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PRESENTATION ON

AUTO CONTROL
LOOP SYSTEM

PREPARED BYRajeev Singh


Shekhawat
C & I Department

INDEX

INTRODUCTIONOFCONTROLSYSTEM
AUTOCONTROLLOOPSYSTEM
TYPEOFCONTROLACTION
PIDCONTROLLER
PIDTUNING
AIRFLOWCONTROL
LIMITATIONOFPIDCONTROLLER
FEEDFORWARDCONTROL
FURNACEPRESSURECONTROL
CASCADECONTROL
DRUMLEVELCONTROL

cont...

CONTROLSYSTEM
AControl SystemisasetofElectronicdevicesthat
regulatesthebehaviourofothersystems.
Controlsystemareusedinindustrialproductionfor
controllingequipmentormachines.
ControlSystemisdependsuponmeasuring
instrumentationinpowerplant,whicharebasedon:Temperaturesensingelement(SHTEMPCONTROL)
PressureTransmitter(FURNACEDRAFTCONTROL)
LevelTransmitter(DRUMLEVELCONTROL)
FlowTransmitter(AIRFLOWCONTROL)

cont...

TherearetwotypesofcontrolsystemOPEN LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM :

Inopenloopcontrolsystem,controlleroutputis
generatedbasedoninputswithoutmonitoring
feedback.

CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM:


Inclosedloopcontrolsystem,controlleroutputis
takenintoconsiderationandcorrectionsaremade
basedonfeedback.Aclosedloopsystemisalso
calledafeedbackcontrolsystem.

cont...

BLOCKDIAGRAMOFCONTROLSYSTEM

cont...

AUTO CONTROL LOOP SYSTEM


Whentalkingaboutautomaticcontroltheory
certainstandardtermsareused.
BASICAUTOMATICCONTROLTERMS:PROCESS VALUE
DESIRED VALUE(SET POINT)

MEASURED VALUE(FEEDBACK VALUE)


DEVIATION (ERROR)
ERROR=SETPOINT(SP)-PROCESSVALUE(PV)
CONTROLLER

cont...

SET
POINT
(SP)

ERROR

CONTROLLE
R OUTPUT

PROCESS VALUE
(PV)

cont...

TYPES OF CONTROL ACTION


PROPORTIONAL ACTION :

TheProportionalcontrolleroutputisdirectly
proportionaltothechangeintheerror.Ifthereisnoprocesschange,
thereisnochangeinoutputfromthecontroller.
Controlleroutput=Gainvalue(P)setfromDCSXError(e)
INTEGRAL ACTION (RESET):
Integralcontrollerisprovidedtoeliminatethe
offsetthatresultantfromtheproportionalcontroller.Integralactionisa
functionofbothtimeandmagnitudeofdeviation.Resetactioncontinues
aslongasthereisadifferencebetweenthesetpointandprocessvalue.
DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE):

TheDerivativeactionisdirectlyrelatedtohow
fasttheprocesschanges.Derivativeactionistheadvancedactionof
theproportionalcontroller.Derivativeactsatthestartoftheprocess
change,whentheprocesschangeitsrate.
Weusedtheseabovecontrolactionsasperprocessrequirement.The
combinationofallcontrolactionsiscalledaPIDController.
cont...

PID CONTROLLER

AProportionalIntegralDerivativecontroller(PIDcontroller)isa
controlloopfeedbackmechanismcommonlyusedinindustrial
controlsystems.APIDcontrollercontinuouslycalculatesanerror
valuee(t) asthedifferencebetweenadesiredsetpointanda
measuredprocessvariable.
ERROR=SETPOINT-PROCESSVALUE
cont... 9

FUNCTION OF PID CONTROLLER


Toreduceerrorsbyautomaticallyadjustingthesystemsinput.
Toimprovestabilityofanunstablesystem.
Toincreaseorreducethesystemssensitivity.
Toenhancerobustnessagainstexternaldisturbancestothe
process.
Toproduceareliableperformance.

cont...

10

WHAT IS PID TUNING?


Tuningisadjustmentofcontrolparametersto
theoptimumvaluesforthedesiredcontrol
response.Stabilityisabasicrequirement.
However,differentsystemshavedifferent
behavior,differentapplicationshavedifferent
requirements,andrequirementsmayconflict
withoneanother.

cont...

11

MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION OF PID CONTROLLER

Where,
Kp -Proportionalgain,Ki -Integralgain
Kd -Derivativegain,r(t) -Setpoint
e(t) -Error,u(t) -Controloutput
y(t) -Measuredvalue

cont...

12

AsaPIDcontrollerreliesonlyonthemeasured
processvariable,notonknowledgeoftheunderlying
process.Bytuningthethreeparametersofthe
model,aPIDcontrollercandealwithspecificprocess
requirements.

Finalcontrolleroutputiscalculatedas-

cont...

13

PID TUNING FOR PROCESS

SET POINT

Amplitud
e

PROCESS VALUE

Time
cont...

14

BOILER AUTO LOOP CONTROL


FURNACEPRESSURECONTROL
PAHEADERPRESSURECONTROL
DRUMLEVELCONTROL
AIRFLOWCONTROL
FUELFLOWCONTROL
BFPSCOOPCONTROL
SHTEMPRATURECONTROL
RHTEMPRATURECONTROL
LDOFLOWCONTROL
LDOPRESSURECONTROL
HFOFLOWCONTROL
HFOPRESSURECONTROL
HFOTEMPRATURECONTROL
BURNERTILTCONTROL
ATOMISINGSTEAMPRESSURECONTROL
MILLAIRFLOWCONTROL
MILLTEMPRATURECONTROL
CBDLEVELCONTROL

cont...

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TURBINE AUTO LOOP CONTROL


CO-ORDINATEDMASTERCONTROL(CMC)
DEAREATORLEVELCONTROL
DEAREATORPRESSURECONTROL
HOTWELLLEVELCONTROL
HPH-5LEVELCONTROL
HPH-6LEVELCONTROL
LPH-2LEVELCONTROL
LPH-3LEVELCONTROL
CEPMINIMUMRECIRULATIONCONTROL
GLANDSEALINGPRESSURECONTROL

cont...

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AIRFLOWCONTROL
PURPOSE:

Thepurposeofthisloopistomaintaintheairflow
requiredforcombustionatthedesiredvaluebyregulatingthe
bladepitchcontrolofFDfansA&B.
EXECUTION:
Thesecondaryairflowismeasuredatleft(2
nos. of flow transmitter) and right (2 nos. of flow transmitter)
side of the secondary air ducts to wind box by means of
aerofoils.Eachflowwillhavetemperaturecompensation.The
flow is calculated by means of square root of differential
pressureacrosstheaerofoil.

cont...

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AIR FLOW TRANSMITTERS

FLOW
TRANMITTERS

HPSIDE
LPSIDE
ISOLATINS
VALVE

EQUALISING
VALVE
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER

LEFT SIDE
RIGHT SIDE

cont...

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DATA SHEET OF SECONDARY AIR FLOW ELEMENT

cont...

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PRIMARY AIR FLOW


ThePrimaryAirflowforeachmillinserviceismeasuredby
venturiflowelementacrossthePAmixedairduct.
Summationofalltheprimaryairflowofindividualmillisthe
totalprimaryairflowtotheboiler.Wehaveinstalled2nos.
ofprimaryairflowtransmitterwiththerangeof0-110
mmwc,whichisconvertedinto0-90TPHatDCS-end.
Thetotalairflowrequiredforthe
combustioninboileristhesummationoftotalsecondary
airflowandtotalprimaryairflow.
Total Air Flow = Secondary Air Flow + Primary Air Flow

cont...

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DATA SHEET OF PRIMARY AIR FLOW ELEMENT

cont...

21

cont...

22

The air flow demand from coordinated control and actual fuel
flow whichever is high (lead lag system) is selected to ensure
enrichedcombustionair.Theoxygeninthefluegasattheinlet
ofAPHismeasuredasprimaryorredundant.
Transfer switch can be selected for either average
value or individual value. This signal is compared with excess
air set point and any error will have proportional and integral
actiontohavebettercombustionefficiency.
Underanycircumstancetheairflowshouldnotbeless
than30%MCRflow.Thissignalisthedevelopedsetpointand
the air flow signal will have proportional and integral action in
theairflowcontroller.

cont...

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LIMITATIONSOFPIDCONTROL
While PID controllers are applicable to many control
problems, and often perform satisfactorily without any
improvements. The fundamental difficulty with PID
control is that it is a feedback control system, with
constant parameters, and no direct knowledge of the
process,andthusoverallperformanceisreactiveanda
compromise.
Now PID controller introduced itself in the two
categories:Feed-forward control
Cascade control
cont...

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FEED-FORWARD CONTROL
The control system performance can be improved by
combining the feedback control of a PID controller with
feed-forwardcontrol.Knowledgeaboutthesystemcanbe
fedforwardandcombinedwiththePIDoutputtoimprove
the overall system performance. Feed forward can be
based on the set point and on extra measured
disturbances.
WecanunderstandFeed-forwardControl
systemthroughexampleofFurnaceDraftcontrol.

cont...

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FURNACEDRAFTCONTROL

PURPOSE:

The main objective of this control is to


maintain the furnace pressure constant at the desired
setvalueatallloads.Thisisachievedbychangingthe
flowoffluegasbymodulatingtheinletguidevaneand
varyingthespeedoftheIDfanbyVFDsystem.

cont...

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EXECUTION:
Furnace pressure is measured by three
transmitters.Onesignalisselectedbymidvalueautoselection
circuitforcontrol.Furnacepressureiscomparedwithsetpoint
and actual value. Generated deviation will have proportional
andintegralaction.
Fueldemandsignalisaddedasafeedforward
feature.Feed-Forwardfeatureisprovidedtominimisenegative
furnacepressure.
TheIDfaninletdamperpositionsbetweena
maximum and a minimum position limit for optimised control
action. If ID fan position goes outside these limits, an error
signal goes to a controller, whose output is used to vary fan
speedtobringbacktheinletdamperwithinthesetlimits.

cont...

27

AIR FLOW

FUEL FLOW

cont...

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cont...

29


CASCADE CONTROL

OneadditionaladvantageofPIDcontrollersisthat
twoPIDcontrollerscanbeusedtogetherforbetter
dynamic performance. This is called cascaded
PIDcontrol.IncascadecontroltherearetwoPIDs
arranged with one PID controlling the set point of
another.
NowwediscusstheCascadecontrolloop
withthehelpofDrumLevelcontrol.

cont...

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DRUMLEVELCONTROL
PURPOSE:
Boilerdrumleveliskeptconstantunderallloadconditions.Forloads
morethan30%controlsystemactsonthreeelementscontrolwhichutilizing
steam flow,feed water flow anddrum level.Underlowloadconditions,drum
level ismaintainedbysingleelement.

Execution:
Atlowerloads(lessthan30%BMCR),thestartupfeedcontrol
valve(FD-20) will be used asfinal control elementand at higherloads,fullload
control valve (FD-14/17) will be used. If the full load control valve is taken for
maintenance,standbyfeedcontrolvalvewillbeused.
SINGLE ELEMENT CONTROL
DRUMLEVEL

THREE ELEMENT CONTROL


1.DRUMLEVEL
2.STEAMFLOW
3.FEEDWATERFLOW

cont...

31

SINGLE ELEMENT CONTROL

TheDrumlevelmeasuredsignaliscomparedwiththe

drumlevelsetpoint.TheerrorsignalwillhaveaPI
Controller.
ThePIcontrolleroutputwillbetheposition
demandsignalforthe30%controlvalvetomaintainthe
normaldrumlevel.Auto/manualselectionblockisprovided
foroperation.

cont...

32

cont...

33

THREE ELEMENT CONTROL


At higher loads the start up control valve shall be closed. The
steam flow shall be measured. In order to prevent sudden
responseduetodrumswellandshrinkonloadchange,atimelag
unitshallbeincludedinthesteamflowsignal.Thecompensated
feedwaterflowsignaliscomputedbysubtractingfeedwaterflow
ateconomiserinlettoRe-heaterspraywaterflow.
Theerrorsignalproducedbetweendrum
level measured signal and drum level set point shall have
proportional, integral and differential action in the three element
drumlevelcontroller.
cont...

34

Thiswillbeaddedwithsteamflowsignalwhichisthefeed
waterflowdemandsignal(setpointforfeedwaterflow).This
willbecomparedwiththefeedwaterflowinthefeedwater
controller.Deviationifanywillhaveaproportionalandintegral
actioninthefeedwatercontroller.
Thiscontrolleroutputwillbetheposition
demandsignalforthefullloadfeedcontrolvalve.
Auto/manualselectionisprovidedforoperation.

cont...

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cont...

36

cont...

37

PUT CONTROL LOOP IN AUTO


Deskengineersmustfollowthefollowing
parameters1. Deviationbetweensetpointandprocessvalueis
minimumaspossible.
2. Puttheloopinautoundersteadystatecondition.

cont...

38

CHANGEOVER OF LOOP FROM AUTO TO MANUAL MODE:


The auto loop shall be trip to manual under the following conditions1. in case of two nos. of transmitter fail the auto loop trip to manual.
2. If both transmitter is healthy but deviation is high (10%).
3. If median is selected two transmitters fail.
4. Operator shall be able to put loop again in auto with 3 rd transmitter
selection through OWS.
5. In case of three transmitter median is selected and one of the tranmitter
fails the average of other two healthy transmitters is given as output to the
PID controller.
6. If all the three transmitters fail.
7. Failure of transmitter are alarmed in each of the above cases on OWS.
8. The supervision of final control element shall be provided, in case there is
deviation between demand and control element it is alarmed on OWS after
the time delay(10 sec).
9. All auto loops, Auto to Manual changeover alarm has provided on LVS.

cont...

39

TROUBLESHOOTING AND
MAINTENANCE
Nowweunderstood,themainparametersofAuto
ControlSystemMeasure
Compare
Compute
Correct
Thesefourfunctionsarecompletedbytheseelements:
Controller,Finalcontrolelementi.e.Controlvalveand
positionfeedbackTransmitters.
InautocontrolsystemmeasuringelementandFinal
controlelementplayakeyroletocontrollingthe
processwithinlimit.
cont...

40

MEASUREMENT DEVICES
S.NO.

PROCESS TYPE SENSOR

1.

TEMPERATURE

THERMO COUPLE(T/C) & RTDs

2.

PRESSURE

PRESSURE /DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE


(DP)

3.

FLOW

FLOW TRAMSMITTERS

4.

LEVEL

LEVEL TRAMSMITTERS

Finalcontrolelementi.e.controlvalve,bladepitch
control,IGVs,Hotairdampers,ColdAirdampersetc
mustberegulateinpropermanner.

cont...

41

FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT

FROM DCS

4-20MA
0.2 1 KG/CM2

4 5 KG/CM2

POSITION
POSITION
FEEDBACK
FEEDBACK
TRANSMITTER
TRANSMITTER

4-20MA
TO DCS

cont...

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FEED STATION CONTROL VALVE


I/P- A current to
pressure transducer
(I/P) converts an analog
signal i.e. 4-20 ma into
pneumatic output i.e. 315 psi (0.2-1 kg/cm2)
OPERATING
PRESSURE
REGULATOR
POSITIONER

I/P
CONVERT
ER

ALR-To lock existing air in


case of supply failure.
AIR LOCK RELAY
VOLUME
BOOSTER

SUPPLY PRESSURE
REGULATOR
HAND WHEEL

LIMIT SWITCH
BOX

POSITION
FEEDBACK
TRANSMITTER

PFT- convert control valve


movement in electrical
signal i.e. 4-20 ma.

cont...

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CALIBRATION OF CONTROL VALVE

cont...

44

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

TEMPERATURE BATHTo calibrate thermocouple temperature


element

cont...

45

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
MANOMETERTo calibrate Differential type
pressure and
flow transmitter.

HART CALIBRATOR
cont...

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THANKS
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