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Fired And Unfired Pressure


A pressure vessel is a vessel

in which pressure is
obtained from an external
source, or by the application
of heat from an indirect or
direct source.
Vessels may gases, vapors,
and liquids at various
pressures and temperatures.

Fired And Unfired Pressure


External heat



No external heat

Pressure Calculations

Stress versus
Hoop Stress

Design And Construction Of

Pressure Vessels

American Society of
Mechanical Engineers
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
rules for the design, fabrication, and
inspection of boilers and pressure vessels

National Board of Boiler and

Pressure Vessel Inspectors

of chief boiler and pressure

vessel inspectors representing states,
cities, and provinces enforcing pressure
equipment laws and regulations


Board Inspection Code (NBIC)

is a consensus document
Sets standards for the installation,
inspection, and repair and/or alteration
of boilers, pressure vessels, and
pressure relief devices

Electric Boilers
A power

heating boiler,
high or low
water boiler in
which the source
of heat is

High Temperature Water Boiler

A water

intended for
operations at
pressures in
excess of 160 psig
or temperatures in
excess of 250
degrees F.

Hot Water Heating Boiler

A boiler in which no steam is

generated, from which hot water
is circulated for heating
purposes and then returned to
the boiler, and which operates at
a pressure not exceeding 160
psig or a temperature of 250
degrees F at the boiler outlet.

Process Steam Generator

A vessel or system of
vessels comprised of
one or more drums
and one or more heat
exchange surfaces
as used in waste
heat or heat recovery
type steam boilers.

Unfired Steam Boiler

A vessel or system
of vessels intended
for operation at a
pressure in excess
of 15 psig for the
purpose of
producing and
controlling an output
of thermal energy.

Water Heater Supply Boiler

A closed

vessel in which water is heated

by combustion of fuels, electricity or any
other source and withdrawn for use
external to the system at pressure not
exceeding 160 psig and should include
all controls and devices necessary to
prevent water temperatures from
exceeding 210 degrees F.

External Inspection

complete an examination as can be

reasonably made of the external
surfaces and safety devices while the
boiler or pressure vessel is in operation.

Internal Inspection

As complete an examination as can be reasonably made of the

internal and external surfaces of a boiler or pressure vessel
while it is shut down and while manhole plates, handhole plates
or other inspection opening closures are removed as required
by the inspector.

Safety Appliances

Include, but not be limited to:

Rupture disk device
Safety relief valve
Temperature limit control
Pressure limit control
Major gas train controls
Low water cutoffs
Flame supervisory unit (igniter)
High and low gas pressure switches
Trial for ignition limiting timer (15 seconds)

Safety Appliances

Relief Valve

An automatic pressurerelieving device

actuated by a static
pressure upstream of
the valve which opens
further with the increase
in pressure over the
opening pressure.
It is used primarily for
liquid service.

Rupture Disk Device

A nonreclosing pressure-relief device

actuated by inlet static pressure and
designed to function by the bursting of a
pressure-containing disk.

Safety Relief Valve

An automatic, pressure-actuated relieving

device suitable for use as a safety or relief
valve, depending on application.

Temperature/pressure Relief Valve

A valve set to relieve at a designated

temperature and pressure.

Common Failures Of Pressure Vessels

Error in design and construction

Improper operation
Failure to inspect properly
Lack of preventative maintenance

Boilers In Use

Majority are automatic or semi-automatic

Operate unattended for long periods of time

Controlling Boiler Fires

Fully enclosed boiler room

Fire rated doors and walls
No combustible materials

Fire Protection

Provide clearance around

Loss control strategies
Boiler explosions and fires
Testing program
Safety relief devices
Repair program
maintenance program

Keep a boiler log

Boiler Maintenance

Most of the boiler failures are due to

inadequate maintenance

Low Water Test

Should be tested with

the boiler operating, the
burner should shut off, if
it does not it should be
Tests should be made
daily on pressures>15
PSI and weekly for

Hydrostatic Test Applied to Existing Vessels

To determine tightness, the hydrostatic test

pressure need be no greater than the set
pressure of the safety valve having the lowest
For safety tests, the pressure should be equal
to 2 times the maximum allowable working
pressure, less corrosion factor, as applicable.
All major repairs and alterations should
require a safety test.

Blowoff Equipment

All materials used in the

fabrication of object blowoff
equipment should comply
with code.
All blowoff equipment should
be equipped with openings
to facilitate cleaning and
Open valves on each lowwater fuel cutoff valve, low
water alarm, tests the
switches and clears out
debris and obstructions.

Alterations, Retrofits and Repairs to Objects

Alterations, retrofits, and repairs should be

made so that the object should be at least as
safe as the original construction.
Alterations, retrofits, and repairs should be
done as though new construction and should
comply with the applicable code or codes.


Repairs or alterations by
welding should be approved
beforehand by an authorized
All welding repairs or
alterations must be in
accordance with the repairs
and alterations to boilers and
pressure vessels by welding,
of the NB code.
All welding should be done
by an organization holding a
national board R stamp.


All objects should be so located that

adequate space is provided for the proper
operation, inspection, and necessary
maintenance and repair of the boiler and its

Exit From Rooms Containing Objects

Rooms exceeding 500 square feet of floor

area and containing one or more boilers
having a fuel-burning capacity of 1 million
Btus should have two means of exit remotely
located from each other on each level.

Air and Ventilation

A permanent source of outside air should be

provided for each room to permit satisfactory
combustion of fuel and ventilation if
necessary under normal operations.
The minimum ventilation for coal, gas, or oil
burners in rooms containing objects is based
on the Btus per hour, required air, and
louvered area.