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Fluid Mechanics I Review

Introduction

What is Fluid?

Dimensions and Units. Systems of Units

Mass, Density, Specific Weight, Specific Gravity

Viscosity

Compressibility of Fluids. Bulk Modulus.

Speed of Sound

Vapor Pressure

Surface Tension

Fluid Statics

Pressure at a point

Basic equation for pressure field

Pressure variation in a fluid at rest. Incompressible, compressible


fluid

Pressure measurement (gauge, absolute, atmospheric, vacuum).


Barometer

Manometry. Piezometer tube, U-tube manometer, differential


manometer, inclined tube manometer

Hydrostatic force on inclined plane and curved surfaces

Buoyancy, floatation and stability

Pressure variation in a fluid with rigid body motion

Bernoulli Equation

Streamline coordinates

F = ma normal to streamline

F = ma along streamline. Bernoulli Equation

Static, dynamic, stagnation ant total pressure

Fluid velocity measurement, Pitot-static tube

Use of Bernoulli equation


Free jets
Confined flows

Cavitation

Flow rate measurement

Restriction of use of the Bernoulli equation

Bernoullis 1738 treatise Hydrodynamica contains many excellent sketches of


flow patterns related to his frictionless relation. One, however, redrawn here as
Fig. P3.155, seems physically misleading. Can you explain what might be wrong
with the figure?

Bernoullis 1738 treatise Hydrodynamica contains many excellent sketches of


flow patterns related to his frictionless relation. One, however, redrawn here as
Fig. P3.155, seems physically misleading. Can you explain what might be wrong
with the figure?

Solution: If friction is neglected and the exit pipe is fully open, then pressure in the
closed piezometer tube would be atmospheric and the fluid would not rise at
all in the tube. The open jet coming from the hole in the tube would have V 2 gh
and would rise up to nearly the same height as the water in the tank.

Fluid Kinematics

Velocity field
Continuum hypothesis
Eulerian and Lagrangian flow description
One-, Two-, and Three- dimensional flows
Steady and unsteady flows
Stream lines, streaklines, and pathlines

Acceleration Field. Material derivative

Control Volume and System Representations

Reynolds Transport Theorem

Finite Control Volume Analysis

Continuity equation

Linear momentum and angular momemum equations

Energy equation

Similitude, Dimensional Analysis


and Modeling

Dimensional analysis

Buckingham Pi theorem

Common Dimensional groups in Fluid Mechanics

Correlation of experimental data

Modeling and similitude

Viscous Flow in Pipes

General characteristics of pipe flow

Fully developed laminar flow

Fully developed turbulent flow

Dimensional analysis of pipe flow


Moody chart
Minor losses

Pipe flowrate measurement