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or Demecology

Population Ecology

Contents:
1. Concept of the Population
2. Characteristics of Population
3. Static Characteristics of Population
4. The Dynamics of Population
5. The Population Growth

Concept of the
Population

A population is a
summation of all the
organisms of the same
group or species,
which live in a
particular geographical
area, and have the
capability of
interbreeding.

As of July 2015, it was estimated at 7.3 billion.


The United Nations estimates it will increase to
11.2 billion in the year 2100.
Any population possesses the following
features:
1. It exists over the time of many generation;
2. It possesses a certain degree of panmixia:
species interbreed freely;
3. It is isolated to some extent;

Population have certain environmental


which are not seen in of its members,
characteristics,
namely:

1. A distinct niche occupied by the population;


2. Abundance and biomass of the population;
3. Dynamic characteristics of the population
fertility, growth rate, mortality, and survival;

Ecology is to
describe the
composition of
populations
through time and
understand
population
fluctuations

Static characteristics
of the population

Population can be characterized and


analyzed by mainly three different
factors:
A. Population density
B. Natality
C. Mortality

What is the population density?


Population density - is a measurement of

population per unit area or unit volume; it is


a quantity of type number density. It is
frequently applied to living organisms, and
particularly to humans. It is a key
geographic term.

Population density (people per km2) map


of the world in 1994 (detailed)

Population density (people per km2) by


country, 2015

The Dynamics
of Population

that studies the size and


age composition of
populations as dynamic
systems, and the
biological and
environmental processes
driving them (such as
birth and death rates, and
by immigration and
emigration). Example
scenarios are ageing
populations, population
growth, or population
decline.

The dynamics of the population size is seen at interaction of


four major population-dynamic processes:
Fertility

Mortality

Emigration

Immigration

Fertility is the
natural
capability to
produce
offspring.

Fertility

As a measure, fertility rate is the number of offspring born

per mating pair, individual or population. Human fertility


depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior,
consanguinity, culture, instinct, endocrinology, timing,
economics, way of life, and emotions.
Maximum birthrate is a theoretically maximum number of
species produced under ideal conditions in the absence of limiting
factors, and reproduction is limited to physiological factors.
Ecological, or realized birthrate is a theoretically maximum

number of species produced under ideal conditions in the absence of


limiting factors, and reproduction is limited to physiological factors.

Mortality

Mortality
means the
death of
individuals per
time unit in
the absence of
limiting
factors.

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a

specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of
time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year.

Migration
is physical movement by animals, birds, fishes, insects and

humans from one area to another area.

Migration is nearly universal within the animal kingdom; in

fact, even sponge and jellyfish larvae make use of that


defining animal trait, mobility, to adapt to imperfect
habitats. Animals across the globe fly, swim, walk or drift in
their effort to find food, a more hospitable climate or places
to breed.

Immigration

Immigration is
the movement
of people into a
destination
country to
which they are
not native or do
not possess its
citizenship in
order to settle

Emigration

Emigration is
the act of
leaving one's
resident
country with
the intent to
settle
elsewhere.

Two types of population


growth
Exponential growth
A population increases quickly over
a short period of time

Logistic growth
A population begins with slow
growth followed by rapid growth
before leveling off or slower growth

Exponential growth

Example for
exponential
growth

We know that an exponential function is any pattern of numbers

that is continuously multiplied by something - for example 3, 6


(3x2), 12 (3x4), 24 (3x8).

This is an exponential function because I start with a number 3

and continuously multiply by 2. We can represent this with an


equation by saying that y=3x2^x, because the pattern starts at 3
and then is multiplied by 2 each step of the way.

If you substitute in x values starting at 0 and remembering that 0

exponents equal 1, you'll find that we get this exact same pattern.

This example is what is called exponential growthbecause the

numbers are growing exponentially, but there is another type of


exponential function whose entries get smaller instead of getting
bigger,exponential decay.

The measurement of how the size of a


population changes over time is called
thepopulation growth rate, and it
depends upon the population size, birth
rate and death rate.
As long as there are enough resources
available, there will be an increase in the
number of individuals in a population over
time, or apositive growth rate.
However, most populations cannot
continue to grow forever because they will
eventually run out of water, food, sunlight,
space or other resources.
As these resources begin to run out,
population growth will start to slow down.
When the growth rate of a population
decreases as the number of individuals

Logistic
population
growth

Graphing Logistic
Population Growth
If we look at a graph of a population
undergoing logistic population
growth, it will have a characteristic Sshaped curve. The population grows
in size slowly when there are only a
few individuals. Then the population
grows faster when there are more
individuals. Finally, having lots of
individuals in the population causes
growth to slow because resources are
limited. In logistic growth, a
population will continue to grow until
it reachescarrying capacity, which
is the maximum number of
individuals the environment can
support.

Equation for
Logistic
Population Growth

growth as a mathematical
equation.
Population growth rate is
measured in number of
individuals in a population (N)
over time (t).
The term for population
growth rate is written as
(dN/dt).
The d just means change. K
represents the carrying
capacity, and r is the
maximum per capita growth
rate for a population.

Per capitameans per individual, and theper


capita growth rateinvolves the number of
births and deaths in a population.
The logistic growth equation assumes that K
and r do not change over time in a population.