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Tertiary Treatment

Processes

It is worthwhile to mention that the textile

waste contains significant quantities of


non-biodegradable chemical polymers.
Tertiary
Treatment
Processes
Since the conventional
treatment
methods
are inadequate, there is the need for
efficient tertiary treatment process.
Oxidation techniques
A variety of oxidizing agents can be used to
decolorize wastes. Sodium hypochlorite decolorizes
dye bath efficiently. Though it is a low cost
technique, but it forms absorbable toxic organic
halides (AOX) .
Ozone on decomposition generates oxygen and
free radicals and the later combines with coloring
agents of effluent resulting in the destruction of
colors.

Membrane technologies

Reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are the


important examples of membrane process.
Reverse Osmosis:
When

two solutions having different


solute concentrations are separated by
a
semipermeable
membrane,
a
difference in chemical potential will
exist across the membrane.
Water will tend to diffuse through the
membrane from the lower-concentration
(higher potential) side to the higherconcentration (lower-potential) side.

Cont.
In a system having a finite volume, flow

continues until the pressure difference


balances the chemical potential difference.
This
balancing pressure difference is
termed as osmotic pressure and is a
function of solute characteristics and
concentration and temperature.
If
a pressure gradient opposite in the
direction and greater than the osmotic
pressure is imposed across the membrane,
flow from the more concentrated to the
less concentrated region will occur and
termed as reverse osmosis.

Electrodialysis
Electrodialysis

is a process where, ionic


components of a solution are separated through
the
use
of
semipermeable
ion-selective
membranes.
It
has
a
variety
of
reuse
applications in wastewater treatment fields.

Theory of Electrodialysis
Application of an electrical potential between

the two electrode causes an electric current


to pass through the solution, which in turn
causes a migration of cations towards the
negative electrode and a migration of anions
toward the positive electrode.

Cont
Because of the alternate spacing of cation- and

anion-permeable
membranes,
cells
of
concentrated and dilute salts are formed.
Wastewater is pumped through the membranes,
which is separated by spacers and assembled
into stacks.
The wastewater is usually retained for about 10
to 20 days in a single stack or stage.
Dissolved solids removals vary with the
Wastewater temperature
II.
Amounts of electrical current passed
III. Type of amount of ions
IV. Perm-selectivity of the membrane
V.
Fouling and scaling potential of the wastewater
VI. Wastewater flow rates, and
VII. Number and configuration of stages
I.

Disinfection Theory:

Characteristics of Disinfectant
The characteristics of an ideal disinfectant are showed
in the table:
Characteristic
Properties/Responses
Availability

Should be available in large


quantities and reasonably
priced

Deodorizing ability

Should deodorizing while


disinfecting

Homogeneity

Solution must be uniform in


composition

Interaction with extraneous


material

Should not be absorbed by


organic matter other than
bacterial cells

Nontoxic to higher forms of


life

Should be toxic to microbes


and nontoxic to humans and
other animals

Penetration

Should have the capacity to


penetrate through surfaces

Safety

Should be safe to transport,


store, handle, and use.

Solubility

Must be soluble in water or

Disinfection Methods
Disinfection is most commonly accomplished by the use of

Chemical agents,
Physical agents,
Mechanical means, and
Radiation

Chemical agents

Chemical agents that have been used as disinfectants include


1. Chlorine and its compounds
2. Bromine
3. Iodine
4. Ozone
5. Phenol and phenolic compounds
6. Alcohols
7. Soaps and synthetic detergents
8. Peracetic acids etc.

Physical agents
Physical disinfectants that can be used are heat, light,

and sound wave.

Heating water to the boiling point, for example, will

destroy the major disease producing non-spore-forming


bacteria.

Sunlight is also a good disinfectant, due to primarily to

the UV radiation portion of the electromagnetic (EM)


spectrum. The decay of microbes observed in oxidation
ponds is due, in part, to their exposure to the UV
component of the sunlight.

Special lamps developed to emit UV rays have been

used successfully to disinfect water and wastewater.

Radiation

The major types of radiation are electromagnetic,

acoustic, and particle.


Gamma rays are emitted from radioisotopes, such as

cobalt-60. because of their penetration power,


gamma rays have been used to disinfect (sterilize)
both water and wastewater.
Although the use of a high-energy electron-beam

device for the irradiation of wastewater or sludge has


been studied extensively, there are no commercial
devices or full-scale installations in operation.

Mechanism of Disinfection by using Chlorine,


Ozone, and UV
Chlorine

Ozone

UV radiation

Oxidation

Direct
oxidation/destruction
of cell wall

Photochemical
damage to RNA and
DNA within the cells of
an organism

Reactions with
available chlorine

Reactions with radical


byproducts of ozone
decomposition

The nucleic acids in


microbes are the most
important absorbers
of the energy of light
in the wave length
range of 240-280 nm.

Protein precipitation

Damage to the
constituents of the
nucleic acids

Because of DNA and


RNA carry genetic
information for
reproduction, damage
of these substances
can effectively
inactivate the cell.

Environmental impact of using UV radiation


disinfection
On the basis of the evidence to date, it appears

that the compounds formed at the UV dosage


used for the disinfection ( 50 to 140 mJ/cm2) of
wastewater are harmless or are broken down into
more innocuous forms.
Thus the disinfection of wastewater with UV light
is considered to have no adverse environmental
impacts.
The
environmental impacts and types of
compounds formed when UV radiation is used for
the destruction
of NDMA and endocrine
disruptors, typically at UV dosage greater than
400 mJ/cm2,is not known at present (2001)

General ETP
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