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# Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow

Part II
Potential Flows

Irrotational Flow
Analysis of inviscid flow can be simplified by an assumption of irrotational flow. For
irrotational flow vorticity is zero

## Condition of irrotationality imposes specific relationship among velocity gradients

Irrotational Flow
Analysis of inviscid flow can be simplified by an assumption of irrotational flow. For
irrotational flow vorticity is zero:

0
Condition of irrotationality imposes specific relationship among velocity gradients. Since

Then

1 v u
z
0
2 x y

v u

x y
w v

y z
u w

z x

Uniform Flow

v u

x y
w v

y z
u w

z x

Examples
Flow fields involving real fluids often include both regions of negligible shearing stresses and regions of
significant shearing stresses

## Uniform flow in x direction

Various regions of flow: (a) around bodies; (b) through channels

Start from

p 1
V 2 gz V V
2

## For irrotational flow

V 0
Thus, Bernoulli equation

p1 V12
p2 V22

z1

z2
2g
2g
Between any two points in the flow field.

## Now, Bernoulli equation is restricted to inviscid, steady, incompressible, irrotational flow

Velocity Potential
For irrotational flow velocity components can be expressed in term of scalar function (x,y,z,t)

Velocity Potential
For irrotational flow velocity components can be expressed in term of scalar function (x,y,z,t)

v
w
x
y
z
where is called the velocity potential (distinguish from stream function). In vector form
u

Velocity Potential
For irrotational flow velocity components can be expressed in term of scalar function (x,y,z,t)

v
w
x
y
z
where is called the velocity potential (distinguish from stream function). In vector form
u

V
For incompressible, irrotational flow

Velocity Potential
For irrotational flow velocity components can be expressed in term of scalar function (x,y,z,t)

v
w
x
y
z
where is called the velocity potential (distinguish from stream function). In vector form
u

V
For incompressible, irrotational flow

0
2

or

2 2 2

0
x 2 y 2 z 2

Inviscid, incompressible, irrotational flow fields are governed by Laplaces equation and are
called potential flows
In cylindrical polar coordinates, velocity components

Laplaces equation

Velocity Potential
For irrotational flow velocity components can be expressed in term of scalar function (x,y,z,t)

v
w
x
y
z
where is called the velocity potential (distinguish from stream function). In vector form
u

V
For incompressible, irrotational flow

0
2

2 2 2

0
x 2 y 2 z 2

or

Inviscid, incompressible, irrotational flow fields are governed by Laplaces equation and are
called potential flows
In cylindrical polar coordinates, velocity components

vr
Laplaces equation

1
r

vz

## Example 6.4: The two-dimensional flow of a nonviscous, incompressible fluid in the

vicinity of the 90 corner is described by the stream function
2r 2 sin 2

where has units of m2/s when r is in meters. (a) Determine, if possible, the
corresponding velocity potential. (b) If the pressure at point (1) on the wall is 30 kPa,
what is the pressure at point (2)? Assume the fluid density is 10 3 kg/m3 and the xy
plane is horizontal, that is, there is no difference in elevation between points (1) and
(2)

Notes

## Example 6.4: The two-dimensional flow of a nonviscous, incompressible fluid in the

vicinity of the 90 corner is described by the stream function
2r 2 sin 2

where has units of m2/s when r is in meters. (a) Determine, if possible, the
corresponding velocity potential. (b) If the pressure at point (1) on the wall is 30 kPa,
what is the pressure at point (2)? Assume the fluid density is 10 3 kg/m3 and the xy
plane is horizontal, that is, there is no difference in elevation between points (1) and
(2)
Solution: (a)
Velocity components
vr

1
4r cos 2
r

4r sin 2
r

Velocity potential
2r 2 cos 2

## Example 6.4: The two-dimensional flow of a nonviscous, incompressible fluid in the

vicinity of the 90 corner is described by the stream function
2r 2 sin 2

where has units of m2/s when r is in meters. (a) Determine, if possible, the
corresponding velocity potential. (b) If the pressure at point (1) on the wall is 30 kPa,
what is the pressure at point (2)? Assume the fluid density is 10 3 kg/m3 and the xy
plane is horizontal, that is, there is no difference in elevation between points (1) and
(2)
Solution: (b)
Apply Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2)

## Example 6.4: The two-dimensional flow of a nonviscous, incompressible fluid in the

vicinity of the 90 corner is described by the stream function
2r 2 sin 2

where has units of m2/s when r is in meters. (a) Determine, if possible, the
corresponding velocity potential. (b) If the pressure at point (1) on the wall is 30 kPa,
what is the pressure at point (2)? Assume the fluid density is 10 3 kg/m3 and the xy
plane is horizontal, that is, there is no difference in elevation between points (1) and
(2)
Solution: (b)
Apply Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2)
p2 p1

2
V1 V22

V 2 vr2 v2 16r 2
V12 16 m 2 /s 2
V22 4 m 2 /s 2
p 36 kPa

## Laplaces equation is a linear partial differential equation

For potential flow, basic solutions can be added to obtain more complicated
solutions

## Only plane flows will be considered

For plane irrotational flow one can use either velocity potential or the stream
function both must satisfy Laplaces equation

Notes

Uniform Flow

Notes

Uniform Flow

## Uniform flow: (a) in the x direction; (b) in arbitrary direction

Uniform flow can be described by either a stream function of a velocity potential. For case (a)

Ux
for case (b)

U x cos y sin

Uy
U y cos x sin

## Source and Sink

Consider fluid flowing radially outward from a line through the origin perpendicular to x-y plane
Let m be the volume flow rate of flow emanating from the line (per unit length).

Notes

## Source and Sink

Consider fluid flowing radially outward from a line through the origin perpendicular to x-y plane
Let m be the volume flow rate of flow emanating from the line (per unit length).
To satisfy conservation mass

vr

m
2 r

## Since the flow is a purely radial,

v 0
Velocity potential

m
ln r
2

Stream function

## Source and Sink

Source m is positive (flow is radyally outward)
Sink m is negative, (flow is toward the origin)

Notes

## Source and Sink

Source m is positive (flow is radyally outward)
Sink m is negative, (flow is toward the origin)

## A source or sink represent a purely radial flow

At the origin r = 0 and vr

which is impossible

Thus, sources and sinks do not really exist in real flow fields, and the line representing the source
or sink is a mathematical singularity in the flow field.
However, some real flows can be approximated at points away from the origin by using sources
of sinks

Example 6.5 Nonviscous, incompressible fluid flows between wedge-shaped walls into a
small opening. Velocity potential (in ft2/s), which approximately describes this flow is

2 ln r
Determine the volume rate of flow (per unit length) into the opening

Notes

Example 6.5 Nonviscous, incompressible fluid flows between wedge-shaped walls into a
small opening. Velocity potential (in ft2/s), which approximately describes this flow is

2 ln r
Determine the volume rate of flow (per unit length) into the opening

Solution
Velocity components

Flowrate

vr Rd

2
Rd

1.05 ft 3 /s

3
R

Note that the radius R is arbitrary since the flowrate crossing any curve between the two
walls must be the same.

Vortex
Consider a flow field in which the streamlines are concentric circles, that is interchange the
velocity potential and stream function for the source

Notes

Vortex
Consider a flow field in which the streamlines are concentric circles, that is interchange the
velocity potential and stream function for the source

and

K ln r

where K is a constant

Notes

Vortex
Consider a flow field in which the streamlines are concentric circles, that is interchange the
velocity potential and stream function for the source

and

K ln r

where K is a constant

vr 0

and

1
K

r
r
r

## Vortex represents a flow in which the streamlines are concentric circles

Tangential velocity varies inversely with the distance from the origin, with a singularity
occurring at r = 0

Free Vortex

## Is vortex irrotational flow?

Rotation refers to the orientation of fluid element and not the path followed by
the element
Free vortex is a potential flow

Forced Vortex

## If fluid rotates as a rigid body, vortex flow is rotational (forced vortex)

Forced vortex is not potential flow

## Rotational (forced) vortex

Combined Vortex
Combined vortex is one with a forced vortex as a central core and a velocity distribution
corresponding to that of a free vortex outside the core.
For a combined vortex

v r

r r0

K
r

r r0

where K and are constants and r0 corresponds to the radius of the central core

## Rotational (forced) vortex

Circulation
Circulation , , is the line integral of the tangential component of the velocity taken around a
closed curve in the flow field

Notes

Circulation
Circulation , , is the line integral of the tangential component of the velocity taken around a
closed curve in the flow field

i Vd s
C

## For irrotational flow

i d 0
C

Notes

back to example

Circulation
If there are singularities enclosed within the curve
circulation may not be zero.

K
rd 2 K
r

## Velocity potential and stream function for the free vortex

are commonly expressed in terms of the circulation as

Notes

and

ln r
2

Example 6.6 A liquid drains from a large tank through a small opening. A vortex forms
whose velocity distribution away from the tank opining can be approximated as that of a
free vortex having a velocity potential

2
Determine an expression relating the surface shape to the strength of the vortex as specified
by the circulation

Notes

Example 6.6 A liquid drains from a large tank through a small opening. A vortex forms
whose velocity distribution away from the tank opining can be approximated as that of a
free vortex having a velocity potential

2
Determine an expression relating the surface shape to the strength of the vortex as specified
by the circulation
Solution
Apply Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2)

V12
V22
zs
2g
2g
Velocity

r 2 r

## Expression for surface shape

Notes

2
zs 2 2
8 r g
back

Doublet
Doublet is formed by a source and sink approach one another (a 0) (details)

Notes

Doublet
Doublet is formed by a source and sink approach one another (a 0)

K sin
r

K cos
r

## K is a strength of the doublet

Notes

ma

Doublet
Streamlines for a doublet are circles through the origin tangent to the x axis.

Notes

Example

back back1

back2

Flows

Flows

## Potential flows are governed by Laplaces equation, which is linear partial

differential equation.

## Velocity potentials and stream functions can be combined to form new

potentials and stream functions.

boundary

## Combining basic potential flows to yield a streamline that corresponds to a

particular body shape is called the method of superposition

## Source in a Uniform Stream Half-Body

Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow

notes

## Source in a Uniform Stream Half-Body

Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow

notes

## Source in a Uniform Stream Half-Body

Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow
Stream function and velocity potential

Ur sin

## Stagnation point will occur at

notes

Ur cos

x = -b (r = b ), where

m
ln r
2

m
2 U

## Source in a Uniform Stream Half-Body

Value of stream function at stagnation point (r

= b and = )

m
bU
2

bU Ur sin bU

notes

or

b
sin

## Source in a Uniform Stream Half-Body

Replace streamline passing through stagnation point with solid boundary and get
the flow around streamlined body placed in uniform stream.
The body is open at downstream end, and is called a half-body.
Singularity (source) occurs inside the body, and there are no singularity in the flow
field of interest (outside the body)
Width of the half-body asymptotically approaches 2 b (details)

notes

For half-body

1
m
vr
U cos
r
2 r

and

v
U sin
r

## Square of magnitude of velocity, V, at any point

and since

Um cos m
V 2 vr2 v2 U 2

r
2 r
b m 2 U
b
b 2
2
2
V U 1 2 cos 2
r
r

With velocity known, the pressure at any point can be determined from Bernoulli
equation

For potential flow fluid is allowed to slip past a fixed solid boundary
notes

Example 6.7 A 64 km/h wind blows toward a hill arising from a plain that can be approximated
with the top section of a half-body as illustrated in figure. The height of the hill approaches 60 m as
shown. Assume an air density of 1.22 kg/m3 .
(a)What is the magnitude of air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin [point (2)]?
(b)What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between
point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)?

notes

Example 6.7 A 64 km/h wind blows toward a hill arising from a plain that can be approximated
with the top section of a half-body as illustrated in figure. The height of the hill approaches 60 m as
shown. Assume an air density of 1.22 kg/m3 .
(a)What is the magnitude of air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin [point (2)]?
(b)What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between
point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)?
Solution
(a) Velocity:

b
b 2
V U 1 2 cos 2
r
r

## At point (2), = /2, and

notes

Example 6.7 A 64 km/h wind blows toward a hill arising from a plain that can be approximated
with the top section of a half-body as illustrated in figure. The height of the hill approaches 60 m as
shown. Assume an air density of 1.22 kg/m3 .
(a)What is the magnitude of air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin [point (2)]?
(b)What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between
point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)?
Solution
(a) Velocity:

b
b 2
V U 1 2 cos 2
r
r

## At point (2), = /2, and

b
sin

b
2

Thus

b2

4
2

V U 1

U
1

2
2

b
2

2
2

notes

and

V2 76 km/hr

Example 6.7 A 64 km/h wind blows toward a hill arising from a plain that can be approximated
with the top section of a half-body as illustrated in figure. The height of the hill approaches 60 m as
shown. Assume an air density of 1.22 kg/m3 .
(a)What is the magnitude of air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin [point (2)]?
(b)What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between
point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)?
Solution
(b) Elevation of point (2)

y2

notes

b 60 m

30 m
2
2

Example 6.7 A 64 km/h wind blows toward a hill arising from a plain that can be approximated
with the top section of a half-body as illustrated in figure. The height of the hill approaches 60 m as
shown. Assume an air density of 1.22 kg/m3 .
(a)What is the magnitude of air velocity at a point on the hill directly above the origin [point (2)]?
(b)What is the elevation of point (2) above the plain and what is the difference in pressure between
point (1) on the plain far from the hill and point (2)?
Solution
(b) Elevation of point (2)

y2

b 60 m

30 m
2
2

p1 p2

2
V2 V12 y2 y1

1.22 kg/m

2
3

p1 p2

notes

## 1.22 kg/m 3 9.8 m/s2 30 m 0 m

Example One end of a pond has a shoreline that resembles a half-body as shown in figure. A vertical
porous pipe is located near the end of the pond so that water can be pumped out. When water is
pumped at the rate of 0.08 m3/s through a 3-m-long pipe, what will be the velocity at point A?
11.33x10-4 m/s

Rankine Ovals
Rankine ovals are formed by combining a source and sink with a uniform flow.

Flow around a Rankine oval: (a) superposition of source-sink pair and a uniform flow;
(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

Rankine Ovals
Rankine ovals are formed b combining a source and sink with a uniform flow.

Ur sin

m
1 2
2

Ur cos

m
ln r1 ln r2
2

Flow around a Rankine oval: (a) superposition of source-sink pair and a uniform flow;
(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

Rankine Ovals
Rankine ovals are formed b combining a source and sink with a uniform flow.

m
1 2
2

m
2ay
Uy
tan 1 2
2
2
2
x

Ur sin
Alternatively

Ur cos

m
ln r1 ln r2
2

## Streamline with = 0 forms closed body which is called Rankine oval

Flow around a Rankine oval: (a) superposition of source-sink pair and a uniform flow;
(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

Rankine Ovals
Stagnation points occur at the upstream and downstream ends of the body
Location of stagnation points depend on a, m and U

ma

a 2
U

1
2

or

l
a

m
1
Ua

1
2

Flow around a Rankine oval: (a) superposition of source-sink pair and a uniform flow;
(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

Rankine Ovals
Body half-width, h, equals value of y where y axis intersect = 0 streamline

h2 a 2
2 Uh
h
tan
2a
m

Ua
h 1 h
h

1 tan 2

a 2 a
m
a

or

Flow around a Rankine oval: (a) superposition of source-sink pair and a uniform flow;
(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

Rankine Ovals
Parameter Ua/m determines body shape
Large value of Ua/m flow around long slender body
Small value of Ua/m flow around blunt body

Flow around a Rankine oval: (a) superposition of source-sink pair and a uniform flow;
(b) replacement of streamline = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval

## Doublet combined with a uniform flow

can be used to represent flow around a
circular cylinder.

notes

table

Flow Around of
Circular Cylinder

## Doublet combined with a uniform flow

can be used to represent flow around a
circular cylinder.
Stream function, velocity potential and
velocity components: (details)

a 2
Ur 1 2 sin ;
r

a 2
vr U 1 2 cos ;
r

a 2
Ur 1 2 cos

a 2
v U 1 2 sin

vrs 0

v s 2U sin

## Maximum velocity, 2U, occurs at the top

and bottom of the cylinder and reduces
to U far away from cylinder as we move
along the ray = /2

Flow Around of
Circular Cylinder

## Apply Bernoulli equation to get pressure

distribution on the cylinder surface

1
1 2
2
p0 U ps v s
2
2
ps p0

1
U 2 1 4sin 2
2

Pressure Distribution

## Apply Bernoulli equation to get pressure

distribution on the cylinder surface

1
1 2
2
p0 U ps v s
2
2
ps p0

1
U 2 1 4sin 2
2

## Because to the viscous boundary layer

that develops on the cylinder, the main
flow separates from the surface of the
cylinder, leading to the large difference
between theoretical, frictionless fluid
solution ant the experimental results on
the downstream side of the cylinder

Pressure Distribution

Drag is the force parallel to direction of the uniform flow
Lift is the force perpendicular to direction of the uniform flow

Drag (force parallel to direction of the uniform flow)

Fx

## Lift (force perpendicular to direction of the uniform flow)

Fy

Drag (force parallel to direction of the uniform flow)

Fx

## Lift (force perpendicular to direction of the uniform flow)

Fy

Drag and lift as predicted by potential theory for a fixed cylinder in a uniform flow are
zero
Measured drag is not zero

## This discrepancy is known as dAlembert paradox

Example Assume that the flow around the long, circular cylinder is nonviscous and
incompressible. Two pressures, p1 and p2 are measured on the surface of the cylinder, as
illustrated. It is proposed that the free-stream velocity, U, can be related to the pressure
difference p = p1 - p2 by the equation
U C

where is the fluid density. Determine the value of the constant C. Neglect body forces.

## Flow Around Rotating Cylinder

Flow around the rotating cylinder is obtained by adding free vortex to flow around a
cylinder:

## Flow Around Rotating Cylinder

Flow around the rotating cylinder is obtained by adding free vortex to flow around a
cylinder:

a 2

Ur 1 2 sin
ln r
r
2

a 2

Ur 1 2 cos
2

v s 2U sin

2 a

sin stag

4 Ua

## Flow Around Rotating Cylinder

sin stag

4 Ua
The location of stagnation points on a circular cylinder:
(a) without circulation; (b, c, d) with circulation.

Magnus Effect
For cylinder with circulation:
surface pressure

1
2 sin
2
2
2
ps p0 U 1 4sin
2 2 2
2

aU
4 a U

drag

Fx 0

lift

Fy U

## Thus, for the cylinder with circulation lift is developed

If U is positive (in the positive x direction) and is positive (free vortex with
counterclockwise rotation) lift is downward
Development of lift on rotating bodies is called the Magnus effect

Problem solving

End of lecture

Supplementary Slides

Tell Apart

Stream Function

Velocity Potential

Consequence of
conservation of mass

Consequence of
irrotationality

back

## For plane irrotational flow

u

=
x y

y
x

In cylindrical coordinates
vr

1
=
r r

r
r

## For irrotational flow

u v
=
y x
and in terms of stream function

y y
x x
or
2 2
+
=0
x 2 y 2

back

back

dy
v

dx along const u
Change in

dx
dy udx vdy
x
y

so that
dy
u

dx along const
v

## Flow net for a 90 bend

back

Doublet (derivation)
Consider equal strength, source-sink pair. combined stream function for the pair is
m

1 2
2

tan 1 tan 2
2
tan

tan

1
2

m
1 tan 1 tan 2

r sin
r cos a
r sin
tan 2
r cos a
tan 1

(b)
(c)

(a)

Doublet (derivation)
Put (b) and (c) into (a)

2ar sin
2
tan

m
r 2 a2

then

m
2ar sin
tan 1 2
2
2
r a

## For small values of a

m 2ar sin
mar sin

2 r 2 a 2
r 2 a2

Doublet (derivation)
Let source and sink approach one another (a0) while increasing the strength m (m )
so that the product ma/ remains constant. In this case r/(r2 a2) 1/r and

K sin
r

K cos
r

of the doublet

ma

back

sin
y r sin b

at 0
at 2

y b
y b

width 2 b

back

## Doublet combined with a uniform flow can

be used to represent flow around a circular
cylinder

Ur sin

K sin
;
r

Ur cos

Flow Around of
Circular Cylinder

K cos
r

## To represent flow around circular cylinder

stream function must be constant for r = a,
where a is the radius of the cylinder. From

U 2 r sin
r

K
0
2
a

or

K Ua 2

## Thus stream function and velocity potential

for flow around circular cylinder are

a 2
Ur 1 2 sin ;
r

a 2
Ur 1 2 cos

back

back

2
3

## Source in a Uniform Stream Half-Body

Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow
Stream function and velocity potential:

## Source in a Uniform Stream Half-Body

Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow
Stream function and velocity potential

Ur sin

Ur cos

m
ln r
2

## Doublet combined with a uniform flow

can be used to represent flow around a
circular cylinder.
Stream function, velocity potential and
velocity components: (details) table

notes

Flow Around of
Circular Cylinder

Doublet
Example A uniform flow moving to the left (in the negative x-axis direction) is imposed on the doublet
shown on the figure. For the resulting flow field,
a) there are two stagnation points, one above and one below the doublet.
b) there is one stagnation point to the left of the doublet.
c) there is one stagnation point to the right of the doublet.
d) there are no stagnation points anywhere in the flow.

notes

Back

## Conceptual Question 6.2C

Two tanks filled with water are connected by two straight circular pipes that have diameters D1 and D2,
as shown in the figure.
The water level in the left tank is twice that of the right tank. If the flow trough the connection pipes is
laminar and can be approximated by the fully developed Poiseuille solution, then the flow through pipe
2 will have the same velocity as the flow through pipe 1 when:
a)the diameter of pipe 2 is less than the diameter of pipe1,
b)the diameter of pipe 2 is greater than the diameter of pipe 1,
c)the diameter of pipe 2 is equal to the diameter of pipe 1.

notes

Back

Example A certain body has the shape of a halfbody with a thickness of 0.5 m. If this body is to be
placed in an airstream moving at 20 m/s, what source strength is required to simulate flow around the
body?
Answ: 10 m/s

Example A source and a sink are located along the x axis with the source at x = -0.5 m and the sink at x
= 0.5 m. Both the source and the sink have a strength of 5 m2/s. Determine the location of the
stagnation points along the x axis when this source-sink pair is combined with a uniform velocity of 10
m/s in the positive x direction.
Answ: 0.57 m

Example As illustrated in figure, a tornado can be approximated by a free vortex of strength for
r
> Rc, , where Rc is the radius of the core. Velocity measurements at points A and B indicate that
VA
= 38 m/s and VB = 18 m/s. Determine the distance from point A to the center of the tornado. Why can
the free vortex model not be used to approximate the tornado throughout the flow field (r >= 0)?
Answ: 27 m

table

Example The streamlines in a particular two-dimensional flow field are all concentric circles, as shown
in figure. The velocity is given by the equation v = r where is the angular velocity of the rotating
mass of fluid. Determine the circulation around the path ABCD
Answ: = (b2 - a2)

circ

Example Water flows through a two-dimensional diffuser having a 20 expansion angle, as shown in
figure. Assume that the flow in the diffuser can be treated as a radial flow emanating from a source at
the origin O.
a)If the velocity at the entrance is 20 m/s, determine an expression for the pressure gradient along the
diffuser walls.
b)What is the pressure rise between the entrance and exit?

## p 1.6 103 kPa

Answ: a)
r
r3
m
b) 184 kPa

Example When water discharges from a tank through an opening in its bottom, a vortex may form with
a curved surface profile, as shown in the figure. Assume that the velocity distribution in the vortex is
the same as that for a free vortex. At the same time the water is being discharged from the tank at point
A, it is desired to discharge a small quantity of water through the pipe B. As the discharge through A is
increased, the strength of the vortex, as indicated by its circulation, is increased. Determine the
maximum strength that the vortex can have in order that no air is sucked in at B. Express your answer
in terms of the circulation. Assume that the fluid level in the tank at a large distance from the opening at
A remains constant and viscous effects are negligible.
Answ: a) = 101 ft2/s

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