work

1.The process to produce ATP is not as


fast as ATP-CP, which makes muscle
contraction slower
2.When oxygen is not present the end
product of glycolisis is lactic acid,
which causes the muscles to fatigue
3.Anaerobic Glycolisis is less efficient in
producing ATP than Aerobic Glycolisis,
BUT is needed for a large burst of
energy lasting a few minutes

Without Oxygen
Glucose = 2ATP + 2LA
(digested component of carbohydrates)
Glycogen = 3ATP + 2LA
(the storage form of glucose)

With Oxygen
Glucose + O2 = 36ATP + H2O + CO2
Fatty Acids + O2 = 129ATP
Body Fat is a great source of ENERGY

Oxygen Deficit = The body can not


supply enough O2 to the muscles that
the muscles demand
When the muscle does not get enough
oxygen, exhaustion is reached causing
immediate and involuntary reduction in
intensity
Oxygen Debt = pays back the deficit
recovery time

Aerobic Energy System

With Oxygen = Using large muscle


groups continuously over a period of
time

Aerobic Glycolisis & Fatty Acid


Oxidation = The production of ATP
from Carbohydrates & Fat

1.O2 enters the system, stopping


the breakdown of glycogen to lactic
acid
2.With oxygen, glycogen breaks
down into: ATP + CO2 + H20
3.These byproducts are easier to get
rid of
CO2 is expelled by the lungs
H20 is used in the muscle

4.Anaerobic Energy System =


Carbohydrates are the only fuel
source
5.With prolonged exercise,
Carbohydrates are the first fuel
choice, as exercise continues, FAT
becomes predominant
6.Protein is not a main fuel source
except in an emergency

Each system plays an important role


in energy production
This gives us a variety of movements
The systems interact to supply
Energy for the activity

Examples
Anaerobic

70-80% Anaerobic

Aerobic

20-30% Aerobic
Wt. Training

Stop & Go Sports

Jogging

Gymnastics

Tennis

Marathons

Football
Cycling
Baseball
Dance

Soccer
Field Hockey

Aerobic

Shelton State
Wellness Center
PED 223
Methods of Instruction