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SEMINAR AND WORKSHOP

OF BIOLOGY
Prepared by:
Mr. Zulkarnain Jamaluddin
SMK Tengku Abdullah, Pekan.

Penceramah
Nama: Zulkarnain bin Jamaluddin
Umur: 36 tahun
Gred: DG44
Opsyen: Biologi dan Sains

Sejarah Pendidikan:
1986-1991 SK Panching Selatan
1992-1996 SMK Panching Selatan
1997-1998 Pusat Matrikulasi (UKM) Kuala Pilah
1998-2001 UKM, Bangi.

Pengalaman Mengajar:
2001-2006: SMK Dato Mahmud Mat, Pekan.
2007-2014: SMK Seri Pekan.
2015- Kini: SMK Tengku Abdullah, Pekan.

Pengalaman Menyampaikan Ceramah/Bengkel Biologi


SMK Seri Pekan (Seminar dan Bengkel)
2. SMK Ahmad, Pekan (Seminar)
3. SMK Peramu Jaya, Pekan (Kelas anjuran ECER, UMP)
4. SMK Tengku Abdullah, Pekan (Seminar)
5. SMK Nenasi, Pekan (Seminar)
6. SMK Chini, Pekan (Seminar)
7. SMK Muadzam Jaya, Muadzam Shah (Bengkel)
8. SMKA Pahang, Muadzam Shah(Bengkel)
9. SemSAS, Kuantan (Kelas PissaA anjuran Yayasan Pahang)
10.Maahad Tahfiz, Kuantan (Seminar)
11.PPD Bera (Seminar untuk Calon target A Daerah Bera)
12.SABS, Kuantan (Seminar)
13.SHAKS, Kuantan (Seminar dan Bengkel)
14.SMK Bukit Rangin, Kuantan (Kelas PissaA anjuran Yayasan Pahang)
15.SBPI Kuantan (Kelas PissaA anjuran Yayasan Pahang))
16.SBPI Pekan (Zoom Sekunder/ Tertier)
17.SMK Cenderawasih (Seminar)
18.SMK Pandan (Seminar)
19.SMK Abdul Rahman Talib (SMART), Kuantan. (Seminar dan Bengkel)
1.

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

Penulisan
Menghasilkan Modul Sempoi
Biologi tingkatan 4 dan 5.

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

Laman web
www.iamchampion.blogspot.com

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

Introduction

PART
Number of
Question
Option
Time
suggested
Time
suggested for
each question
Difficulty
Weight age

PAPER 2
(STRUCTURE)
5

PAPER 2
(ESSAY)
4

Compulsory

Only 2
questions
One hour

One hour and


thirty minutes

18 minutes
30 minutes
(including revise (including revise
time)
time)
Easy and medium
Easy, medium
and high
30%
20%
Seminar and workshop
of Biology
Paper Two

MARK SCHEME
BIOLOGY
2014
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

Q
1(a)
(i)

(ii)
(b)
(i)

Correct

Reject
1. Unicellular
organisati
on.
2. Multicellul
ar

Cell

M: Contractile vacuole.
P1: (Fresh) water is hypotonic to
Amoeba sp. / vice versa
P2: water (molecules) diffuse/
enter / move into the contractile
vacuole.
P3: by osmosis
[Any two]
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

Q
Correct
1(b P1: Water diffuses/ enter/ move into the
)
contractile vacuole
(ii) P2: Contractile vacuole expand / enlarges
to maximum size
P3: Contractile vacuole moves to the cell
membrane
P4: Contractile vacuole contract
P5: Expel / release (out)/ eliminate/
excrete/ remove/ discharge/ pump out
P6: prevent bursting // osmoregulation
occurs

Reject
flow/
go
bigger

Secrete
explod
e

(iii) Prediction: Die/ shrink / crenated


P1: sea water is hypertonic to Amoeba sp.
P2: water diffuse out from contractile
vacuole / Amoeba sp.
P3: by osmosis
Seminar and workshop of Biology
P4: contractile vacuole stop/ fail Paper
to Two

1 (c)
P1 Food vacuole formed // phagosome is formed.
P2 Lysosome fused with food vacuole // Lysosome
contains lysozyme/ enzyme.
P3 (hyrolytic) enzyme is released into food
vacuole.
P4 (hydrolytic) enzyme digest/ breakdown /
hydrolyse the bacteria/ food particle.
P5 Nutrients/ digested food are absorbed/ diffused
(into cytoplasm).
P6 Waste product / undigested food are excreted
out / expel.
[Reject: secreted out / remove]
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Two

10

2(a)(i) Prophase 1.
[Reject: Prophase II / Prophase]
(ii) P1 Chromosomes (begin to) condense/
shorten / thicken/ tightly coiled / thicker.
P2 Homologous chromosomes pair up.
P3 Synapsis occur
P4 Form bivalents/ tetrad.
P5 Crossing overs
P6 At chiasma /chiasmata.
P7 Exchange of genetic materials.
P8 Recombination of gene / new combination
of gene.
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Two

11

2(b)
F Crossing over
F1 Variation // variety of species /
organisms.
E1 better quality products.
E2 High resistance against diseases// High
adaptation towards changes in
environment.
E3 Survival of species/ organism// Prevent
extinction of the species/ organisms.
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12

(c)(i)
Centrioles
(c)(ii)
F1 Abnormal gametes
E1 Spindle fibres will not formed
E2 Homologous chromosomes will not be separated //
Sister chromatid / chromosome will not separated.
E3 During anaphase I / II.
E4 Number of chromosomes in the gamete is not haploid /
reduced / unequal.
E5 Mutation occurs / any suitable example.
[Reject: gene mutation / albinism/ cell-sickle
anemia]
E6 Abnormality in the offspring.
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Two

13

(d)
N
o

F:
Example

C: Cause of
disease

S: Symptom

Lacking of gene to
produce pigment
melanin in the skin /
gene mutation

S1: cannot withstand


(strong) sunlight / very
sensitive to sunlight.
S2: skin easily damaged/
injured
S3: poor vision/
photophobia/ red eye/
pinkish eye/ rapid eye
movement

Albino

Haemophi C1: Lacking of


S1: excessive bleeding
lia
protein/ bloodS2: the blood does not
clotting factor/
clot normally.
Factor VIII for normal
blood clotting.
C2: cause by a
recessive allele
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found on the X
Paper Two

14

(d)
No

F:
Example

C: Cause of disease

S: Symptom

Colour
blindness

Cause by a recessive
allele found on the X
chromosome / gene
mutation

S1: unable to
distinguish between
red and green colors

Thalassae
mia

Cause by a recessive
gene (and affect the
haemoglobin in red
blood cell) / gene
mutation.

S1: small and pale red


blood cell

Downs
Syndrome

An extra chromosome
S1: mentally retarded
number 21 /
S2: flat facial features
chromosomal mutation with a small nose
S3: slanted eyes
Any suitable features.

Turners
Syndrome

C1: Absent of one X


sex chromosome/
number of

S1: infertile/ non


functioning
ovaries
Seminar
and workshop of
Biology
Paper Two
S2: webbed neck

15

(d)
No

F:
Example

C: Cause of disease

S: Symptom

Klinefelter An extra X
s
chromosome/ number
Syndrome of chromosome is 47/
44+XXY/ chromosomal
mutation

S1: developed breast


S2: infertile
S3: sparse hair body

Polydactyl
y

Genetic mutation on
chromosome number
7/ gene mutation

S1: has more than five


digits per hand or per
foot

Huntingto
ns
Disease

Cause by a single gene S1: brain cells die


mutation/ gene
S2: behavioral
mutation
changes
Loss of mental power

10

Sickle-cell
anemia

Defective gene for


synthesis of
haemoglobin causes
the erythrocyte to be
sickle-shape / gene

S1: fatique
S2: dizziness
S3: headaches
S4:and
jaundice
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workshop of Biology
Paper Two

16

(d)
N
o

F: Example

C: Cause of
disease

S: Symptom

11 Cancer

C1 inherited by
parents (before birth)
during pregnancy
C2 gene mutation
C3 occur after birth
due to smoking/
expose to radiation/
virus/ carcinogen/
imbalance hormone

S1: Lump / tumour//


weight changes/
loss of gain / fatique
S2: persistence
cough/ indigestion/
muscle/ joint pain/
fever/ night sweat
S3: difficulty in
swallowing

12 Type of
mutation:
i. Gene
ii. chromoso
me

C1 radiation
C2 Chemicals/
carcinorgen

Any example of
disease / F/
Symptom (but must
be tele with gene or
chromosome
mutation)
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Paper Two

17

3(a)
S: Adrenal gland / cortex / medulla
T: Pancreas
3(b)(i)
Insulin// glucagon

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Paper Two

18

3(b)(ii)
P1 Blood sugar/ glucose level higher/ excess
glucose (than normal range).
P2 (more) insulin secreted / produced /
released (by pancreas).
P3 (stimulate)/ (excess) glucose converted
to glycogen.
[Reject: changed/ transformed]
P4 stored in liver / muscle.
OR
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Two

19

3(b)(ii)
P1 Blood sugar level lower (than
normal range)
P2 Glucagon secreted/ produced/
released (by pancreas).
P3 glycogen converted to glucose
(in liver).
P4 blood glucose increase.
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20

(c)
P1 Concentration of amino acids in blood
plasma is higher than in urine / accept
any statement that shows comparison.
[Reject: statement using value]
P2 All / 100% amino acids
P3 Reabsorption occur/ reabsorbed (into
the blood capillary / plasma/ stream)
P4 by active transport
P5 at the proximal (convulated) tubule.
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21

3(d)(i)
P1 Kidney fails to acts as an osmoregulatory organ.
P2 Osmoregulation does not occur/ osmotic pressure
cannot be controlled.
[Reject: water cannot be regulated]
P3: Reabsorbtion of water/ ultrafitration cannot occur //
secretion of urea cannot occur
P4 No/ less urine formed // accumulation of water in the
body// urea cannot be pumped out/ secreted out from
blood of high concentration of urea in the blood.
P5 Imbalance / increase/ decrease of blood osmotic
pressure/ blood become toxic/ concentrated/ dilute.
P6 High / low content of water in the blood (depending on
water intake).
P7 cause death / oedema/ dehydrate / high blood
pressure/ coma
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22

3(d)(ii)
P1 Blood flows through a semi-permeable tubing
P2 dialysis fluid is isotonic / similar
concentration to the blood (plasma)
P3 (As blood flows) urea which is higher
concentration in the blood.
P4 diffuse across the tubing (wall)
P5 into the dialysis fluid
P6 which has a lower concentration of urea
P7 urea is eliminated / excreted from the blood.
[Reject: Urea is removed]
P8 The osmotic pressure of the blood back to
normal/ maintain
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Two

23

4(a)
Tall, white flower
Short, purple flower
(b)(i)
TTbb
Tb
ttBB
Tb
(b)(ii) Tall, purple fower
(c)(i) 3/16 // 0.19 // 19% //
18.75% // 0.1875
(c)(ii) 9/16 // 0.56 // 56%

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

24

(d) 3/16 // 0.19 // 19% // 18.75%


Gametes from F1
parent
Gametes from other
F1 parent
TB

TB

Tb

tB

tb

TTBB

TTBb

TtBB

TtBb

Tb

TTBb

TTbb

TtBb

Ttbb

tB

TtBB

TtBb

ttBB

ttBb

tb

TtBb

Ttbb

ttBb

ttbb

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

25

4(e)
Tall,
purple
flower
9
:

Tall,
white
flower
3
:

Short,
purple
flower
3
:

Short,
white
flower
1

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

26

(f)
P1 During meiosis // during gamete
formation
P2 each pair of alleles separate /
segregate.
P3 each member of a pair of alleles
may combine randomly with either/
any member of another pair of
alleles // TB/ Tb/ tb/ tB
P4 Law of Independent assortment.
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Two

27

5(a)(i)
J: Inhalation // breath in //
inspiration / inhale
K: Exhalation // Breath out//
expiration/ exhale

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Two

28

5 (a)(ii)

Criteria
External
intercostal
muscles
Internal
intercostal
muscles
Diaphragm

Rib cage

Volume of
thoracic

J
Contract

Relax

Relax

Contract

Contract/
flattens/ move
down
Move upwards/
outwards

Relax/ curves
upwards / dome
shape/ curve
Moves downwards/
inwards. [reject:
chest]
Decreases

Increases

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Two

29

P1 less oxygen / less air in atmosphere / less atmospheric


pressure.
[reject: less pressure]
P2 partial pressure of oxygen is low
P3 less oxygen in the blood
P4 detected by the (peripheral) chemoreceptor / carotid/ aortic
bodies // generate impulse to respiratory centre.
P5 sends / transmit impulses to the muscles / intercostal
muscle / diaphragm / effector
P6 rate of contraction / relaxation of the muscles/ intercostal
muscle/ diaphragm increase
P7 increase the breathing rate / inhalation/ exhalation
P8 increase ventilation rate
P9 impulse (from respiratory centre) send to heart
P10 heart beat faster
P11 more oxygen delivered to cell // to obtain enough /
sufficient oxygen // more carbon dioxide transported to lung.
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30

5(c)
P1 vigorous activity needs / use (more)
energy
P2 supply of oxygen is less (than oxygen
needed)/ not sufficient of oxygen
P3 anaerobic respiration occurs
P4 oxygen debt occurs // less energy is
produced / 150 kJ/ 2ATP
P5 Lactic acid formed
P6 lactic acid accumulated
P7 cause muscle fatigue
[reject: muscle cramp]
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Two

31

6(a)(i)
F Plant wilts
E1 plant is added with excess fertilizer// less/ no water in
the soil // exposed to (high) sunlight // any suitable
explanation.
E2 the soil water is hypotonic to the cell (sap)// (more)
water lost through transpiration / evaporate // rate of
transpiration high // rate of evaporation high
E3 water diffuses out / moves out of the cell / down the
concentration gradient.
E4 by osmosis
E5 cytoplasm / vacuole shrinks/ become smaller
[reject: contract]
E6 plasma membrane moves/ pulls away/ detached from
the cell wall
E7 plasmolysis occurs // plant cell flaccid
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32

6(a)(ii)

F1 watering the plant // placing the plant in (a bucket/


container of) water // Add (more) water.
E1 The soil water is hypotonic to the (root hair) cells/ The water
concentration in the soil is higher than in the (root hair) cells.
E2 water enters/ diffuses into the (root hair) cell / down the
concentration gradient
E3 by osmosis
E4 vacuole/ cytoplasm expands/ exlarges
E5 the osmotic pressure of (root hair) cells reduce / turgor
pressure increase.
E6 pushing the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
E7 deplasmolysis occur.
E8 cell become turgid.
E9 the plant stands upright/ not wilt.
[reject: good condition/ fresh]
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33

6(b)
F At point R the concentration of sodium chloride
solution is 0% / distilled water.
F1 all/ 100% of red blood cells is haemolysed.
E1 0% of sodium chloride/ distilled water is
hypotonic to red blood cell.
E2 water diffuse/ enter/ move into the cell/ red blood
cell
E3 by osmosis
E4 Red blood cell expand / swell
E5 and burst
E6 cell membrane cannot withstand the high /
turgor/ hydrolytic pressure
E7 because cell membrane is very thin / weak // red
blood cell has no cell wall
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Paper Two

34

6(b)
F2 At point S the concentration sodium
chloride solution 0.85%/ [0.80%-0.90%]
F3 0%/ No red blood cells is haemolysed
E8 0.85%/ [0.80%-0.90%] of sodium chloride
solution / at point S is an isotonic solution//
the concentration of sodium chloride solution
is equal / same as red blood cells / cell
E9 number/ rate of water molecules diffuse in
and out of the cell is the same/ net
movement of water molecules is zero.
E10 by osmosis
E11 cells in normal/ maintain its shape
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35

7(a)

Stage I
F pituitary (gland) secrete LH.
P1 High level of LH in the blood.
P2 (stimulates) ovulation
P3 Secondary oocyte / ovum is released
Stage II
P4 (LH stimulates) the development/
formation of corpum luteum
P5 (LH stimulates) corpus luteum to
secrete progesterone/ oestrogen and
progesterone
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36

7(b)(i)

F Contraceptile pills contain (synthetic)


progesterone and oestrogen.
P1 low level of FSH (in the blood)
[reject: FSH is inhibited]
P2 No development of follicle
P3 Graafian follicle does not form/ develop
P4 less/ no oestrogen secreted (by ovary)
P5 pituitary gland not/ less stimulated.
P6 to secrete (enough) LH
P7 No ovulation
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Causes
P1 Corpus luteum degenerates/ disintegrate/
reduce in size/ smaller
P2 ovum/ secondary oocyte not fertilised//
fertilisation does not occur
P3 No/ Low level of progesterone
P4 Lining of uterus wall/ endometrium
disintegrates/ breakdown/ regress/ rupture/
menses occur/ menstruation
[reject: Collapse]
Effect
P5 No implantation
P6 No pregnancy
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38

F1: Has primary xylem

Has primary and


secondary xylem

E1: (vascular) cambium


does not divides by
mitosis

Cambium divides by
mitosis (tangentialy)
inwards toward the pith

F2 has primary phloem

Has primary and


secondary phloem

E2 (vascular) cambium
does not divides by
mitosis

Cambium divides by
mitosis (tangentially)
outwards towards
epidermis.
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39

X
F3: smaller diameter /
radius
E3: vascular cambium not
divides by mitosis to form
secondary xylem and
phloem
F4: No cork/ cork
cambium.
E4: No cork cambium to
divide by mitosis to form
cork
F5: No bark// Has
epidermis
E5: No (external) cork
layer

Y
Larger diameter/ radius
Vascular cambium divides
by mitosis to form
secondary xylem and
phloem
Has cork/ cork cambium.
Cork cambium divides by
mitosis to form cork
towards bark
Has bark.
Has (external) cork layer.
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F6: No cambium ring

Has cambium ring.

E6: (vascular) cambium


does not divide

(vascular) cambium
divides by mitosis radially
sideways.

F7: No secondary cortex // Has secondary cortex.


Has cortex
E7: No cork cambium to
divide by mitosis to form
secondary cortex

Cork cambium divides by


mitosis to form secondary
cortex inwards.
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41

7(c)(ii)

P1: show unlimited growth/ continuous growth.


P2: is series of continuous sigmoid curves
P3: adding to one another // repeat year after year.
P4: each sigmoid curve represents one years
growth.
P5: (the end of each sigmoid) curve shows a slight
dip/ decrease.
P6: because of the shedding of leaves and fruits.
P7: Growth is affected by season.
P8: During summer/ spring/ rainy season rate of
photosynthesis/ growth is higher.
P9: During autumn/ winter/ drought the rate of
photosynthesis/ growth is slower.
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8(a)

P1: The food chain shows the flow energy from one
trophic level to another trophic level // shows the flow
of energy from paddy plant to caterpillar/ caterpillar
to bird/ bird to eagle.
P2: (The longer the food chain the) lower/ least the
energy received by the last consumer/ eagle// 10% of
energy is transferred from one level to the other
level// 90% of energy loss
P3: 90% of energy is lost as respiration/ reproduction/
any suitable process/ activity
P4: The paddy plant received the (highest) energy from
the sun.
P5 The light energy (from the sun) will be converted to
chemical energy/ food
P6: through photosynthesis
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P7: caterpillar eat/ obtain food from the paddy


plant// bird eat/ obtain food from caterpillar//
eagle eat/ obtain food from eat bird.
P8: caterpillar obtain energy from paddy plant//
bird obtain energy from caterpillar// eagle
obtain energy from bird.
P9: without the paddy plant there will be no
energy flow// if the number of paddy plant
decrease/ increase, the number of caterpillar
decrease/ increase
P10: No food produced for the (all the)
consumers.
P11: leads to extinction/ death/ less/ migration
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P12: The paddy plant is at the first trophic level//


caterpillar is at the 2nd trophic level// bird is at
the 3rd trophic level/ eagle is at the 4th trophic
level.
P13: Paddy plant is the producer/ caterpillar is
the primary consumer/ bird is the secondary
consumer/ eagle is the tertiary consumer.//
shown by the pyramid of number/ any
explanation relate to pyramid of numbers.
P14: the number of each organism has to be
maintain to in order to maintain the ecosystem
balance// if the number of any organism
change, it may cause imbalance of ecosystem
balance.// eagle control the number of bird//
bird control the number of caterpillar.
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P15: if the number of caterpillar


increase, the number of paddy
plant will decrease.
P16: if the number of caterpillar
increase, the number of bird will
increase.
P17: if the number of caterpillar
decrease, the number of paddy
plant will increase.
P18: if the number of caterpillar
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P19: if the number of bird increase, the number


of caterpillar plant will decrease.
P20: if the number of bird increase, the
number of eagle will increase.
P21: if the number of bird decrease, the
number of caterpillar will increase.
P22: if the number of bird decrease, the
number of eagle will decrease/ migrate.
P23: if the number of eagle increase, the
number of bird plant will decrease.
P24: if the number of eagle decrease, the
number of bird will increase.
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8(b)
Excess fertilizers used
P1: Excess fertilisers which has very high content of
nitrates/ phosphates dissolved in the rain water/ flow into
the nearby stream / river.
P2 enhances/ stimulates the growth of algae// causes algae
to grow rapidly.
P3 which leads to eutrophication // algal bloom
P4: The alga covers the surface of the stream / river and
blocking sunlight to penetrate into the water.
P5: causes aquatics plants rate of photosynthesis lower/no
photosynthesis// lower the rate of photosynthesis of
aquatic plants.
P6: less oxygen released.
P7: aquatic organisms rate of respiration lower.
P8: (aquatic organism) competing with the algae for oxygen.
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P9: leads to the death of aquatic organism.


P10: rate of decomposition by bacteria higher / bacteria used up
the oxygen in the water // more oxygen has been used by
bacteria.
P11: less oxygen dissolved in water / concentration of oxygen (in
the water) reduced.
P12: BOD of water higher.
P13: soil pollution occur.
P14: change the Ph of the soil // Soil become acidic
P15: increase the salinity of the soil.
P16: damage the roots of the plant.
P17: less / no intake of water
P18: retard the growth/ decrease the rate of growth
P19: slow down the seed germination.
P20: minerals content in plant increase.
P21 attract / more vulnerable to pest infection
P22: plant die.
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8(b)

Excessively chopping down of trees


C1: less tree
C2: no/less/ lower rate of photosynthesis
C3: No/less carbon dioxide absorbed from the atmosphere//
concentration of carbon dioxide increase in the atmosphere.
C4: heat trapped in the atmosphere
C5: temperature of the environment increases
C6: causes green house effect/ global warming
C7: any suitable effect of global warming/ change in climate.
C8: the habitat/ shelter of the organisms are destroyed.
C9: destruction of food chains/ food web
C10: extinction species/ organisms/ migration
C11: lost of major sources of human food/ any suitable example
C12: no/destroy the water catchment area// no roots hold the soil/
the soil is loose
C13: Barren land exposed to heavy rain// sunlight
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9(a)(i)

Individual U
P1: Leads to gastric ulser/ gastritis
P2: (because) no food (in the stomach)
P3: Gastric glands secrete (much) gastric juice
P4: (Gastric juice) contains hydrochloric acid/
acid
P5: acts on/ corrodes the lining of the (epithelial
lining of) the stomach wall
P6: damage the cells/ tissues of the stomach/
internal bleeding/ inflammation
P7: causing abdominal pain/ nausea/vomitting
P8: develop into a hole/ wound in stomach wall.
[any five]
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9(a)(ii)
Individual W
P1: Bulimia
P2: maintain body mass/ fear of gaining weight
P3: cause depression/ anxiety/ stress
[accept: psychological diseases]
P4: lacking/ imbalance of mineral ions/ nutrients
P5: (serious) damage/ injury/ inflammation to the
digestive tract/ esophagus
P6: purging/ diarrhea
P7: causing abdominal pain/ muscle fatigue/ ulcer/
constipation/ edema/ dehydration/ bloating/ mouth
problem/ dizziness/ any correct example
P8: leads to cardiovascular diseases/ kidney damage
[any five]
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9(b)
P1: Nasi lemak contains carbohydrate/ fats/ cholesterol
P2: provides energy/ building block for complex
molecules/ DNA/ RNA/ glycogen
P3: excess carbohydrate cause obesity/ diabetic
P4: coconut milk in nasi lemak contains cholesterol/ fats/
mineral/ calcium/ ferum/ vitamin
P5: Fried chicken/ egg/ ground nuts/ chilli gravy contain
protein/ fat/ minerals/ vitamin.
P6: Protein is needed to build new cells/ for growth/ cell
division/ repair cells
P7: excess of protein causes gout/ kidney failure/ liver
failure/ increase acid uric level in blood
P8: vitamin is needed for good health// any suitable
function
P9: any example of correct vitamin and function.
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

53

P10: excess of lipid soluble vitamin cause liver


poisoning/ bone damage/ hair loss/ kidney damage.
P11: fats provide energy/ insulation/ protect internal
organ/ for water proofing/ built plasma membrane
P12: Excess fats cause obesity/ cardiovascular disease.
P13: Cucumber contains dietary fibre/ water/ vitamin/
mineral
P14: Fibre/ water help in peristalsis movement
P15: Prevent constipation/ reduce the rise of gut cancer/
prevent coronary heart disease
P16: water as a medium for biochemical reaction/
solvent.
P17: mineral needs for good health/ any suitable answer
P18: Any example of mineral and correct function.
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

54

MARK SCHEME
BIOLOGY
2013
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

55

SPM 2013
Q
1(a)
(i)
(ii)
(b)
(i)
(ii)

Correct

Reject

P: Glycerol
Q: Fatty acids
P: 1 (molecule)
Q: 3 (molecule)
Process X: Condensation/
Esterification
P1: (1 molecule) glycogen/ P combine Hydroge
n bond
with (3 molecules) fatty acids/ Q (to
form triglyceride).
P2: Bond formed// covalent bond.
P3: Involves removal of water//water
is produced/ released.
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

56

SPM 2013
Q
1(c)

Correct

Reject

P1: as an energy source


P2: as an insulator( from heat lost)//
Keep
maintain body temperature
warm
P3: provide protection against shock//
protect internal organ.
P4: contribute to structure of plasma
membrane (to form lipid bilayer)
P5: aid infect soluble vitamin
absorption (Vit. ADEK)

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

57

SPM 2013

Q
Correct
1(d Effect:
P1: Cardiovascular disease/ any suitable
)

disease related to the blockage of artery//


arteriosclerosis/ atherosclerosis/ myocardial
infarction/hypertension/heart attack/stroke/
high blood pressure

Reject

Thromb
osis

Explanation:
P2: The individual consumes excess fats/lipids
P3: (accumulation) of fats/lipids/
cholesterol/calcium deposited on the (inner)
wall (of the artery)// atherosclerosis
P4: lumen narrower/smaller
P5: producing high resistance (to blood flow)//
blood pressure high
P6: artery (wall) become harden/
arteriosclerosis
P7: blocks/slow down/insufficient/prevent blood
flow
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two
P8: weakened the heart muscle

58

SPM 2013
Q
Correct
Reject
1(e) P1: consume balance diet//
consume less oily food
according to food pyramid// eat
more fruits/ vegetables//
healthy eating habit
P2: practise healthy lifestyle//
not smoking// not taking
alcohol// not stress// sleep
Exercis
early/enough
e
P3: regular exercise// jogging
every morning.
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

59

SPM 2013
Q
2(a)
(b)
(c)

Correct
Reject
Q: Transport vesicle
S
transports synthesised
proteins
P1: semi-permeable
P2: allows small particle/ same size
(as pore) to pass through it
P3: acts selectively/ allows certain
molecules/ substances to pass
through// control/ regulate the
movement of substances to cross it//
facilitated diffusion// active transport
P4: dynamic/ fluidity/ flexible
P5: contains phospholipid
Seminar and workshop of Biology
(molecules)/ proteins/ cholesterol
Paper Two

60

SPM 2013
Q
Correct
Reject
2 (d) P1: R is Golgi apparatus
P2: modifies protein into enzymes
P3: packages the enzyme
P4: into secretory vesicles
P5: move to plasma membrane
P6: fused with plasma membrane
P7: (enzyme) secreted/ released out
of the cell
(e)
P1: the organelle is chloroplast/
animal does not have chloroplast
P2: do not need to absorb light energy
P3: does not carry out photosynthesis
P4: animal is heterotroph//holozoic
nutrition
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

61

Q
2(e)
(ii)

(iii)

Correct
Reject
P1: contains stored food/ glucose/
Starch
sugar/ carbohydrate/ act as storage
organ
P2: for growth of plant/ forms new
leaves
Does
P3: no photosynthesis occurs
not
P4 no absorption of light energy (so need
does not need chloroplast/
light
chlorophyll)
energy
P1: slow growth// still can grow/
germinate
P2: storage food (in scale leaf) is
used// does not need carry out
photosynthesis
P3: onion bulb shrinks/ become
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two
smaller

62

SPM 2013
Q

Correct

3(a)(i)

Height : Continuous variation


Ability to roll tongue: Discontinuous variation

(ii)

Continuous variation

Discontinuous variation

Shows gradual/ slight


changes//has intermediates
(between individual)

Shows extreme/ distinct


differences// no
intermediates

Can be measured//
quantitative

Cannot be
measured//qualitative

Bell-shaped curve/ normal


curve// normal distribution

Discrete curve. Graph//bar


chart// not a normal
distribution

Influenced by environment
factor (and genetic factor)

Influence by genetic factor

Controlled by several
genes/pairs of allele

Seminar and workshop


of Biology
Controlled
by single
gene/ a
Paper Two
pair
of allele

63

SPM 2013
Q
3(b)

Correct
P1: during meiosis
P2: gametes received/ has/
inherited (allele) IO, IA,IB
P3: during fertilization/ fuse

Reject

Combin
e/meet

P4: gamete (with allele) IB fused/


fertilized with gamete (with allele)
IO
P5: (Thus) the offspring/ zygote
with genotype is IBIO (blood group
is B)// offspring inherit alleles IO
and IB from the parents.
P6: allele IB is dominant to allele IO,
so the offspring blood group
is B.
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

64

SPM 2013
Q
3(c)

(d)

Correct
P1: Grey-colored moth adapted
better (to the environment)//
Environment more suitable for greycolored moth
P2: by camouflage
P3: avoid from predators
P4 better survival// Avoid extinction
P1: no variation/ varieties
P2: (From) clones
P3: contain same genetic material
P4: same body resistance
P5: lower/ no body resistance//
could not resist infection

Reject

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

65

SPM 2013
Q

Correct

Reject

4(a) R: Sweat gland


S: Erector muscle
(b)
(i)

P1: As heat insulator// help maintain the


body temperature
P2: as energy source
P3: store fat/lipid

Keep the
body warm
Protect
internal
organ

(ii)

P1: blood capillary constrict//


WCR given
vasoconstriction
if candidate
P2: (blood capillary) further from the skin
answer
(surface)// diameter/lumen of blood capillary situation P
smaller
and Q
P3: less/reduce/prevent blood flow (to the
skin surface)
P4: less/reduce/prevent heat lost
P5: by radiation
Seminar and workshop of Biology
P6: (body temperature) lower thanPaper
normal
Two

66

SPM 2013
Q
4(c)

Correct

Reject

R
F1: more active/ stimulated
E1: to release (more) sweat//
Flat/flatten
sweat evaporates
/ drop
E2: (more) heat lost/ absorb (in
*All parts
sweat)
must be
S
answer to
F2:S/ erector muscle relaxes//
give 5
become thinner
marks.
E2: down/ lay down
If any part
T
did not
F3: the hair slant/ lay down/lie
answer,
E3: less air trapped// more heat
max mark
loss// less insulation
given only
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two
4

67

SPM 2013
Q
4(d)

Correct
F1: acts as a (physical) protective
layer/ first line body defense
E1: prevents from invasions of
pathogens
F2: has sebum/ lysozyme
E2: traps/ kills bacteria/ inhibit
bacteria growth
F3: act as excretory organ
E3: excrete sweat/ urea/
water/mineral/salt/ waste product
F4: act as sensory organ
E4: detect the external
stimuli/pain/pressure/touch

Reject

Toxic
waste

Heat/cold
*if F2
wrong, E2
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two
rejected

68

SPM 2013
Q
5(a)

Correct
Reject
F: M is Xylem
F1: has lignified wall
E1: strengthened (the vessel
from collapsing)/ prevent the
(vessel) from collapsing
E2: to withstand (the change of )
water pressure
F2: (long) hollow/ narrow/ opened
ended/ open end to end
E3: (ensure) continuous flow of
Transport
water
water from
E4: produce capillary action
root to leaf
E5:Adhesion/ cohesion forces
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

69

SPM 2013

Q
5(b)
(i)

Correct

Rejec
t

F: K is transpiration
F1: to cool the plant/ to regulate/
maintain plant temperature
E1: water absorb heat from the plant
F2: transpirational pull is created
E2: to evaporate/ to become water vapor
F3: for turgidity of the plant/ to maintain
the osmotic pressure of the plant
E3: continuous flow of water from root
(to leaves)
F4: transport minerals/ water
E4: support the plant// provide
(mechanical) support
E5: for the growth/ health ofSeminar
the and
plant/
workshop of Biology
Paper Two
photosynthesis

70

SPM 2013

Correct

Rejec
t

5(b)
(ii)

P1: dust (from factory) accumulate/ block the


leaves/ stoma
P2: less/ no light absorbed (by chloroplast in
guard cell)// less/no gases exchange// light
cannot penetrate leaves
P3: lower/no rate of photosynthesis// less/no
glucose produce (in guard cell)
P4: Guard cell less turgid// stoma close
P5: Rate of transpiration lower// water
vapour unable to diffuse out

(c)

F1: root/stem/ leaves sunk in the water


E1: less/no exchange of (respiratory)
gaseous/ carbon dioxide/ oxygen// anaerobic
respiration
E2: lower rate respiration// respiration stops//
Seminar and workshop of Biology
due to accumulation of ethanolPaper Two

71

SPM 2013

Q
5(d
)

Correct
Cell L
Closely/
vertically
arranged// tightly
packed
Contains more
chloroplast
Have a
rectangular/
cylindrical shape

Reject

Spongy
Mesophyll cell
Loosely arranged

Contains less
chloroplast
Have an
oval/irregular/
spherical/ round
shape

Chlorophy
ll
Fix shape/
not fix
Regular/
irregular

Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper


Two

72

Correct

5(e)

Day

Night

F1 Turgid

Flaccid

E1 Shape of guard cell


more curve/ swell
up/expand/ bend
outwards

Shape of guard cell less


curve/ normal
shape//curve inwards

E2 Higher rate of
photosynthesis

No photosynthesis

E3 Glucose content in
guard cell high

Glucose content in
guard cell low/less

E4 Water content in guard Water content in guard


cell high// water move/ cell low//less//water
diffuse into the cell
move/diffuse out of the
cell
E5 Stoma open

Stoma close
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

73

ESSAY

SPM 13

Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper


Two

74

6(a) Rajah menunjukkan struktur respirasi


seekor belalang.

Terangkan bagaimana sel-sel badan memperoleh oksigen


daripada udara.
[ 4 marka

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

75

SPM 2013 (Essay)


6(a
Mark Scheme
)
P1 (body muscles relax and) spiracle opens
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7

Air oxygen enters/flows in the trachea/


through spiracle
Air/ oxygen enters tracheol
Oxygen dissolve in the fluid (at the end
of the tracheol)
Bath the body cells
(dissolved oxygen) diffuse into the body
cells
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Follow the concentration
Papergradient//
Two

76

(b) Jadual menunjukkan kadar pernafasan


seorang pelajar semasa berehat dan
semasa melakukan aktiviti cergas.
Kadar
pernafasan
per minit

Semasa
berehat
16

Semasa
aktiviti
cergas
30

Terangkan mengapa kadar pernafasan pelajar itu berbeza


semasa berehat dan semasa aktiviti cergas.
[4 mar

Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper


Two

77

SPM 2013 (Essay)


6(b)
P1

Mark Scheme
Breathing rate when doing vigorous
activity is higher than during resting

P2

(when doing vigorous activity), more


energy is needed.

P3
P4

For muscle contraction


More oxygen is needed

P5
P6
P7

To oxidise glucose
For energy production
More carbon dioxide is produced
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

78

SPM 2013 (Essay)


6(b
Mark Scheme
)
P8 Concentration of carbon dioxide
increases
P9 Blood pH is lower/decreases/ drop//
acidity of blood increases
P10 Detected by central chemoreceptor
P11 (central chemoreceptor) send impulse/
stimulate respiratory centre
P12 (Respiratory centre) send impulse/
stimulate respiratory muscle/diaphragm/
intercostals muscle
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two
P13 Respiratory muscle/ intercostals
muscle/

79

(c) Rajah menunjukkan kepekatan asid


laktik dalam
darah seorang atlet.

Terangkan perbezaan kepekatan asid laktik dalam darah


seorang atlet semasa dan selepas melakukan aktiviti cerg
[6 markah]
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

80

SPM 2013
6(c
)

When doing vigorous


activity

After doing vigorous


activity exercise

P1

The concentration of lactic


acid in the blood increases

The concentration of lactic


acid in the blood decreases

P2

Glucose molecules are


broken down/ oxidised
incompletely/ partially

Glucose molecules are


broken down/ oxidised
completely

P3

Less energy
produced//150kJ// 2ATP

More energy produced/


2898kJ// 38ATP

P4

Accumulation of lactic acid


occurs

Lactic acid is oxidised/


eliminated

P5

Anaerobic respiration occurs Aerobic respiration occurs

P6

Intake of oxygen is not able


to meet the demand of the
cells/ blood cannot supply
enough oxygen

Excess/ more supply of


oxygen (through fast and
deep breathing)

P7

Oxygen deficiency/ oxygen


debt occurs

Oxygen debt is paid


Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

81

(d) Rajah 6.3(a) menunjukkan alveolus individu yang sihat.


Rajah 6.3 (b) menunjukkan alveolus individu yang,
menghidap emfisema.

Rajah 6.3(a)

Rajah 6.3(b)

Emfisema adalah sejenis penyakit peparu.


Terangkan kesan penyakit tersebut kepada kesihatan indiv
itu.
[ 6 markah]
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

82

SPM 2013

6(d
)

Sample answer

Reject

P1

Breathing become difficult/less


efficient/breathlessness

P2

The (partition) wall (between) the air sacs


are destroyed/ damage/ distorted// alveoli/
lung become inelastic

P3

Due to the toxic chemicals/ tar in the


cigarette smoke// due to smoking

P4

Less/ smaller (total) surface area (of


alveolus)

P5

Less air/ oxygen in the alveolus

P6

Volume of alveolus decreases

P7

Less oxygen diffuse from alveolus into the


blood capillaries// less gases exchange

P8

(Therefore,) the body cells receive less


Seminar and workshop of Biology
oxygen
Paper Two

Alveolus
shrink/
smaller

83

7. Rajah menunjukkan sepasang kromosom


homolog. Suatu
ciri ditentukan oleh sepasang
alel. T dan t mewakili alel bagi ciri ketinggian.

(a) Berdasarkan Rajah, terangkan bagaimana ciri ketinggian


ditentukan.
[4 markah]
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

84

SPM 2013
7(a)

Sample answer

P1

(Characteristics of height) is determined


by (a pair of alleles) T and t

P2

T represent dominant allele and t


represent recessive allele

P3

(Both alleles are located) on the same


locus

P4

In heterozygous state/ Tt, tall (trait) is


expressed

P5

Because T/ dominant allele is present

P6

In homogygous state/ TT, tall (trait) is


expressed

P7

Short trait is only express if both alleles


are recessive/ tt// homogygous recessive

Rejec
t

Seminar
and workshop
of Biology
diagram,
max.
mark
If candidates answer in schematic
Paper Two
given are 2 marks only.

85

(b) Rajah menunjukkan pewarisan hemofilia


dalam sebuah keluarga. Hemofilia adalah
penyakit terangkai seks. Bapanya seorang
normal dengan genotip XHY, manakala ibunya
seorang wanita hemofilia dengan genotip
XhXh.

Terangkan kebarangkalian anak-anak mewarisi hemofilia


[6 markah]
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

86

SPM 2013
7(b)

Sample answer

P1

(Haemophilia is) caused by recessive allele/ gene

P2

On X chromosome

P3

During meiosis // Genetic diagram

P4

The male gametes XH and Y are formed// Genetic


diagram

P5

The female gametes Xh is formed// Genetic diagram

P6

During fertilisation// Genetic diagram

P7

The offspring (genotype) is XHXh, XhY

P8

(All) male offspring/ sons are haemophiliac

P9

(All) female offsprings/ daughters are carrier/ normal

P10

Probability of male offspring to have haemophilia is


100%/1

P11

While probability of female offspring to have


haemophilia is 0%
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

87

SPM 2013
Parental
phenotyp
e

Normal male
X

Parental
genotype

Haemopjilia female

XHY

XhXh

Meiosis
Gametes

XH

Xh

Xh

XHXh

XHXh

XhY

XhY

Fertilisatio
n
Genotype
of offspring

Phenotype Haemophili Haemophili Haemophili Haemophili


of offspring ac carrier
ac carrier
acmale
acmale
female
female
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

88

(c) Rajah menunjukkan keadaan sel darah merah


dua individu, P dan Q.
Individu Q menghidap suatu penyakit genetik.

Terangkan perbezaan kesihatan antara individu


P dengan individu Q.
[4 markah]
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

89

SPM 2013
7(c
)

P1

Able to carry out


vigorous activity

Easily feel tired/ fatique/


difficult in breathing/
breathless

P2

Normal biconcave shape Sickle shape (by red


(of RBC)
blood cell

P3

Larger surface area

P4

Store more haemoglobin Store less haemoglobin

P5

Transport more oxygen

Transport less oxygen

P6

Efficient cellular
respiration

Less efficient in cellular


respiration

P7

Normal healthy
individual

Suffered from sickle cell


anemia

Smaller surface area

* Max. 2 marks given if candidates


answer in form of
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two
package style.

90

(d) Bakteria boleh diubah suai


secara genetik untuk
menghasilkan insulin.
Terangkan kegunaan insulin itu
bagi seorang pesakit kencing
manis.
[6 markah]

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

91

SPM 2013
7(d
)

P1

(Diabetic persons) sugar/ glucose level in the blood


is high/ hyperglycemia

P2

No/ less insulin is produced/secreted by pancreas

P3

Insulin is produced by genetic engineering

P4

Through manipulation of genes

P5

(The insulin is injected (to the patient)

P6

Liver (cells) is stimulated

P7

Increase the intake of glucose from blood

P8

(and) converts excess glucose into glycogen

P9

Stored in the liver

P1
0

Reduce/ decrease blood sugar/ glucose to normal


range
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

92

8(a) Rajah menunjukkan pelbagai jenis makanan


yang telah diproses melalui kaedah pemprosesan
makanan.

(i) Terangkan tujuan pemprosesan makanan.


[ 5 markah]
(ii)Terangkan kesan buruk kaedah pemprosesan
terhadap
kesihatan manusia.
[5 markah]
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

93

8(a)
(i)
F1

Sample Answer
Kept longer// avoid wastage/ save money/ kill
microorganism/ prevent bacteria growth

P1

Adding preservative/ stabiliser/ by heating/


high temperature/ salting/dehydration

F2

To increase commercial value// look attractive

P2

By packaging/ adding colouring

F3

Food taste better/ improve texture

P3

Adding flavouring
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

94

8(a)
(i)
F4
P4

Diverse a type of food


Through research and development
(R&D)/ Innovative recipe
F5
Increase the economy of a country
P5
Promoting production of food in wide
scale
F6
For better health// Avoid food poisoning
P6
Hygienic preparation/ by heating
F7
Easy for digestion/easy to prepare
P7
By heating/ canning
* Similar word for packaging/ heating/ canningonly once
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

95

SPM 2013
8(a)
(ii)
F1
E1
E2
F2
E3
E4
F3
E5

Sample Answer
Low nutrient content
High temperature destroys vitamin/
nutrient
Leads to dizziness/ weakness/
malnutrition
High carcinogenic substances// benzoic
acid lead to cancer
Colouring/ preservative/ stabiliser/
additive leads to cancer
Enhances mutation
High content of sugarSeminar and workshop of Biology
Two
Increase blood sugar Paper
level

96

SPM 2013

8(a)
(ii)
F4
E7
E8
F5
E9
E10

Sample Answer
High content of sugar
Increase blood osmotic pressure
Leads to high blood pressure//
hypertension
High content of fats
Increase body mass
Leads to obesity/
cardiovascular disease
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

97

(b) Rajah menunjukkan piramid makanan.

Terangkan kepentingan makanan bagi setiap aras dalam


piramid makanan.
[10 marka
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

98

SPM 2013
8(b
Sample Answer
)
F1
(in food pyramid), the higher the level of
the class of food placed, the lower the
quantity of food needed// balance diet
E1
Level 1 contains (the class of food of)
carbohydrates
E2
Provides (high amount of) energy
E3
Lack of carbohydrates leads to tiredness/
marasmus
E4
Excess of carbohydrate leads to obesity
E5
Level 2 contains (the class of food of)
vitamin/ mineral/ fibre
E6 For health/ the function of metabolism
Seminar and workshop of Biology
in the body// Vitamin Paper
A for
eyesight
Two

99

SPM 2013
8(b)

Sample Answer

E7

Lack of vitamin C leads to scurvy

E8

Level 3 contains ( the class of food of) protein

E9

To build new cells/ replace dead cells/ for growth

E10

Lack of proteins lead to marasmus/ kwashiorkor

E11

Excess proteins leads to gout/ kidney failure/

E12

Level 4 contains ( food of class of) lipid/ sugar/ salt


*accept: fat
*reject: carbohydrate/starch

E13

Provides high energy value


*accept: provide energy
*reject: provide heat

E14

Lack of lipid/ sugar/ salts leads to tiredness

E15

Excess sugar/ lipids will cause diabetes


(mellitus)/ cardiovascular disease/ obesity
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

10

9. Rajah menunjukkan suatu


ekosistem.

(a) Banyak kilang baharu didirikan berdekatan


dengan sungai.
Terangkan kesan buruk kewujudan kilang-kilang
tersebut
Seminar and workshop of Biology
terhadap ekosistem itu.
Paper Two

10

SPM 2013
9(a)
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9

Sample Answer
Release green house gases/ CO2/
Methane/NO2/NO
Carbon dioxide trapped (at atmosphere)
Trapped heat
Increase the (environment) temperature
Leads to green house effect/ global
warming
Denatured the enzyme (for
photosynthesis)
Slower/ lower rate of photosynthesis
Growth rate of the plants slower
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Reduces plants population/
crop yields// 10
Paper Two

SPM2013

9(a Sample Answer


)
P10 Less biodiversity
P11 Sulphur dioxide/ nitrogen oxide// effluent
from the factory// toxic chemical such as
lead/ mercury
P12 Dissolved in rain water
P13 From acid rain
P14 Flow into the river/ soil
P15 Ph (river water/ soil) decreases/ increase
the acidity
P16 Leads to water pollution// leads to soil
fertility decrease/ infertility
Seminar and workshop of Biology
P17 Death of organism
Paper Two

10

SPM2013

9(a Sample Answer


)
P19 Imbalance ecosystem
P20 Release of harmful/ poisonous gases/
pollutant/ CO/CO2/ particles/dust/dirt
P21 Causes haze/ smog/ air pollution
P22 Block the stoma of the leaves
P23 Reduce rate of photosynthesis
P24 Heat released from generator
P25 Increase (river) water temperature
P26 Causes thermal pollution
P27 Reduces dissolved oxygen
P28 Death of aquatic organisms
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

10

SPM2013

9(b)
(i)

Sample answer

P1

Biodiversity/ various fauna/flora/aquatic


organism// ensure continuation/ survivor of
certain spesies// avoid extinction

P2

A balanced ecosystem

P3

Source of water

P4

Breeding places

P5

Maintain major sources of human food/


medicinal products

P6

Sustain food web/ chain in the ecosystem//


provide food for animal

P7

Preserve natural resources for outdoor/


recreational activities/ research site

P8

Reduce stress/ promote healthy life style

P9

Ecotourism attraction
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

10

SPM2013
9(b)
(ii)
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8

Treatment of the effluent (before draining


into river)
River water less/ free from poisonous
substance
Which cause death to the aquatic organism
Planting/ replanting (more) trees at the
river bank
Prevents soil erosion
(The plants) provides oxygen (from
photosynthesis)
For respiration (of the aquatic organisms)
Awareness campaign on clean
Seminar and workshop of Biology
environment/ river
Paper Two

10

SPM2013
9(b)
(ii)
P11

P12
P13
P14
P15
P16
P17
P18
P19

Restriction of disposal of rubbish/ chemical/


pesticide/ poisonous substance into the
river
Reduce water pollution/ BOD level
Using biological control methods
Acts only on the pest
Pollution free// release no pollutant
Restriction of building new factories nearby
the river
Avoid release of more pollutants to the
environment
Enforcement of environmental act
and chamber
workshop of Biology
By installing filer in theSeminar
fume
Paper Two

10

MARK SCHEME
BIOLOGY
2012

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

10

Correct answer

Reject

1(a)
(i)

P: Cell wall
Q: vacuole

(ii)

Component P: Cellulose
Content Q: Cell sap/ water/ mineral
salts/ sugar/ glucose/ amino acids/
nutrient/ waste products/ oxygen/CO2/
Enzyme

(b)

F1: (Celulose) is rigid/ tough/ strong


E1: P/ it maintains the shape of plant
cell
F2: (Fully) permeable
E2: allow (all) substance to move
across it

(c)

E1: Osmoregulation// regulate/ control


water content/ osmotic pressure in the
cell
E2: for tugidity
Seminar
andwilt
workshop of Biology Paper
E3: for (mechanical) support/
not
Two

Tonoplas

Plant
turgid

10

Q
d(i)

Correct answer
Specialisation

(ii)

E1: Xylem vessel is hollow/


narrow/ absence of
photoplasm/ cytoplasm
E2: continuos tube/ open at
both ends
E3: the wall is lignified
E4: tough/ strong
E5: impermeable to water
E6: allow continuos flow of
water// increase/ create the
capillary action// adhesion/
cohesion force

Reject

Empty
Any
explanati
on on
tracheid

Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper


Two

11

Q
2(a)
(i)
(ii)

(iii)

Correct answer

Reject

R
Because the number of
Dilute/
water molecule in R is more/ concentrat
the number of solute
ed
molecule in R is less (than S)
Note: a(i) and a(ii) are
dependent
C1: The level of solution in
region R is lower/ S is higher
C2: The no. of sucrose
molecules in both region R
and S are maintained.
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

11

Q
2(a)
(iv)
(b)(i)

(ii)

Correct answer
Osmosis

Reject

P1: Water moves/ diffuses out


from cabbage cell/ bacteria
P2: Bacteria will die/ cannot
live/ dehydrated// growth of
bacteria is inhibited
C1: Plasma membrane is
pulled away from the cell wall
C2: The size of vacuole is
smaller
( Note: Nucleus is embedded)
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

11

Q
2(b)
(iii)
(c)

Correct answer
Flaccid/plasmolysed

Reject

P1: Isotonic drink is a solution


which has same concentration/
osmotic pressure as a fluid
inside the body fluid.
P2: No net movement of water
molecules// No change in
shape/ size of the cell
P3: to maintain the internal
environment/ osmotic
pressure/ body weight/ water
content/ balance
P4: to replace body fluid/ water
loss
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
P5: To avoid/ preventTwo

11

Correct answer

3(a)
Aspect
Type of cell
division

Cell P
Meiosis/ Meiosis I

Cell Q
Mitosis

Stage of
Metaphase I
cell division

Metaphase

Chromoso
mal
behaviour

Q1: Chromosome/
sister chromatid
align/ arrange on
the metaphase/
equator plate.

P1:(A pair of)


homologous
chromosomes align/
arrange on the
metaphase / equator
plate

Q2: The spindle fibre


holds on the
centromer of the
chromosome

P2: The spindle fibre


holds on the
and workshop of Biology Paper
centromer of the Seminar
Two

11

Q
3(b)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Correct answer

Reject

45
Turners Syndrome

Turners
disease

P1: (Has) less one X


chromosome/ monosomy
P2: less level of sex
hormones// lower
development of secondary
sexual characteristics// no.
breast/small/ no menstrual
cycle
P3: infertile/barren/ not able
Mentally
to reproduce/ sterile
retarded
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
P4: low IQ/ deaf/swelling
Two

11

Q
3(c)
(i)

(ii)

Correct answer
Reject
P1: (The cell is exposed to)
Gene
radioactive/ radiations/ xmutatio
rays/uv / carcinogenic
n/
chemical/ formaldehyde/
Genetic
Benzene/ food preservative/
mutatio
food coloring/ asbestos/
n
mustard gases// Mutation/
chromosomal mutation
P2: causes drastic change in
the chromosomal number//
non-disjunction
P3: the gamete formed has
extra one (X) chromosome/
lack of one (X) chromosome.
P4: the zygote formed/
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
produced is lack/ lessTwoof one

11

Correct answer

Rejec
t

4(a)

Process K: Colonisation
Process L: Succession

(b)(i)

E1: Pioneer sp./ submerged plant die/


decomposed
( can name the species such as hydrilla
sp./ elodea sp.)
E2: deposited at the base of the pond
E3: The pond becomes more shallow/
shallower/ sediments become thicker.
E4: more nutrients (in the pond)
E5: more favourable for floating plants

(ii)

E1: (Excess) fertilizer diffuse/ flow (rich move


in nitrate and phosphate) dissolve in
rain water/ wash away/ leached into the
pond.
Seminar growth
and workshoprate
of Biology Paper
E2: increase the population/
Two
of algae.

11

Q
Correct answer
4(b E3:(cause) eutrophication occur/ algal
)(ii) bloom/ more alga prevent/ cover the
surface
E4: Block the sunlight to penetrate into the
pond//photosynthesis does not occur/
decrease/less O2 dissolve
E5: lead to death of aquatic organism//
increase the no. population of
bacteria/micro.
E6: increase BOD/ water pollution
(iii) P1: Pond in stage IV had undergo
colonisation/or succession process while
Stage I not.
P2: Pond in stage IV is shallower compared
to in Stage I
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two
P3: More sediment deposited
at the base of

11

Q
(c)(i)

Correct answer
Plant

(ii)
(iii)

P
Q

Reject

Total
number
16
5

P
P1: Total/population/ frequency
of plant P is bigger/ more than
plant Q// Population P cover
bigger/ wide area
P2: Plant P is more adapted/
competitive compared to plant
Q
Seminar
and workshop of Biology Paper
(Note: (c)(ii) and (c)(iii)
are
Two

11

Correct answer

Rejec
t

5(a)
(i)
(ii)

Box 1: TG
Box 2: tg
Tall and green

(b)(i)

Row 2: TTGg, TTgg, TtGg, Ttgg


Row 4: TtGg,TtGg, ttGg, ttgg
3/16//
0.2//0.1875//0.188//0.19//18.75%//1
8.8%
F1: Ratio 9:3:3:1
E1: Phenotype 9 tall, green: 3 tall,
yellow: 3 short, green: 1 short,
yellow.
E2: Mendel Second Law// Law of
Independent Assortment
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
E3: During gamete formation,
each
Two

(ii)

(c)(i)

T,G or
t,g

12

Q
(c)(ii)

Correct answer
E1: During meiosis// prophase I//
metaphase I/II
E2: Independent assortment of
chromosome occurs/ Mendel Second
Law// crossing over// exchange in
genetic materials
E3: Random combination of alleles take
place
E4: in gamete formation
E5: Produce variation in gamete
E6: random fertilisation takes place
E7: different/ new genotype of offspring
Seminar and workshop of Biology Paper
Two

12

MARK SCHEME
BIOLOGY
2011

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

12

SPM 2011
Correct
1 (a)(i) R: Muscle cell

Reject
muscle only without cell.

1 (a)(ii) transports/ carry


oxygen/carbon dioxide/
respiratory gases

Transport blood/
oxygenated blood/
deoxygenated blood

1 (b) converting excess


glucose to glycogen

Transform/ change
glucose to glycogen

1(c) Peristalsis squeezes/ the bolus flow/ move


push/ force the bolus
down (copy question).
down to the stomach
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

12

Correct
1(d) converts/
coagulates/ solidify/
curding caseinogen to
casein.
HCl- destroy most
bacteria/ kill bacteria
2(b) the water diffuses
out
2(d) the concentration of
salt solution is higher/
hypertonic to cell sap
the plant cells become
dehydrated

Reject
Breakdown/ hydrolyse
caseinogen to casein
HCl- to stop amylase
action.
The water flow out
The concentration of salt
solution is higher to the
vegetables.
The plant cells looses
water

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

12

Correct

Reject

3(a) (ii) increase total


surface area/ TSA per V
ratio/ increase surface
area
4(c)(ii) ligament of
gymnast is more
elastic/stronger/ easy to
destrecthed
4(e) diet rich in calcium/
phosphate for strong
bones
5(a) due to the high
hydrostatic pressure
5(b)(ii) Reabsorption
process in R.

Total surface area w/o


volume

More flexible

Balance diet only

High blood pressure/


osmotic pressure
absorption
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

12

Correct
5(c) high intake of
glucose/ sugar/
carbohydrate
Excess glucose in R is
not reabsorbed into the
blood capillary thus
urine has much glucose
5(d) more water is
reabsorbed

Reject
Blood glucose level is
too high. Due to high
level of glucose in blood
Explanation on kidney
failure

Water is reabsorbed

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

12

MARK SCHEME
BIOLOGY
2010

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

12

Correct
1(a)(i) S: Rough
endoplasmic reticulum/
Rough ER
1(a)(ii) chromosomes
carry/ contain genetic
information/ material/
genes/ genetic code
1(b) the production of
extracellular enzyme is
incomplete/ no
production of enzyme//
protein.
(w/o Golgi apparatus)
the protein cannot be
modified

Reject
Endoplasmic reticulum/
RER
Contain DNA

Enzyme produced is less/


decrease.
Enzyme cannot be
modified.
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

12

Correct
2(c) Cytoplasm shrink//
Vacuole smaller
2(d) change in color of
food
change in taste of food
3(a) Meiosis I/ Meiosis/
Meiotic division
3 (b)(i) Pairing of
homologous
chromosomes/ synapsis.
Exchange of genetic
material/ genes//
crossing over
3(c) to form diploid
zygote.

Reject
Cell shrink
Different color
Different taste
Meiosis II
w/o homologous.
Crossing over between
chromatids/
chromosomes/non- sister
chromatids.
w/o diploid.
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

12

Correct
3(d)(iii) Lack of one X
chromosome
3(d)(iv) causes
chromosomal mutation
4(c) hydrolisis takes
place.
Enzyme/ trypsin/
protease acts on
protein X.
Bond is broken down.
To form dipeptides/
peptides.
4(e)(ii) wash in cold
water/ warm water// do
not wash in water of
high temperature//keep

Reject
Lack of one sex
chromosome
Gene mutation// change
structure of chromosome
Breakdown takes place.
Pepsin/ erepsin/
peptidase.
w/o bond.
Amino acids

Washing using water


more than 45C// Keep
silk in optimum
Seminar and workshop of Biology
temperature.
Paper Two

13

Correct

Reject

5(d) difficulty in
movement/ walking/
cannot walk properly.
Pain/ swelling/ stiffness
at the joints

Person walk in pain.

5(e) prevent injuries to


muscles

Injuries to
tendon/ligament.

pain between bones/


discomfort at the joints/
knee.

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

13

6 (a) Explain the growth curve of a grasshopper

E7

a series of staircase growth// non linear


curve
Have a hard exoskeleton/ outer skeleton
Is made of chitin
This limit the increase in body length
The growth rate is zero
New soft exoskeleton is formed beneath the old
The insect sucking in a big volume of air
skeleton
To force the old skeleton to split open/ break.

E8

The new exoskeleton expand

E9

The growth stops when reach adult

E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

13

6(b)

Explain each phase of the growth curve

F1

P is lag phase// During infant phase/phase P,


the gradient is small/ low// the height
increase slowly.
The number of growing cells is low/ small//
growth rate is slow

E1
F2

During phase Q, the gradient is the highest/


high// the body height increase
exponentially/ rapidly// rapid growth

E2

Growth rate is the fastest/ increase rapidly//


Active cell division and elongation occur

F3

During phase R, the gradient is small// the


height increases slowly
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

13

6(b) Explain each phase of the growth curve


E3
Slow growth rate// Most cell have reach their
maximum size
E4
Growth is limited by external/ internal factors
F4
During phase S, the gradient is zero// Body
height remains constant// No changes in body
height
E5
Growth rate is zero// number of new cells
produced is equal to the number of the cells
eliminated
E6
Organism achieves maturity
F5
During phase T, the gradient is negative// the
growth enter the ageing stage/ phase// Body
height decreasing.
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

13

6(b Explain each phase of the


)
growth curve
E7 Decreased in number of cells/
less cell replacement// growth
rate negative
E8 Low/ decreased absorption/
assimilation of nutrients by the
cells
E9 The muscles/ cartilage of the
body start to degenerate
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

13

6(C)

Explain the various methods to


overcome the infertility problem based
on the following criteria

Problem

Method

P1: Low count Artificial


of sperm
inseminati
on
P2: Women
IVF
have blocked
or damaged
Fallopion
tubes
P3:
Surrogate
Abnormalities mother
of uterus

Explanation
Sperms collected and
concentrated before
insemination
Ovum and sperm are
mixed together in
petri dish

Embryo from IVF is


implanted in the
Seminar and workshop of Biology
uterus
Paper of
Two another

13

problem
P4:
insufficient/
imbalance of
hormone
P5: Absent of
sperm in
semens//
abnormal
sperm/
Azoospermia

Method
Explanation
Injection of
To stimulate
hormone/ FSH the
development
of Follicles
Artificial
Sperms are
Insemination chosen from
sperm bank

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

13

7(c)

Determine the phenotypic


percentage of the offspring in
the cross based on the following
criteria:
Parents
Black fur
White fur
phenotyp
e

C1

Parents
genotype

C2

Meiosis

C3

Gametes

C4

Fertilisatio
n

C5

Offsprings
genotype

C6

Offsprings
phenotype

C7

x
BB

bb

Bb

Bb

Bb

Bb

Balck fur

Black fur

100% offspring have black fur

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

13

7(b) explain the cause of Thalassemia


E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8

Thalassemia is caused by defective


gene// recessive allele
Found on the autosome
Due to gene mutation
Affecting one of the base in the gene//
affecting the production of haemoglobin
Abnormal haemoglobin produced
Size of erythrocytes smaller than normal//
colour of erythrocytes paler
Thus, erythrocytes less efficient in
transporting oxygen
Leads to fatigue// anaemia//
pale
Seminar and workshop of Biology
Paper Two

13

7(c) Explain why the first child who is Rhpositive survive but the second child who is
also Rh-positive does not survive
E1

Small amount of the fetus blood with antigen Rh


leak/ enter/ mix into the mothers blood

E2

(Stimulates/ trigger) the production of antibody (antiRhesus in the mothers blood)

E3

The antibody (anti- Rhesus) diffuse into the foetals blood

E4

Causing agglutination/ haemolysis of the foetal red blood//


cell in small quantity

E5

During second pregnancy (second child with Rh-positive).


The small amount of fetus blood leak/ enter/ mix into the
mothers blood

E6

Trigger more antibody (anti-rhesus) to be released from


the mothers blood

E7

The antibody diffuses into the foetus blood

E8

Causing (more) haemolysis of foetal red blood cell

Seminar and workshop of Biology


Paper Two

14