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Part II

Potential Flows

Irrotational Flow

Analysis of inviscid flow can be simplified by an assumption of irrotational flow. For

irrotational flow vorticity is zero

Irrotational Flow

Analysis of inviscid flow can be simplified by an assumption of irrotational flow. For

irrotational flow vorticity is zero:

0

Condition of irrotationality imposes specific relationship among velocity gradients. Since

Then

1 v u

z

0

2 x y

v u

x y

w v

y z

u w

z x

Uniform Flow

v u

x y

w v

y z

u w

z x

Examples

Flow fields involving real fluids often include both regions of negligible shearing stresses and regions of

significant shearing stresses

Various regions of flow: (a) around bodies; (b) through channels

Start from

p 1

V 2 gz V V

2

V 0

Thus, Bernoulli equation

p1 V12

p2 V22

z1

z2

2g

2g

Between any two points in the flow field.

Velocity Potential

For irrotational flow velocity components can be expressed in term of scalar function (x,y,z,t)

Velocity Potential

For irrotational flow velocity components can be expressed in term of scalar function (x,y,z,t)

v

w

x

y

z

where is called the velocity potential (distinguish from stream function). In vector form

u

Velocity Potential

For irrotational flow velocity components can be expressed in term of scalar function (x,y,z,t)

v

w

x

y

z

where is called the velocity potential (distinguish from stream function). In vector form

u

V

For incompressible, irrotational flow

For irrotational flow velocity components can be expressed in term of scalar function (x,y,z,t)

v

w

x

y

z

where is called the velocity potential (distinguish from stream function). In vector form

u

V

For incompressible, irrotational flow

0

2

or

2 2 2

0

x 2 y 2 z 2

Inviscid, incompressible, irrotational flow fields are governed by Laplaces equation and are

called potential flows

In cylindrical polar coordinates, velocity components

Laplaces equation

For irrotational flow velocity components can be expressed in term of scalar function (x,y,z,t)

w

x

y

z

where is called the velocity potential (distinguish from stream function). In vector form

u

V

For incompressible, irrotational flow

0

2

2 2 2

0

x 2 y 2 z 2

or

Inviscid, incompressible, irrotational flow fields are governed by Laplaces equation and are

called potential flows

In cylindrical polar coordinates, velocity components

vr

Laplaces equation

1

r

vz

vicinity of the 90 corner is described by the stream function

2r 2 sin 2

where has units of m2/s when r is in meters. (a) Determine, if possible, the

corresponding velocity potential. (b) If the pressure at point (1) on the wall is 30 kPa,

what is the pressure at point (2)? Assume the fluid density is 10 3 kg/m3 and the xy

plane is horizontal, that is, there is no difference in elevation between points (1) and

(2)

Notes

vicinity of the 90 corner is described by the stream function

2r 2 sin 2

where has units of m2/s when r is in meters. (a) Determine, if possible, the

corresponding velocity potential. (b) If the pressure at point (1) on the wall is 30 kPa,

what is the pressure at point (2)? Assume the fluid density is 10 3 kg/m3 and the xy

plane is horizontal, that is, there is no difference in elevation between points (1) and

(2)

Solution: (a)

Velocity components

vr

1

4r cos 2

r

4r sin 2

r

Velocity potential

2r 2 cos 2

vicinity of the 90 corner is described by the stream function

2r 2 sin 2

where has units of m2/s when r is in meters. (a) Determine, if possible, the

corresponding velocity potential. (b) If the pressure at point (1) on the wall is 30 kPa,

what is the pressure at point (2)? Assume the fluid density is 10 3 kg/m3 and the xy

plane is horizontal, that is, there is no difference in elevation between points (1) and

(2)

Solution: (b)

Apply Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2)

vicinity of the 90 corner is described by the stream function

2r 2 sin 2

where has units of m2/s when r is in meters. (a) Determine, if possible, the

corresponding velocity potential. (b) If the pressure at point (1) on the wall is 30 kPa,

what is the pressure at point (2)? Assume the fluid density is 10 3 kg/m3 and the xy

plane is horizontal, that is, there is no difference in elevation between points (1) and

(2)

Solution: (b)

Apply Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2)

p2 p1

2

V1 V22

V 2 vr2 v2 16r 2

V12 16 m 2 /s 2

V22 4 m 2 /s 2

p 36 kPa

For potential flow, basic solutions can be added to obtain more complicated

solutions

For plane irrotational flow one can use either velocity potential or the stream

function both must satisfy Laplaces equation

Notes

Uniform Flow

Notes

Uniform Flow

Uniform flow can be described by either a stream function of a velocity potential. For case (a)

Ux

for case (b)

U x cos y sin

Uy

U y cos x sin

Consider fluid flowing radially outward from a line through the origin perpendicular to x-y plane

Let m be the volume flow rate of flow emanating from the line (per unit length).

Notes

Consider fluid flowing radially outward from a line through the origin perpendicular to x-y plane

Let m be the volume flow rate of flow emanating from the line (per unit length).

To satisfy conservation mass

vr

m

2 r

v 0

Velocity potential

m

ln r

2

Stream function

Source m is positive (flow is radyally outward)

Sink m is negative, (flow is toward the origin)

Notes

Source m is positive (flow is radyally outward)

Sink m is negative, (flow is toward the origin)

At the origin r = 0 and vr

which is impossible

Thus, sources and sinks do not really exist in real flow fields, and the line representing the source

or sink is a mathematical singularity in the flow field.

However, some real flows can be approximated at points away from the origin by using sources

of sinks

Example 6.5 Nonviscous, incompressible fluid flows between wedge-shaped walls into a

small opening. Velocity potential (in ft2/s), which approximately describes this flow is

2 ln r

Determine the volume rate of flow (per unit length) into the opening

Notes

Example 6.5 Nonviscous, incompressible fluid flows between wedge-shaped walls into a

small opening. Velocity potential (in ft2/s), which approximately describes this flow is

2 ln r

Determine the volume rate of flow (per unit length) into the opening

Solution

Velocity components

Flowrate

vr Rd

2

Rd

1.05 ft 3 /s

3

R

Note that the radius R is arbitrary since the flowrate crossing any curve between the two

walls must be the same.

The negative sign indicate that the flow is toward the opening

Vortex

Consider a flow field in which the streamlines are concentric circles, that is interchange the

velocity potential and stream function for the source

Notes

Vortex

Consider a flow field in which the streamlines are concentric circles, that is interchange the

velocity potential and stream function for the source

and

K ln r

where K is a constant

Notes

Vortex

Consider a flow field in which the streamlines are concentric circles, that is interchange the

velocity potential and stream function for the source

and

K ln r

where K is a constant

vr 0

and

1

K

r

r

r

Tangential velocity varies inversely with the distance from the origin, with a singularity

occurring at r = 0

Free Vortex

Rotation refers to the orientation of fluid element and not the path followed by

the element

Free vortex is a potential flow

Forced Vortex

Forced vortex is not potential flow

Combined Vortex

Combined vortex is one with a forced vortex as a central core and a velocity distribution

corresponding to that of a free vortex outside the core.

For a combined vortex

v r

r r0

K

r

r r0

where K and are constants and r0 corresponds to the radius of the central core

Circulation

Circulation , , is the line integral of the tangential component of the velocity taken around a

closed curve in the flow field

Notes

Circulation

Circulation , , is the line integral of the tangential component of the velocity taken around a

closed curve in the flow field

i Vd s

C

i d 0

C

Notes

back to example

Circulation

If there are singularities enclosed within the curve

circulation may not be zero.

For free vortex:

K

rd 2 K

r

are commonly expressed in terms of the circulation as

Notes

and

ln r

2

Example 6.6 A liquid drains from a large tank through a small opening. A vortex forms

whose velocity distribution away from the tank opining can be approximated as that of a

free vortex having a velocity potential

2

Determine an expression relating the surface shape to the strength of the vortex as specified

by the circulation

Notes

Example 6.6 A liquid drains from a large tank through a small opening. A vortex forms

whose velocity distribution away from the tank opining can be approximated as that of a

free vortex having a velocity potential

2

Determine an expression relating the surface shape to the strength of the vortex as specified

by the circulation

Solution

Apply Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2)

V12

V22

zs

2g

2g

Velocity

r 2 r

Notes

2

zs 2 2

8 r g

back

Doublet

Doublet is formed by a source and sink approach one another (a 0) (details)

Notes

Doublet

Doublet is formed by a source and sink approach one another (a 0)

K sin

r

K cos

r

Notes

ma

Doublet

Streamlines for a doublet are circles through the origin tangent to the x axis.

Notes

Example

back back1

back2

Flows

Flows

differential equation.

potentials and stream functions.

boundary

particular body shape is called the method of superposition

Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow

notes

Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow

notes

Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow

Stream function and velocity potential

Ur sin

notes

Ur cos

x = -b (r = b ), where

m

ln r

2

m

2 U

Value of stream function at stagnation point (r

= b and = )

m

bU

2

bU Ur sin bU

notes

or

b

sin

Replace streamline passing through stagnation point with solid boundary and get

the flow around streamlined body placed in uniform stream.

The body is open at downstream end, and is called a half-body.

Singularity (source) occurs inside the body, and there are no singularity in the flow

field of interest (outside the body)

Width of the half-body asymptotically approaches 2 b (details)

notes

For half-body

1

m

vr

U cos

r

2 r

and

v

U sin

r

and since

Um cos m

V 2 vr2 v2 U 2

r

2 r

b m 2 U

b

b 2

2

2

V U 1 2 cos 2

r

r

With velocity known, the pressure at any point can be determined from Bernoulli

equation

For potential flow fluid is allowed to slip past a fixed solid boundary

notes

Example 6.7 A 64 km/h wind blows toward a hill arising from a plain that can be approximated

with the top section of a half-body as illustrated in figure. The height of the hill approaches 60 m as

shown. Assume an air density of 1.22 kg/m3 .

(a)What is the magnitude of air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin [point (2)]?

(b)What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between

point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)?

notes

Example 6.7 A 64 km/h wind blows toward a hill arising from a plain that can be approximated

with the top section of a half-body as illustrated in figure. The height of the hill approaches 60 m as

shown. Assume an air density of 1.22 kg/m3 .

(a)What is the magnitude of air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin [point (2)]?

(b)What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between

point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)?

Solution

(a) Velocity:

b

b 2

V U 1 2 cos 2

r

r

notes

Example 6.7 A 64 km/h wind blows toward a hill arising from a plain that can be approximated

with the top section of a half-body as illustrated in figure. The height of the hill approaches 60 m as

shown. Assume an air density of 1.22 kg/m3 .

(a)What is the magnitude of air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin [point (2)]?

(b)What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between

point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)?

Solution

(a) Velocity:

b

b 2

V U 1 2 cos 2

r

r

b

sin

b

2

Thus

b2

4

2

V U 1

U

1

2

2

b

2

2

2

notes

and

V2 76 km/hr

Example 6.7 A 64 km/h wind blows toward a hill arising from a plain that can be approximated

with the top section of a half-body as illustrated in figure. The height of the hill approaches 60 m as

shown. Assume an air density of 1.22 kg/m3 .

(a)What is the magnitude of air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin [point (2)]?

(b)What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between

point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)?

Solution

(b) Elevation of point (2)

y2

notes

b 60 m

30 m

2

2

Example 6.7 A 64 km/h wind blows toward a hill arising from a plain that can be approximated

with the top section of a half-body as illustrated in figure. The height of the hill approaches 60 m as

shown. Assume an air density of 1.22 kg/m3 .

(a)What is the magnitude of air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin [point (2)]?

(b)What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between

point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)?

Solution

(b) Elevation of point (2)

y2

b 60 m

30 m

2

2

p1 p2

2

V2 V12 y2 y1

1.22 kg/m

2

3

p1 p2

notes

Example One end of a pond has a shoreline that resembles a half-body as shown in figure. A vertical

porous pipe is located near the end of the pond so that water can be pumped out. When water is

pumped at the rate of 0.08 m3/s through a 3-m-long pipe, what will be the velocity at point A?

11.33x10-4 m/s

Rankine Ovals

Rankine ovals are formed by combining a source and sink with a uniform flow.

Flow around a Rankine oval: (a) superposition of source-sink pair and a uniform flow;

(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

Rankine Ovals

Rankine ovals are formed b combining a source and sink with a uniform flow.

Ur sin

m

1 2

2

Ur cos

m

ln r1 ln r2

2

Flow around a Rankine oval: (a) superposition of source-sink pair and a uniform flow;

(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

Rankine Ovals

Rankine ovals are formed b combining a source and sink with a uniform flow.

m

1 2

2

m

2ay

Uy

tan 1 2

2

2

2

x

Ur sin

Alternatively

Ur cos

m

ln r1 ln r2

2

Flow around a Rankine oval: (a) superposition of source-sink pair and a uniform flow;

(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

Rankine Ovals

Stagnation points occur at the upstream and downstream ends of the body

Location of stagnation points depend on a, m and U

ma

a 2

U

1

2

or

l

a

m

1

Ua

1

2

(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

Rankine Ovals

Body half-width, h, equals value of y where y axis intersect = 0 streamline

h2 a 2

2 Uh

h

tan

2a

m

Ua

h 1 h

h

1 tan 2

a 2 a

m

a

or

(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

Rankine Ovals

Parameter Ua/m determines body shape

Large value of Ua/m flow around long slender body

Small value of Ua/m flow around blunt body

(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

can be used to represent flow around a

circular cylinder.

notes

table

Flow Around of

Circular Cylinder

can be used to represent flow around a

circular cylinder.

Stream function, velocity potential and

velocity components: (details)

a 2

Ur 1 2 sin ;

r

a 2

vr U 1 2 cos ;

r

a 2

Ur 1 2 cos

a 2

v U 1 2 sin

vrs 0

v s 2U sin

and bottom of the cylinder and reduces

to U far away from cylinder as we move

along the ray = /2

Flow Around of

Circular Cylinder

distribution on the cylinder surface

1

1 2

2

p0 U ps v s

2

2

ps p0

1

U 2 1 4sin 2

2

Pressure Distribution

distribution on the cylinder surface

1

1 2

2

p0 U ps v s

2

2

ps p0

1

U 2 1 4sin 2

2

that develops on the cylinder, the main

flow separates from the surface of the

cylinder, leading to the large difference

between theoretical, frictionless fluid

solution ant the experimental results on

the downstream side of the cylinder

Pressure Distribution

dAlembert Paradox

Drag is the force parallel to direction of the uniform flow

Lift is the force perpendicular to direction of the uniform flow

dAlembert Paradox

Drag (force parallel to direction of the uniform flow)

Fx

ps cos ad

Fy

ps sin ad

dAlembert Paradox

Drag (force parallel to direction of the uniform flow)

Fx

ps cos ad

Fy

ps sin ad

Drag and lift as predicted by potential theory for a fixed cylinder in a uniform flow are

zero

Measured drag is not zero

dAlembert Paradox

Example Assume that the flow around the long, circular cylinder is nonviscous and

incompressible. Two pressures, p1 and p2 are measured on the surface of the cylinder, as

illustrated. It is proposed that the free-stream velocity, U, can be related to the pressure

difference p = p1 - p2 by the equation

U C

where is the fluid density. Determine the value of the constant C. Neglect body forces.

Flow around the rotating cylinder is obtained by adding free vortex to flow around a

cylinder:

Flow around the rotating cylinder is obtained by adding free vortex to flow around a

cylinder:

a 2

Ur 1 2 sin

ln r

r

2

a 2

Ur 1 2 cos

2

v s 2U sin

2 a

sin stag

4 Ua

sin stag

4 Ua

The location of stagnation points on a circular cylinder:

(a) without circulation; (b, c, d) with circulation.

Magnus Effect

For cylinder with circulation:

surface pressure

1

2 sin

2

2

2

ps p0 U 1 4sin

2 2 2

2

aU

4 a U

drag

Fx 0

lift

Fy U

If U is positive (in the positive x direction) and is positive (free vortex with

counterclockwise rotation) lift is downward

Development of lift on rotating bodies is called the Magnus effect

Problem solving

End of lecture

Supplementary Slides

Tell Apart

Stream Function

Velocity Potential

Consequence of

conservation of mass

Consequence of

irrotationality

back

u

=

x y

y

x

In cylindrical coordinates

vr

1

=

r r

r

r

u v

=

y x

and in terms of stream function

y y

x x

or

2 2

+

=0

x 2 y 2

back

back

dy

v

dx along const u

Change in

dx

dy udx vdy

x

y

so that

dy

u

dx along const

v

back

Doublet (derivation)

Consider equal strength, source-sink pair. combined stream function for the pair is

m

1 2

2

tan 1 tan 2

2

tan

tan

1

2

m

1 tan 1 tan 2

r sin

r cos a

r sin

tan 2

r cos a

tan 1

(b)

(c)

(a)

Doublet (derivation)

Put (b) and (c) into (a)

2ar sin

2

tan

m

r 2 a2

then

m

2ar sin

tan 1 2

2

2

r a

m 2ar sin

mar sin

2 r 2 a 2

r 2 a2

Doublet (derivation)

Let source and sink approach one another (a0) while increasing the strength m (m )

so that the product ma/ remains constant. In this case r/(r2 a2) 1/r and

K sin

r

K cos

r

of the doublet

ma

back

sin

y r sin b

at 0

at 2

y b

y b

width 2 b

back

be used to represent flow around a circular

cylinder

Ur sin

K sin

;

r

Ur cos

Flow Around of

Circular Cylinder

K cos

r

stream function must be constant for r = a,

where a is the radius of the cylinder. From

U 2 r sin

r

K

0

2

a

or

K Ua 2

for flow around circular cylinder are

a 2

Ur 1 2 sin ;

r

a 2

Ur 1 2 cos

back

back

2

3

Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow

Stream function and velocity potential:

Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow

Stream function and velocity potential

Ur sin

Ur cos

m

ln r

2

can be used to represent flow around a

circular cylinder.

Stream function, velocity potential and

velocity components: (details) table

notes

Flow Around of

Circular Cylinder

Doublet

Example A uniform flow moving to the left (in the negative x-axis direction) is imposed on the doublet

shown on the figure. For the resulting flow field,

a) there are two stagnation points, one above and one below the doublet.

b) there is one stagnation point to the left of the doublet.

c) there is one stagnation point to the right of the doublet.

d) there are no stagnation points anywhere in the flow.

Select correct answer.

notes

Back

Two tanks filled with water are connected by two straight circular pipes that have diameters D1 and D2,

as shown in the figure.

The water level in the left tank is twice that of the right tank. If the flow trough the connection pipes is

laminar and can be approximated by the fully developed Poiseuille solution, then the flow through pipe

2 will have the same velocity as the flow through pipe 1 when:

a)the diameter of pipe 2 is less than the diameter of pipe1,

b)the diameter of pipe 2 is greater than the diameter of pipe 1,

c)the diameter of pipe 2 is equal to the diameter of pipe 1.

notes

Back

Example A certain body has the shape of a halfbody with a thickness of 0.5 m. If this body is to be

placed in an airstream moving at 20 m/s, what source strength is required to simulate flow around the

body?

Answ: 10 m/s

Example A source and a sink are located along the x axis with the source at x = -0.5 m and the sink at x

= 0.5 m. Both the source and the sink have a strength of 5 m2/s. Determine the location of the

stagnation points along the x axis when this source-sink pair is combined with a uniform velocity of 10

m/s in the positive x direction.

Answ: 0.57 m

Example As illustrated in figure, a tornado can be approximated by a free vortex of strength for

r

> Rc, , where Rc is the radius of the core. Velocity measurements at points A and B indicate that

VA

= 38 m/s and VB = 18 m/s. Determine the distance from point A to the center of the tornado. Why can

the free vortex model not be used to approximate the tornado throughout the flow field (r >= 0)?

Answ: 27 m

table

Example The streamlines in a particular two-dimensional flow field are all concentric circles, as shown

in figure. The velocity is given by the equation v = r where is the angular velocity of the rotating

mass of fluid. Determine the circulation around the path ABCD

Answ: = (b2 - a2)

circ

Example Water flows through a two-dimensional diffuser having a 20 expansion angle, as shown in

figure. Assume that the flow in the diffuser can be treated as a radial flow emanating from a source at

the origin O.

a)If the velocity at the entrance is 20 m/s, determine an expression for the pressure gradient along the

diffuser walls.

b)What is the pressure rise between the entrance and exit?

Answ: a)

r

r3

m

b) 184 kPa

Example When water discharges from a tank through an opening in its bottom, a vortex may form with

a curved surface profile, as shown in the figure. Assume that the velocity distribution in the vortex is

the same as that for a free vortex. At the same time the water is being discharged from the tank at point

A, it is desired to discharge a small quantity of water through the pipe B. As the discharge through A is

increased, the strength of the vortex, as indicated by its circulation, is increased. Determine the

maximum strength that the vortex can have in order that no air is sucked in at B. Express your answer

in terms of the circulation. Assume that the fluid level in the tank at a large distance from the opening at

A remains constant and viscous effects are negligible.

Answ: a) = 101 ft2/s

example

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