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WATER ISSUES

IN PAKISTAN

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The Source of the Facts, Figures, Viewpoints,
Arguments, etc., contained in this Presentation
is:

KALABAGH DAM AND SINDH


BY
Engr. Muhammad Idris Rajput
Former Secretary to Government of Sindh
Irrigation & Power Department
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(A)

INDUS BASIN TREATY


(1960)

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
o British appointed a Partition Committee
and an Arbitral Tribunal (life up to 31-031948) to resolve all issues arising out of
territorial division of Indus Basin waters
o On 01-04-1948 India cut off supplies in
every canal crossing into Pakistan

supplies restored on
04-05-1948 after
signing a joint statement
o But the dispute remained alive until signing
of Indus Basin Waters Treaty on 19-09-1960
between India and Pakistan through the 4

SALIENT PROVISIONS - I
o Supplies of three eastern rivers
Sutlej, Ravi & Beas unrestricted use
of India
o Supplies of three western rivers
Chenab, Jhelum & Indus unrestricted
use of Pakistan
o Transition period 10+3 years India
will release for Pakistan specified
quantity of waters of eastern rivers
no claim of Pakistan afterwards

SALIENT PROVISIONS - II
o Pakistan to construct Replacement
Works from Western Rivers & India to
pay 62 M to Pakistan
o Exchange of data between India-Pak
w.r.t. flow and utilization of Indus basin
waters
o Permanent Indus Commission
Commissioners (2) for settling matters
arising out of treaty
o Settlement of disputes by the

INDUS BASIN FUND


AGREEMENT
o The Fund Provided for Replacement
Works (to compensate loss to
Pakistan for foregoing eastern rivers
24 MAF pre-partition):
o

Two storage dams Mangla (on Jhelum)


and Tarbela (on Indus) live storage
capacity > 14 MAF

Eight feeder canals linking western rivers


with eastern rivers including ChasmaJhelum link canal (Indus to Jhelum),
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Taunsa-Punjnad (Indus to Chenab)

INDUS BASIN FUND


AGREEMENT
o

CRITICAL: No member of Sindh province


was taken for concluding a treaty on
Indus waters

(B)
WATER
APPORTIONMENT
ACCORD (WAA), 1991
9

BACKGROUND

o
o

Initially no control structures on rivers


(inundation canals) withdrawals un-assured &
erratic
First head-works on Ravi (1859) many more in
Punjab (1882-1901)
According to Indian Irrigation Commission
(1901-03) any diversion of Indus water possible
only with consent of Sindh policy re-affirmed
in Govt. of India Act, 1919
In 1935 Sukkur Barrage and Sutlej Valley
Projects completed difficulties arose in
sharing of water supplies between states of
Bikaner, Bahawalpur and the Punjab - Anderson
Committee gave unanimous report in 1937
10
After independence of Pakistan several

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE ACCORD


o A unanimous WAA was singed by four provinces on
16-03-1991.
o Following apportionment was agreed:
o Punjab
55.90 MAF (56)
o Sindh
48.80 MAF (49)
o NWFP
8.80 MAF (9)
o Balochistan
3.87 MAF (4) = 117.4 MAF
(118)
o Balance river supplies / shortages shall be
distributed as:

o Punjab & Sindh 37% each, NWFP 14% & Balochistan


12% (100%)

o Need for feasible storages was admitted /


recognized (Kalabagh and other dams option is
possible under the accord)

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(C)
KALABAGH DAM PROJECT
(KBD)
NOTE:
The argument, in the presentation, largely supports
version of smaller provinces, particularly Sindh.
However, version of WAPDA / Punjab has also been
discussed. The candidates may take any stance, as per
their desire, but that should be properly substantiated.
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OBJECTIVES
o The OBJECTIVES of the Project
as per WAPDA Version:
o Generate low cost hydroelectric power
near major load centers;
o Compensate for storage lost due to
silting up of existing reservoirs;
o Regulate and control the extreme flood
peaks;
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FEATURES OF KBD PROJECT


o 260 feet high rock-fill dam;
o Usable storage 6.1 MAF;
o Two spillways on the right bank for
disposal of 2 million cusecs
discharge;
o Power house on left bank ultimate
generation capacity of 3,600 MW;
o Estimated cost US$ 5 billion (198687) now around $ 15-17 billion

14

PROJECT BENEFITS
o Project Benefits as per WAPDA Version
are:

o Rs. 60 billion / year from irrigation supplies,


power generation, flood alleviation;

o Industrial / food production, employment, agri.


boost;

o Irrigation water supplies (6.1 MAF) annually


Rs. 12.5 B

o Power generation 11,400 M KWH / year Rs.


46.0 B
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APPREHENSIONS OF
NWFP

o The drainage of surrounding areas


of Mardan and Sawabi will be
affected water-logging and
salinity;

o Operation of Mardan SCARP* would


be badly affected;

o Fertile and cultivable land will be


submerged

*SCARP = Salinity Control And Reclamation

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RESERVATIONS OF SINDH - I
o River flows are variable & declining

past record shows that surplus water not


available every year (for storage in KBD)
o EVIDENCE?
oUNEP1 constituted IPCC2 to assess risks of
human induced climate change. Its 1995
report envisages:
o increase in rainfall in some region while
decrease in others;
o supplies in Indus will reduce by 43%;

oOut of 28 years (1976 to 2004) surplus water

(needed KBD storage capacity) was available


only for 6 years [WAPDA Record]

1 UN Environment Programme
2 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

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RESERVATIONS OF SINDH - II
o Thus, if the dam is constructed it can
only be filled every 4 / 5 years.

o For remaining years?


o either it is left dry (imprudent

investment!) or
o effort will be made to fill it every year to
recover the investment of US$ 15-17 B

o RESULT?
o Irrigation water supplies to Sindh will be
reduced;

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RESERVATIONS OF SINDH III

o Canals are proposed to off-take from KBD which


will draw excessive water affecting supplies to
Sindh:
o WAPDA (1984 Project Report) intends to irrigate 1.15
M-Acres land with 8 MAF water it will definitely affect
supplies of Sindh;

o In 28 years (1976-04) actual annual canal head


allocations short of WAA figures by 12.74 MAF p.a.
(104.61 MAF available instead of 117.35 MAF) . The storage of
6.1 MAF could not even meet shortage what to talk
of additional supply to provinces!

o In Short, No Water Available to Fill KBD


therefore, the Project should be scrapped

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RESERVATIONS OF SINDH IV

o Storing 6.1 MAF will reduce flows

coming downstream Kotri Barrage


affecting:
o sailaba cultivation (500,000 acres);
o 300,000 acres of mangrove forest in
Indus delta;

o Sea intrusion increase further (1.2


million acres of land already affected);

o Livelihood of people of the delta

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POSSIBILITY OF
RAPPROCHEMENT

o There is usually a talk of finding a


o
o
o
o

solution through rapprochement or


developing consensus!
Rapprochement is possible only over
benefit sharing
Indus waters are Sindhs lifeline
When Sindhs life is at stake
rapprochement has no meaning
They want to kill a person and want a
rapprochement before killing!
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WAY FORWARD - I
o The objectives are irrigation and power
generation.

o Objective could be achieved by utilizing


alternate means. These are:

o Agriculture and Irrigation Options:


o New Supply Options:
o Development of Storages on smaller
tributaries of rivers e.g. at Kalam, Naran, etc.
and Outside existing Irrigation system e.g. at
Karonjhar (Sindh), Channiot (Punjab);
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WAY FORWARD - II
o

Efficient Utilization of Water:


o

30% (17 MAF) of water lost in fields - avoided


through:
o laser levelers &
o adopting modern irrigation methods (bed &
furrow);

Dissemination of information to farmers


regarding actual crop water requirements of
various crops;

Micro irrigation methods sprinklers be


adopted (expensive but local manufacturers
could be motivated PPP)

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WAY FORWARD - III


o

Energy & Electricity Options


o

New power generation options not limited to


hydropower.

Coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, biomass, wind,


solar, etc. could be explored.

Over 100 B tones of superior quality coal is


available in Thar (Sindh) could be utilized to
generate 600 MW of energy;

Natural gas abundantly available: Gas fired


combined cycle systems have comparatively low
system costs;

Wind power potential along Sindh and


Balochistan coast could be tapped;

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CONCLUSION
o
o
o

MISTRUST between key parties - the most


critical factor in dam controversy.
Dam promoters too often agree to new
policies and guidelines but fail to comply
with them.
Because of change in rainfall patters
Tarbela Dam is not being filled to its
capacity in last few years. Where from
water for new dam will come?
Provincial Assemblies of Sindh (1994,
2003), NWFP (1988, 1991, 1993) and
Baochistan (1994) passed resolutions
against KBD due to ill effects on them.
Therefore, the project, being unfeasible 25

(D)
BAGHLIAR DAM
(CONFLICT WITH INDIA)

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BACKGROUND
o In order to fill Baghliar Dam (on
Chenab River), India withheld 0.2
MAF water affecting supplies to
Marala Barrage
o Stored water from Mangla dam was
released to meet the demand of
fields in the Punjab
o Dams accrue benefits to upper
riparian areas while badly affect the
lower riparian areas therefore, the

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ISSUE OF THE DAM


o As per 1960 Treaty western rivers, including
Chenab, allocated to Pakistan - yet India
retains right to use their waters for drinking
and / or power generation purposes
o But India must inform Pakistan 6 months in
advance about such power generation project &
provide its design to Pakistan

o In 1992, India informed Pakistan about


construction of Baghliar Dam for power
generation
o Pakistan had four objections:
o Three objections were related to the level of water
reservoir: dead storage level and storage capacity
of the dam
o Fourth was to remove gates / control structures 28

CONFLICT RESOLUTION
o

Matter referred to Indus Water


Commissioners of two countries to decide.
But they could not achieve consensus on
the dispute;

Dispute referred to Neutral Expert /


Arbitrator Prof. Reymond Lifty
(Switzerland) Arbitrator accepted first 3
Pakistans objections but allowed India to
erect control structures / gates on spillway
canal.

The decision of Arbitrator was on merits.


But in practice, giving India the leverage to
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control supplies of the waters of Chenab

FILLING OF BAGHLIAR DAM I


o

As per the Treaty, India could only fill the


dam with the consent of the two Water
Commissioners at an appropriate time

In case of disagreement, the dam could


only be filled b/w June 21 to August 31 so
that at no point availability of water at
Marala Barrage (Pakistan) should not fall
below 55,000 cusecs

Baghliar Dam was completed by mid Aug.


2008. Water filled after Aug. 15, when
water supplies had also declined. India
continued to store water up to Sept. 2008 water supply at Marala declined.
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FILLING OF BAGHLIAR DAM - II


o

Pakistan claimed: 0.2 MAF of Chenab water


was withheld by India in contravention of
the Treaty.

Since the dam was completed late so India


should not have filled it in the first year.

But as discussed in KBD project, the


investor would never want to lose
opportunity of filling its dam to reap
monetary returns. India being on the higher
riparian could do any thing and it did to the
detriment of Pakistan.
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COMPENSATION - I
o Claim of compensation very
complicated. Pakistan will have to
establish that:

o the water actually declined at Marala


o
o
o

barrage;
this shortage was caused due to filling of
Baghliar dam;
the losses accrued due to this shortage;
this much (claimed) loss has been
sustained by Pakistan

o Pakistan might have to spend more to


establish above facts, to get little
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COMPENSATION - II
o

But, issue is not money but Pakistans


right over withheld water, in contravention
of the Treaty

Settlement of the issue crucial for


Pakistan. Why?
o

India intends to construct more power


generation stations upstream

The Ministers of Water and Power met but


the issue could not be resolved
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CONCLUSION
o

LESSONS: whenever a storage dam is


constructed:
o
o

Its control lies with those who own it or where it


is located.
Objections of other stakeholders do not
effectively restrain the party under control not to
violate the norms / principles agreed upon.

Therefore, big dams always have similar


difficulties. When these are constructed the
upper riparian areas always promise /
assure to safeguard the interests of lower
riparian areas.
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PAST YEAR QUESTIONS - I


o Pakistan Affairs
o Using as much evidence as possible,
outline a case for the development of
water resources in the Indus Basin.
[2005(8)]
o What do you know about the Water Crisis
in Pakistan? Also suggest concrete steps
for its solution [2004(6)]
o Write detailed notes on any TWO of the
following:
Kalabagh Dam [2001(8)]
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o Write explanatory notes on any TWO of

PAST YEAR QUESTIONS - II


o Current Affairs
o Write explanatory notes on any TWO of
the following:
Kalabagh Dam [2001(8)], [2006(8)]

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